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TABLE ND-3673.

2(b)-1 STRESS INDICES, FLEXIBILITY, AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS [NOTES (1), (2), (3)]
Primary Stress Index Description Flexibility Characteristic h Flexibility Factor k Stress Intensication Factor i

B1

B2

Sketch

tn
Welding elbow or pipe bend [Notes (4), (5)] 0.4 h 0.1 0.5 and > 0 1.30

tnR r
2

1.65 h

0.9

r R

Closely spaced miter bend [Note (4)] s < r (1 + tan ) [Note (6)] [Note (6)]

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stn cot 2r 2

1.52

0.9

tn
2010 SECTION III, DIVISION 1 ND

h 6

h 3

R = s cot 2

Widely spaced miter bend [Notes (4), (7)] s r (1 + tan )

s
[Note (6)] [Note (6)]

tn (1 + cot ) 2r

1.52

0.9

tn

134

h 6

h 3

R = r (1 + cot ) 2

0.9 Branch end: Welding tee per ASME B16.9 [Note (8)]

B2b p 0.4
0.5

t
r
n

h 3
3

4.4 tn r
3

Run end:

B2r p 0.5

r tn

For branch leg of a reduced outlet, use 0.9 T b

r
0

tn

h 3 Tr
0.9

h 3
Reinforced fabricated tee [Notes (8), (9), (10)]

2.1

0.5

[Note (6)]

t tn + e 2

r (tn) 2

For branch leg of a reduced outlet, use 0.9 T b

tn

h 3 Tr 2.1

te Pad

te
Saddle

TABLE ND-3673.2(b)-1 STRESS INDICES, FLEXIBILITY, AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS [NOTES (1), (2), (3)] (CONTD)
Primary Stress Index Description Flexibility Factor k

B1

B2
Branch leg: for (r m / Rm) 0.9

Stress Intensication Factors i Branch leg: for (r m / Rm) 0.9

Sketch

B2b p 0.75
Branch connection or unreinforced fabricated tee [Notes (8), (10), (11)]

T R T r
Rm
r
3

r m
m

T b
r

r m
p

ib p 1.5

for (r m / Rm) p 1.0 0.5

T r 1.5
Rm Tr
3

r m Rm

T b r m
r p

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B2b p 0.45


Rm Tr
3

r m rp

for (r m / Rm) p 1.0 1

ib p 0.9

for 0.9 < (r m / Rm) < 1.0, use linear interpolation Run legs:

T r 1.5
Rm
r
3

r m
p

Fig. ND-3673.2(b)-2

2010 SECTION III, DIVISION 1 ND

for 0.9 < (r m / Rm) < 1.0, use linear interpolation


1 4

r m B2r p 0.9 tb
Branch leg: Fillet welded and partial penetration welded branch connections [Notes (8), (10), (12)]
2 1

Run legs: R ir p 0.8 m Tr Branch leg:

R 2.1
3

r m
m

135
B2 b
0.5 Run legs: Girth butt weld Circumferential llet welded or socket welded joints [Note (13)] Brazed joint 30 deg tapered transition (ASME B16.25) tn < 0.237 in. (6 mm) 0.5

R p 2.25 m Tr

r m Rm

T b r m 1.5 Tr rp

ib p 4.5

T r 3.0
Rm Tr
3

r m Rm

T b r m
r p

Fig. ND-3643.2(b)-2

r B2r p 1.3 m tb
1.0

1.5 1

Run legs: R ir p 0.8 m Tr

R 2.1
3

r m
m

1.0 For Cx 1.09tn , i p 1.3 For Cx < 1.09tn , i p 2.1 (tn /Cx) 1.3 2.1

... Fig. ND-4427-1 sketches (c-1), (c-2), and (c-3) Fig. ND-4511-1

t 0.75 cn 0.5 x
[Note (6)]

t 1.5 cn x

1 1

[Note (6)]

0.5

1.0

(U.S. Customary Units) D 1.3 + 0.0036 o + 0.113/tn 1.9 tn (SI Units) D 1.3 + 0.0036 o + 2.87/tn 1.9 tn

TABLE ND-3673.2(b)-1 STRESS INDICES, FLEXIBILITY, AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS [NOTES (1), (2), (3)] (CONTD)
Primary Stress Index Description 30 deg tapered transition (ASME B16.25) tn 0.237 in. (6 mm) Flexibility Factor k

B1
0.5

B2
1.0

Stress Intensication Factors i 1.3 + 0.0036 Do / tn 1.9

Sketch

t1
Concentric and ecentric reducers (ASME B16.9) [Note (14)] 0.5 for 30 deg 1.0 for 30 deg < 60 deg 1.0 1 0.5 + 0.01


D2 t2

2.0

t2
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D1
[Note (6)] 1 2.3

D2
2010 SECTION III, DIVISION 1 ND

Threaded pipe joint or threaded ange Corrugated straight pipe or corrugated or creased bend [Note (15)]

[Note (6)]

[Note (6)]

[Note (6)]

2.5

136

NOTES: (1) The following nomenclature applies:

Do r r m R Rm s tb te tn T b Tr

p p p p p p p p p p p p

nominal outside diameter, in. (mm) mean radius of pipe, in. (mm) (matching pipe for tees and elbows) mean radius of branch pipe, in. (mm) nominal bend radius of elbow or pipe bend, in. (mm) mean radius of run pipe, in. (mm) one-half angle between adjacent miter axes, deg miter spacing at center line, in. (mm) thickness in reinforcement zone of branch, in. (mm) pad or saddle thickness, in. (mm) nominal wall thickness of pipe, in. (mm) [matching pipe for tees and elbows, see Note (5)] nominal wall thickness of branch pipe, in. (mm) nominal wall thickness of run pipe, in. (mm)
1

For Figs. ND-3673.2(b)-2(a) and (b):


2 tb p T b if L1 0.5(2r mTb) 1 p T b if L1 < 0.5(2r mTb) 2

For Fig. ND-3673.2(b)-2(c):

tb p T b + (23)y if 30 deg p T b + 0.385L1 if > 30 deg


For Fig. ND-3673.2(b)-2(d):

tb p T b p Tb
For branch connection nomenclature, refer to Figs. ND-3643.2(b)-2 and ND-3673.2(b)-2.

TABLE ND-3673.2(b)-1 STRESS INDICES, FLEXIBILITY, AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS [NOTES (1), (2), (3)] (CONTD)
(2) (3) The exibility factors k, stress intensication factors i, and stress indices B2 apply to moments in any plane for ttings and shall in no case be taken as less than 1.0. Flexibility factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by heavy center lines in the sketches) for curved and miter elbows, and to the intersection point for tees. Primary stress indices are applicable to Do / tn 50 and stress intensication factors are applicable to Do / tn 100. For products and joints with 50 < Do / tn 100, the B1 index in Fig. ND-3673.2(b)-1 is valid. The B2 index shall be multiplied by the factor 1/(XY), where:

X Y Y Y
(4)

p p p p

1.3 0.006(Do / tn), not to exceed 1.0 1.033 0.00033T for Ferritic Material, not to exceed 1.0; T p Design temperature (F) 1.0224 0.000594T for Ferritic Material, not to exceed 1.0; T p Design temperature (C) 1.0 for other materials

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(5) (6) (7) (8)

Where anges are attached to one or both ends, the values of k and i shall be corrected by the factor c given below. (a) One end anged, c p h 1/6 (b) Both ends anged, c p h 1/3 But after such multiplication, values of k and i shall not be taken as less than 1.0. The designer is cautioned that cast butt welding elbows may have considerably heavier walls than that of the pipe with which they are used. Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thicknesses is considered. B1 and B2 primary stress indices for these products are in preparation. In the interim, use B1 p 0.5 and B2 p 0.75i, B2 shall not be less than 1.0. Also includes single miter joints. For checking branch leg stress:

2010 SECTION III, DIVISION 1 ND

137

Z p (r m)2 T b
For checking run leg stress:

Z p (R m )2 T r
(9) When te > 1.5 tn, h p 4.05 tn / r. (10) The equation applies only if the following conditions are met: (a) The reinforcement area requirements of NC-3643 are met. (b) The axis of the branch pipe is normal to the surface of the run pipe wall. (c) For branch connections in a pipe, the arc distance measured between the centers of adjacent branches along the surface of the run pipe is not less than three times the sum of their inside radii in the longitudinal direction or not less than two times the sum of their inside radii along the circumference of the run pipe. (d) The run pipe is a straight pipe. (11) If an r2 radius is provided [Fig. ND-3673.2(b)-2] that is not less than the larger of Tb/2, (T b + y)/2 [sketch (c)], or Tr /2, then the calculated values of ib and ir may be divided by 2, but with ib 1.5 and ir 1.5. (12) The equations apply only if r m /Rm 0.5. (13) In Fig. ND-4427-1(c-1) and (c-2), Cx shall be taken as Xmin and Cx 1.25 tn . In Fig. ND-4427-1(c-3), Cx 0.75 tn. For unequal leg lengths, use the smaller leg length for Cx. (14) The equation applies only if the following conditions are met: (a) Cone angle does not exceed 60 deg. (b) The larger of D1 / t1 and D2 / t2 does not exceed 100. (c) The wall thickness is not less than t1 throughout the body of the reducer, except in and immediately adjacent to the cylindrical portion on the small end, where the thickness shall not be less than t2. (d) For eccentric reducers, is the maximum cone angle. (15) Factors shown apply to bending; exibility factor for torsion equals 0.9.