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MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

Tutorial 2 Solutions Dierentiation of Functions of a Single Complex Variable


(2630 Aug 2013)
1. Show, by evaluating the limits f (z) f (z0 ) zz0 z z0 obtained by approaching z0 = x0 + iy0 along x = x0 and y = y0 that f (z) = z is not dierentiable anywhere. lim

Solution. Along x = x0 , z = x0 + i(y0 + ), so

z z0 = x0 + i(y0 + ) x0 iy0 = i ; f (z) f (z0 ) = x0 i(y0 + ) x0 + iy0 = i ,


and thus the limit is
yy0

lim

f (z) f (z0 ) = 1. z z0

Along y = y0 , z = x0 + + iy0 , so

z z0 = x0 + + iy0 x0 iy0 = ; f (z) f (z0 ) = x0 + iy0 x0 + iy0 = ,


and thus the limit is
x x0

lim

f (z) f (z0 ) = 1. z z0

The two limits are different everywhere on the z complex plane, so f (z) = z is not differentiable anywhere. (Shown)

2. Use the Cauchy-Riemann conditions to verify that the following functions are analytic: (i) f (z) = exp(z); (ii) f (z) = sin z; (iii) f (z) = tanh z; (iv) f (z) = sinh z2 .

Solution. (i) Write

f (z) = exp(z) = e x eiy = e x cos y + ie x sin y,


which tells us that

u( x, y) = e x cos y,

v( x, y) = e x sin y.

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Evaluate the partial derivatives

MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

u = e x cos y, x u = e x sin y, y

v = e x sin y, x v = e x cos y, y

which we can check satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann conditions. (ii) Write

f (z) = sin z = sin( x + iy) = sin x cos(iy) + cos x sin(iy) = sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y,
which tells us that

u( x, y) = sin x cosh y,
Evaluate the partial derivatives

v( x, y) = cos x sinh y.

u = cos x cosh y, x u = sin x sinh y, y

v = sin x sinh y, x v = cos x cosh y, y

which we can check satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann conditions. (iii) Using the result of Ex. 6.1.14 in A & W, we write

f (z) = tanh z =
which tells us that

sinh 2 x + i sin 2y , cosh 2 x + cos 2y

u( x, y) =

sinh 2 x , cosh 2 x + cos 2y sin 2y v( x, y) = . cosh 2 x + cos 2y

Check that

u 1 + 2 cosh 2 x cos 2y v = = , x y [cosh 2 x + cos 2y]2 u 2 sinh 2 x sin 2y v = = , 2 y [cosh 2 x + cos 2y] x
i.e. the Cauchy-Riemann conditions are satised. (iv) Write

sinh z2 = sinh[( x2 y2 ) + i2 xy] = sinh( x2 y2 ) cos 2 xy + i cosh( x2 y2 ) sin 2 xy,


which tells us that

u( x, y) = sinh( x2 y2 ) cos 2 xy, v( x, y) = cosh( x2 y2 ) sin 2 xy.

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MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

To simplify the expressions arising from the partial differentiations, write

s = x 2 y2 ,
and note that

t = 2 xy, s t = 2y = . y x v( x, y) = cosh s sin t.

s t = 2x = , x y u( x, y) = sinh s cos t,

Then

Use the chain rule of partial differentation to check that

u u s u t v s v t v = + = 2 x cosh s cos t 2y sinh s sin t = + = , x s x t x s y t y y v s v t u u s u t v = + = 2y cosh s cos t 2 x sinh s sin t = + = , y s y t y s x t x x


i.e. Cauchy-Riemann conditions satised.

3. RHB, Qn. 24.1. Find an analytic function f (z) = f ( x, y) = u( x, y) + iv( x, y) of z = x + iy for which v( x, y) = (y cos y + x sin y) e x .
Solution. We are given v( x, y) = (y cos y + x sin y) e x and that f (z) = f ( x, y) = u( x, y) + iv( x, y) is an analytic function. This means that

u v = = e x cos y e x y sin y + x e x cos y, x y


and

u v = = e x y cos y e x sin y x e x sin y. y x

Integrating u/ x with respect to x (by parts where necessary), we nd that

u( x, y) = e x cos y e x y sin y + x e x cos y = e x y sin y + x e x cos y + f (y).

e x cos y dx

= e x cos y e x y sin y + x e x cos y e x cos y + f (y)

Integrating u/y with respect to y (by parts where necessary), we nd that

u( x, y) = e x y sin y +

e x sin y dy + e x cos y + x e x cos y

= e x y sin y e x cos y + e x cos y + x e x cos y + g( x) = e x y sin y + x e x cos y + g( x).


Comparing the two expressions above, we see that

u( x, y) = e x ( x cos y y sin y).

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MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

4. A & W, Qn. 6.2.1. The functions u( x, y) and v( x, y) are the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of an analytic function f (z). (a) Assuming that the required derivatives exist, show that 2 u = 2 v = 0. Solutions of Laplaces equation such as u( x, y) and v( x, y) are called harmonic functions. (b) Show that u u v v + = 0, x y x y

and give a geometric interpretation. [Hint: The technique of Section 1.6 in A & W allows you to construct vectors normal to the curves u( x, y) = ci and v( x, y) = c j .]

Solution. (a) For analytic function f (z), we have the Cauchy-Riemann conditions

u v = ; x y u v = . y x
Differentiate the rst condition with respect to x and the second condition with respect to y gives

2 u 2 v = ; x 2 x y 2 v 2 u = . y x y2
Since

2 v 2 v = , we have xy y x

2 u 2 u = , x2 y2 2 u 2 u + = 2 u = 0. x2 y2
(Shown)

which can be written as

Similarly, differentiate the rst condition with respect to y and the second condition with respect to x gives

2 u 2 v = 2; y x y 2 u 2 v = 2. xy x

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Since

MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

2 u 2 u = , we have y x xy

2 v 2 v = , y2 x2 2 v 2 v + 2 = 2 v = 0. 2 x y
(Shown)

which can be written as

(b)

Using the Cauchy-Riemann conditions, we nd that

u u v v v u u v + = = 0. x y x y y y y y

(Shown)

To understand the geometrical meaning of this result, consider the curves u( x, y) = ci and v( x, y) = c j . At the point ( x, y),

u =

u u + x y x y v v + x y x y

is a vector perpendicular to the curve u( x, y) = ci , whereas

v =
is a vector perpendicular to v( x, y) = c j .

Taking the scalar product of these two vectors, we nd that

u v =

u v u v v v u u + = + , x x y y y x y x

which is the expression we have shown to vanish identically above. Since u is perpendicular to u( x, y) = ci , and v is perpendicular to v( x, y) = c j at all points z = x + iy on the complex plane, for all values of ci and c j , we know therefore that the curves u( x, y) = ci are always perpendicular to v( x, y) = c j . This property is the basis of anglepreserving coordinate transformations, called conformal mappings, in two dimensions.

5. MAS281 Midterm Test, AY 2008/2009 Sem I, Qn. 3. real and imaginary parts can be written as 1 x = (z + z ), 2 y=

In the complex number z = x + iy, the

1 (z z ) 2i

(1)

in terms of z and its complex conjugate z . Use the chain rule of partial dierentiation to show that the Cauchy-Riemann relations u v u v = ; = , (2) x y y x are equivalent to the condition f = 0. z 5 (3)

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MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

Solution. Writing f (z) = u( x, y) + iv( x, y) and the real and imaginary components as u( x, y) = u(z, z ), v( x, y) = v(z, z ), with x = (z + z )/2 and y = (z z )/2i, we can apply the chain rules of partial differentiation to write

u x u y 1 u 1 u 1 u i u u = + = = + , z x z y z 2 x 2i y 2 x 2 y v v x v y 1 v i v = + = + . z x z y z 2 x 2 y
Since f = u + iv, we then have

1 u 1 u 1 v i v f u v 1 u v i u v = +i = + + +i = + . z z z 2 x 2i y 2 x 2 y 2 x y 2 y x
Given that u( x, y) and v( x, y) satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann relations

u v = , x y
we then see that

u v = , y x

f = 0. (Shown) z

6. MAS281 Midterm Test, AY 2010/2011 Sem I, Qn. 2. In the Cartesian representation z = x + iy of the complex numbers, a function f (z) = u(z) + iv(z) is dierentiable if its real and imaginary parts, u(z) and v(z), satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann relations u v = ; x y u v = . y x

(a) Write the Cauchy-Riemann relations in the polar representation z = r ei , in terms of the partial derivatives u/r, v/r, u/, and v/. [Hint: Use the chain rule of partial dierentiation.] (b) Hence, or otherwise, check if f (z) = r + i is dierentiable.

Solution. (a) The chain rule of partial differentiation tells us that

f x f y f = + , r x r y r

f f x f y = + , x y

so we need to start from the change of coordinates

r = ( x2 + y2 )1/2 ,

y = tan1 , x

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from which we obtain the partial derivatives

MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

r x , = 2 x ( x + y2 )1/2 y = 2 , x x + y2
Using the change of coordinates

r y , = 2 y ( x + y2 )1/2 x = . y x2 + y2

x = r cos ,

y = r sin ,

we can rewrite these partial derivatives in terms of r and as

r = cos , x sin = , x r
With these partial derivatives, we then nd that

r = sin , y cos = . y r

u x u y v x v y
and the Cauchy-Riemann relations

u sin u , r r u cos u = sin + , r r v sin v = cos , r r v cos v = sin + , r r = cos

u v = , x y u v = y x
becomes

u sin u v cos v = sin + , r r r r u cos u v sin v sin + = cos + . r r r r cos

(4) (5)

Multiplying Eq. (4) by cos and Eq. (5) by sin , and adding the two, we get the simpler equation

u 1 v = . r r

Multiplying Eq. (4) by sin , and subtracting it from Eq. (4) multiplied by cos , we nd another simpler equation

1 u v = . r r

These two simpler equations are the Cauchy-Riemann relations in polar coordinates.

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MH2801 Complex Methods for the Sciences

(b) For f (z) = r + i, we have u(z) = r, and v(z) = . Thus

u = 1, r v = 0, r
One of the Cauchy-Riemann relations,

u = 0, v = 1.

1 u v = , r r
is satised. However, the other Cauchy-Riemann relation,

u 1 v = , r r
is not satised. Hence f (z) is not differentiable.

. . . /SAC 8