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Original Title: Differentials, antiderivatives

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You are on page 1of 5

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2006

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

Diﬀerentials

New notation:

dy = f � (x)dx (y = f (x))

Both dy and f � (x)dx are called diﬀerentials. You can think of

dy

= f � (x)

dx

as a quotient of diﬀerentials. One way this is used is for linear approximations.

Δy dy

≈

Δx dx

f (x) = x1/3

1 −2/3

f � (x) = x

3

f (x) ≈ f (a) + f � (a)(x − a)

1

x1/3 ≈ a1/3 + a−2/3 (x − a)

3

A good base point is a = 64, because 641/3 = 4.

Let x = 65.

� �

1 1 1 1

1/3

65 1/3

= 64 + 64−2/3 (65 − 64) = 4 + (1) = 4 + ≈ 4.02

3 3 16 48

Similarly,

1

(64.1)1/3 ≈ 4 +

480

Method 2 (review)

� �1/3

1 1/3 1 1

651/3 = (64 + 1)1/3 = [64(1 + )] = 641/3 [1 + ]1/3 = 4 1 +

64 64 64

1 1

Next, use the approximation (1 + x)r ≈ 1 + rx with r = and x = .

3 64

1 1 1

651/3 ≈ 4(1 + ( )) = 4 +

3 64 48

This is the same result that we got from Method 1.

1

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

y = x1/3 |x=64 = 4

� �

1 −2/3 1 1 1

dy = x dx|x=64 = dx = dx

3 3 16 48

1

We want dx = 1, since (x + dx) = 65. dy = when dx = 1.

48

1

(65)1/3 = 4 +

48

y = x1/3

dy 1 −2/3

= x |x=64

dx 3

Anti-derivatives

�

F (x) = f (x)dx means that F is the antiderivative of f .

F � (x) = f (x) or, dF = f (x)dx

Examples:

�

1. sin xdx = − cos x + c where c is any constant.

xn+1

�

2. xn dx = + c for n �= −1.

n+1

�

dx

3. = ln |x| + c (This takes care of the exceptional case n = −1 in 2.)

x

�

4. sec2 xdx = tan x + c

�

dx 1

5. √ = sin−1 x + c (where sin−1 x denotes “inverse sin” or arcsin, and not )

1 − x2 sin x

�

dx

6. = tan−1 (x) + c

1 + x2

Proof of Property 2: The absolute value |x| gives the correct answer for both positive and negative

x. We will double check this now for the case x < 0:

ln |x| = ln(−x)

� �

d d du

ln(−x) = ln(u) where u = −x.

dx du dx

d 1 1 1

ln(−x) = (−1) = (−1) =

dx u −x x

2

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

If F � (x) = f (x), and G� (x) = f (x), then G(x) = F (x) + c for some constant factor c.

Proof:

(G − F )� = f − f = 0

Recall that we proved as a corollary of the Mean Value Theorem that if a function has a derivative

zero then it is constant. Hence G(x) − F (x) = c (for some constant c). That is, G(x) = F (x) + c.

Method of substitution.

�

Example 1. x3 (x4 + 2)5 dx

Substitution:

1

u = x4 + 2, du = 4x3 dx, (x4 + 2)5 = u5 , x3 dx = du

4

Hence,

u6 u6

� �

3 4 5 1 1 4

x (x + 2) dx = u5 du = = +c= (x + 2)6 + c

4 4(6) 24 24

�

x

Example 2. √ dx

1 + x2

� �

x

√ dx = x(1 + x2 )−1/2 dx

1 + x2

d 1

(1 + x2 )1/2 = (1 + x2 )−1/2 (2x) = x(1 + x2 )−1/2

dx 2

Therefore, �

x(1 + x2 )−1/2 dx = (1 + x2 )1/2 + c

�

Example 3. e6x dx

d 6x

e = 6e6x

dx

Therefore, �

1 6x

e6x dx = e +c

6

3

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

�

2

Example 4. xe−x dx

d −x2 2

e = (−2x)(e−x )

dx

Therefore, �

2 1 2

xe−x dx = − e−x + c

2

�

1

2

Example 5. sin x cos xdx = sin x + c

2

�

1

2

This seems like a contradiction, so let’s check our answers:

d

sin2 x = (2 sin x)(cos x)

dx

and

d

cos2

x = (2 cos x)(− sin x)

dx

So both of these are correct. Here’s how we resolve this apparent paradox: the diﬀerence between

the two answers is a constant.

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

So,

1 1 1 1 1

sin2 x − = (sin2 x − 1) = (− cos2 x) = − cos2 x

2 2 2 2 2

The two answers are, in fact, equivalent. The constant c is shifted by 12 from one answer to the

other.

�

dx

Example 6. (We will assume x > 0.)

x ln x

Let u = ln x. This means du = dx. Substitute these into the integral to get

x

� �

dx 1

= du = ln u + c = ln(ln(x)) + c

x ln x u

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