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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELETRILICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEB 316: ELECTRILICAL MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY 1: THE OSCILLOSCOPE AND FUNCTION GENERATOR MOMPATI LETSWELETSE ID NO: 201100183 LAB PARTNER: KEVIN DINTWA ID NO: 200501164 GROUP A

DATE OF EXPERIMENT: 22-06-2013 DATE OF SUBMISSION: 13-09-2013 STEADY STATE RESPONSE FOR RC NETWORKS

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

OBJECTIVES To understand the operation of the oscilloscope To understand the operation of the signal generator To verify the input-output relation of the first order element INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT the main purpose of the experiment was to get student to learn how to use the oscilloscope together with the function generator and it was very important because student got to learn how to operate the two instruments. The other objective was to verify the input-output relation of a first order element by using the RC circuit systems whose input-output relationship is a first order Differential equation.The above circuit was used in the experiments as analysis. The functional generator was used to give the input AC with the frequency varied from 340hz to 3800hz.The input and output signals were displayed in the the oscilloscope hence comparison was made between the phase(output voltage and input voltage). Here is some brief explanation of how the oscilloscope and function generator work in general. From performing this experiment very well students learn a lot of engineering skills apart from the fact that they got to know the basic function of an oscilloscope and functions generator some other engineering principles such as reading the phase shift and presenting well the data gathered. OSCILLOSCOPE An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltage, usually as a two dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential difference using the vertical or y axis plotted and displayed to voltages this way. Signals are often periodic and repeat constantly so that multiplies samples of a signal which is actually varying with time are displayed as a steady picture. Oscilloscope are used to observe the exact wave shape of an electrical signal, they are calibrated so that voltage and time can be read as well as possible by the eye. This allows the measurement of peak to peak voltage of a waveform, the frequency of periodic signals the time between pulses In a nutshell when a signal is injected in an oscilloscope, the input signal will be used to change the position of the beam in the y direction. The trace left behind can be used to measure the voltage of the input signal (off-the y axis) and the duration of frequency and read of x-axis. In this experiment the oscilloscope was used to display input voltage and output voltage for comparison of phase shifts THE FUNCTION GENERATOR A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment used to generate different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies waveforms produced by the function generator are sine, square, triangular and sawtooth shape. Basically it is used to test the response of a circuit to common inputs signals .The electrical leads from the device are attached to the ground and signal input terminal of the device under test. After being powered the output signal needs to be configured to the desired shape. In this experiment the function generator will be used to provide the voltage to the circuit with the oscilloscope to find waves that will be displayed in the oscilloscope

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

THEORY An RC circuit is made of different combinations of capacitors and resistors. This kind of circuit has certain frequency response1 and thus can be used to reduce the amplitude of signals of certain input frequencies leaving others almost unaffected. In other words RC circuits built in different ways can allow to pass, say, low(high) frequencies cutting off high(low) frequencies (this kind of RC circuit is called low-pass(high-pass) filter) or they can allow to pass signals with a certain frequency range (so called band-pass filters2). Importance of learning of this type of circuits is determined but their wide area of applications: radio receivers, audio systems (e.g. low pass audio filter is used preselect low frequencies before amplification in a subwoofer) and even AC generators. Frequency dependent characteristics of RC the combined resistors and capacitors is due to the ability of a capacitor to store charge.In this laboratory activity the response of RC circuits to alternating voltage at different frequencies was investigated through the circuit as a function of the frequency applied voltage .The concept of phase shift was also studied. At low frequencies. The capacitive reactance dominates over the resistance so the signal voltage is dropped off mostly across the capacitance. It is as though the capacitor is offering more effective resistance than the resistor. In the extreme case, at zero frequency, the reactance is infinite, the current is zero, and all the voltage is across the capacitor while at high frequencies, the capacitive reactance becomes negligible most of the Signal voltage is across the resistor. At infinite frequency, the capacitive reactance is zero, and it is as though there is no capacitor in the circuit, or the capacitor is shorted out. The phase angle also behaves similarly. At low frequencies, the phase shift becomes closer to /2, as it should for a pure capacitance with no resistance in the circuit. At high frequencies, the phase shift approaches zero, and the circuit behaves like a purely resistive circuit. These statements are generally summed up by saying that the capacitor acts like a block for low frequencies, but like a short for high frequencies The ratio of the voltages is equal to the transfer function magnitude |H(jw)|, that is: | The phase magnitude was measured by using the difference between the input and the output wave divided by the period of the input voltage and multiplied by 3600 that is by using the equation

Were by is the distance between the input voltage and output voltage. In this experiment, the output voltage is expected to lead the input voltage because the energy the energy storage element is a capacitor hence producing a negative phase shift.

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

EQUIPMENTS 1. Oscilloscope

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

PROCEDURE: The circuit was connected as shown in figure 1 and the input signal on CH1 and the output on CH2 was displayed on the oscilloscope and the input and output voltage was measured across the capacitor using the two channels of the oscilloscope. This was done for frequency range from 34 to 34000hz A sinusoidal input with amplitude of 5V peak to peak was selected and displayed on channel 1 and the output signal on channel 2 of the oscilloscope The frequency of the input signal was varied and the output changes were observed Obtained results were presented in the form of a table for the given frequency values The oscilloscope controls were set in the following manner Time/div was set to a mid range value TV Sep control was set off and Trigger select to AC Input attenuator (volts/Div) control was set to (2V/cm) Variable Time base and variable gain controls were sat to their cal position The input coupling switches were set to DC Intensity controls was set to mid-range to get a better view of the signal The Y position controls for channel 1 and X position control were set to mid range EXPERIMENTAL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

RESULTS Theoretical Table (a) Freq (Hz) 34 68 102 136 170 204 238 272 306 340 680 1020 1360 1700 2040 2380 2720 3060 3400 6800 13600 20400 27200 34000 w (rad/s) 213.63 427.26 640.88 854.51 1068.14 1281.77 1495.40 1709.03 1922.65 2136.28 4272.57 6408.85 8545.13 10681.42 12817.70 14953.98 17090.26 19226.55 21362.83 42725.66 85451.32 128176.98 170902.64 213628.30 Vo/Vi 1 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.78 0.74 0.71 0.44 0.315 0.242 0.195 0.164 0.141 0.124 0.110 0.0991 0.0498 0.0249 0.0166 0.0124 0.00996 Vo/Vi (dB) 0.000 -0.175 -0.355 -0.630 -1.012 -1.411 -1.734 -2.158 -2.615 -2.975 -7.131 -10.034 -12.324 -14.199 -15.703 -17.016 -18.132 -19.172 -20.079 -26.055 -32.076 -35.598 -38.131 -40.035 Phase shift[] -5.7 -11.4 -16.8 -21.9 -26.7 -31.0 -35.1 -38.8 -42.1 -45.0 -63.5 -71.6 -76.0 -78.7 -80.6 -81.9 -82.9 -83.7 -84.3 -87.1 -88.5 -89.0 -89.3 -89.4

## Vo/Vi (dB) AGAINST FREQUENCY

0 -10 Vo/Vi -20 (dB) -30 -40 -50 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz)

## phase shift against frequency

0 -20 phase shift[] -40 -60 -80 -100 1 10 100 1000 frequency Hz 10000 100000

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

PRACTICAl RESULTS Table b Freq (Hz) 34 68 102 136 170 204 238 272 306 340 680 1020 1360 1700 2040 2380 2720 3060 3400 6800 13600 20400 27200 34000 w (rad/s) 213.63 427.26 640.88 854.51 1068.14 1281.77 1495.40 1709.03 1922.65 2136.28 4272.57 6408.85 8545.13 10681.42 12817.70 14953.98 17090.26 19226.55 21362.83 42725.66 85451.32 128176.98 170902.64 213628.30 Vi (pp) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Vo (p-p) 5.00 4.90 4.80 4.70 4.40 4.20 4.10 4.00 3.70 3.60 2.30 1.70 1.30 1.00 0.90 0.70 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.26 0.13 0.09 0.064 0.052 Vo/Vi Vo/Vi (dB) 0.000 -0.175 -0.355 -0.537 -1.110 -1.514 -1.724 -1.938 -2.615 -2.853 -6.745 -9.370 -11.700 -13.979 -14.895 -17.077 -18.416 -18.416 -20.000 -25.680 -31.701 -34.895 -37.856 -39.660 x [ms] 0.10 0.15 0.50 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.45 0.60 0.40 0.35 0.32 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.50 0.40 0.20 0.10 0.40 0.40 T [ms] 6.45 4.50 10.3 7.45 6.00 5.00 4.10 6.50 6.00 3.75 3.50 2.00 1.60 1.50 0.89 0.80 0.90 0.70 2.0 1.50 0.80 0.50 1.70 1.60 Phase shift[] -5.6 -12.0 -17.5 -21.7 -27.0 -32.4 -35.1 -27.7 -30.0 -43.2 -61.7 -72.0 -78.8 -76.8 -80.9 -90.0 -80.0 -77.0 -90.0 -96.0 -90.0 -72.0 -84.7 -90.0

1.00 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.88 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.74 0.72 0.46 0.34 0.26 0.20 0.18 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.052 0.026 0.018 0.0128 0.0104

## SAMPLE CALCULATIONS FOR 340Hz

DB=20log10M (vo/vi) =2 =2 =21362.8(rad/s) Phase shift -0.1/6.45* 360 = --5.6degrees
(DB)=2Olog(

)=-2.853

## vi/vo(DB AGAINST FREQUECY

0 -5 -10 -15 VO/VI(DB) -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 1 10 100 1000 Frequecy(Hz) 10000 100000

## phase shift against frequency

0 -20 phase shift(0) -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 1 10 100 1000 frequencyHz 10000 100000

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
From the result obtained from the experiment it can be seen that inverse proportion between the Transfer function and Frequency i.e. transfer function, G(s) (Vo / Vi), decreases as the frequency increases. This strongly agrees with the hypothesis since Vo / Vi = Xc / ( Xc + R1) implies that when Vi is kept constant and the capacitance as well as the resistance of the capacitor and resistor respectively, are fixed then the only variable that can change is the Output voltage, Vo. Xc =1/jwC

2 f

As frequency increases, Xc decreases as illustrated above and for that reason Vo also decreases resulting in a decreasing transfer function. At frequencies 340 and 3400 Hz, it has been noticed that the Vo/ Vi decreased by a larger margin to the next frequency. The capacitive reactance dominated over the resistance so the signal voltage was dropped off mostly across the capacitance merely due to the fact that the capacitor offered more effective resistance than the resistor. At zero frequency, the reactance was infinite, the current is zero, and all the voltage is across the capacitor while at high frequencies, the capacitive reactance seemed to be negligible most of the Signal voltage was across the resistor. At infinite frequency, the capacitive reactance was zero, and if there capacitor was not present in the circuit, was shorted out. The phase angle also behaves similarly. At low frequencies, the phase shift became closer to /2, as it was for a pure capacitance with no resistance in the circuit. DISCUSSION The objectives of the experiment were successfully achieved according to the results obtained which were presented in a table and graph format. The results obtained were the expected one even though there are some anomalous results. This awkward are due to errors encountered during the experiment. Here are some of the errors encountered during the experiment When making a measurement with an oscilloscope: the calibration error and the reading error. The total error of any reading is found by combining the calibration and reading errors. Similarly the error when setting up a waveform on a signal generator will be due to the calibration error (5%) and a setting error, the latter is related to the scale and width of the cursor. compare the parameters of a signal produced by a signal generator and that measured by an oscilloscope. In this case both the voltage and frequency (with errors) as set on the signal generator should be compared with the values determined by the oscilloscope. The other reason for the difference in practical and theoretical values could be due to aging of the apparatus used, the resistors and capacitors when measured could not give their exact values marked on them. There is also an element of parallax error, but this was minimized as much as possible to get the exact values displayed. Care was taken to ensure correct values were obtained, check if the circuit was connected correctly & that controls of oscilloscope and the function generator were used properly. Based on the concept of the transfer functions, one can get a clear understanding of the results. Because this experiment proved theory, it would help to explain, why the transfer function decreases as the frequency increases. The method of measurement used is useful and relevant in that it allows students a physical contact with apparatus used and this would go a long way in helping them get the necessary skills of operating them.

## Mompati Letsweletse 201100183 eeb 316 lab report

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RECOMMENDATION This experiment can be improved to help students apply their theory into practice by ensuring that each student is assigned to his/her own workstation, and does the experiment alone to ensure maximum gaining of engineering concepts and principles avoid a situations where some students just become passengers during the experiment thereby hindering them from understanding and relate theory with the practical and even get the knowledge of using the apparatus hands on. The other improvement is that student should have a clear lecture before the experiment for them to appreciate how they should handle the experiment also to avoid spending hours figuring how to build circuit Also the equipments should be replaced because of aging especially the oscilloscopes because they make it very difficult for the student to read displayed signals

CONCLUSION The objectives of this experiment have been almost met. It has been discovered that the oscilloscope, when used with the function generator is a very important device in electrical and electronic engineering. The controls and operation of the oscilloscope and the function generator have been learnt and understood. From the experiment, it has been shown that the ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage varies according to the frequency. while the output voltage was kept constant, the decibel was directly proportional to the output voltage. The phase shift increased with a decrease in the output voltage.

REFERENCES [1] J. Abel and D. Berbers, Signal Processing Techniques for Digital Audio Eects, http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/424/, 2005. [2] A. Farina, Simultaneous measurement of impulse response and distortion with a swept-sine Technique, Audio Engineering Society Convention, vol. Preprint 5093, Feb. 2000. 6. [3] Tektronix XYZs of Oscilloscopes. Online: http://www.tek.com/Measurement/App_Notes/XYZs/03W_8605_2.pdf. Last accessed: August 29th 2013S [4] Osilloscope Wikipedia. Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscilloscope#X-Y_mode Last accessed: September 7th 2013