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SOCIO-ANTHROPOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS (Relevant Terms & Concepts)


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Anthropology 1.1 derived from the Greek words anthrope which means man, and logy which means science. 1.2 Science that studies the origin and development of man, his works and his achievements. 1.3 includes the study of physical, intellectual, moral, social, and cultural development of man, including his customs, mores, folkways, and beliefs. 2.Culture 2.1 the shard products of human learning. 2.2 the sum total skills, beliefs, knowledges, and products that are commonly shared by a number of people and transmitted to their children. (Dressler) 2.3 a fabric of ideas, beliefs, skills, tools, aesthetic objects, methods of thinking, customs and institutions into which each member of society is born (Smith, Stanley, shores). 2.4 may be material (tangible) or non material (intangible) in form 2.5 a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Taylor) 2.6 Has the following characteristics: It is learned and can be acquired through conditioning, imitation, formal and informal instruction, or the media. It is transmitted / transferable. What one learns ca be transmitted to others through the use of language It is social. It is shared by and learned from the members of a group. It is adaptive. It selectively accommodates changes that come because of discovery, invention, and borrowing by making appropriate adjustment. It is dynamic. It represents a particular society or group of individual. It is universal. Societies all over the world have each a culture of their own. 2.7 a standards for deciding what is, standards for deciding what can be, standards for deciding how one feels about it, standards for deciding what to do about it, and standards for deciding how to go about doing it (Goodennaugh). 3. Sociology 3.1 science of man and society. 3.2 Study of patterns of human behavior. 3.3 study of groups and societies and how they affect the people. 4,Nature of Man 4.1 basically a social being who cannot afford to live alone 4.2 constantly interacts with others to satisfy most of his needs 4.3 develops further as a person as he shares / interacts with others 5.Society 5.1 an organized group of population (Kessing) who interrelates and interacts with one another, with common shared, attitudes, sentiments, aspirations and goals. 5.2 a social group that occupies territory, recruits its members by intergroup sexual reproduction, and has a shared comprehensive culture (Bectrand). 5.3 a group of organized individuals who think of themselves as a distinct group, who have somt things in

common, a set of loyalities and sentiments, and a esprit de corps which make the individual under certain circumstances to sacrifice himself for the good of the group (Smith, Stanley, and Shores). 5.4 a unit of interacting personalities with an interdependence of roles an status existing between or among the members (Cole). 6. Status 6.1 refers to the position assigned by a person in a group or organization 7. Social Stratification 7.1 refers to the classification of group members according to certain criteria which may differ according to the nature of the group. 7.2 is influenced by the economic status of an individual 8. Social Process 8.1 refers to the patterned and recurrent form of social interaction (reciprocal action or effect) 8.2 may come in the form of competition, conflict, cooperation, accommodation, assimilation or acculturation) 9.Socialization 9.1 a process of adapting of conforming to the common needs and interests of a social group 9.2 a process where a member of a group learns and internalizes the norms and standards of the other member among whom s/he lives. 9.3 is carried through the following agents of socialization a. Family smallest social institution whose members are united by blood, marriage, or adoption, constituting a household an carrying a common culture whose functions include providing needed socialization of children in terms of their roles and status transmission of culture providing opportunities for growth and development of personality, self-concept in relation to others b. School (Education) an agency originated by the society for the basic function of teaching and learning and for the enculturation of its members a place where attitudes, behaviors, customs and values are processed and refined is an agent of socialization prepares students to become worthy members of society is an agent of cultural transmission makes the student aware of their cultural heritage as well as the attitudes, values, and norms of the society through imitation and inculcation for the continued survival of the society and the maintenance of social order as agent of cultural and social change / modernization serves as source of social and cultural innovative activities that promote the development of initiative and open-mindedness among the members of a society integrates into cultural mainstream the various subcultures and identifies through a common language, shared experiences, and aspirations trains individuals for their roles in the society has these other functions - provides training of minds - teaches the basics

- develops problem-solving and critical thinking - accelerates adjustment to society has for its main goal to effect changes in the behavior of an individual person and through the person all the others with in the group, eventually preparing the individual for a progressive rebuilding of the social order c. Church, government, non-government agencies and institutions wherein an individual is a part of

10.Change 10.1 basically denotes a making or becoming distinctly different and implies either a radical transmutation of character or replacement with something else (New World) 10.2 management of change involves the skillful ways of managing, conducting and controlling things to accomplish a purpose 10.3 for change to be successfully initiated and managed, 3 important components have to be present (Fullan, 1991) a. relevance includes the interaction of need, the practitioners understanding of the change or innovation, and what change offers as benefits b. readiness involves the capacity of the individual and the organization to deal with the change; dependent on perceived need, reasons, time and benefits involved) c. resources all facilities, equipment, materials, and supplies necessary to initiate change should be available 10.4 reactions to change may be: a. passive resistance no verbal resistance but no cooperates shown either b. active resistance verbal concrete actions present (rallies, position papers, etc.) c. passive readiness follow with questions d. active readiness questions but cooperates 10.5 involves 3 stages: unfreezing (readiness); change implementation (actual practice), and refreezing (becoming a habit) 10.6 May come in the form of: a. Cultural change refers to alterations affecting new trait or trait complexes in the cultures content and structures. b. Technological change revisions that occurs in mans application of his technical knowledge and skills as he adapts to this environment. c. Social change variations and modifications in the patterns of social organization, of groups in a society, or of the entire society 10.7 How change may be managed a. Orient the stake holders as to the nature, benefits, effects, manners of implement of change b. Involves specialist to initiate change c. Manage change implement by focusing only on useful and necessary change, following gradual manner of implement, giving adequate attention to human needs, keeping lives of communication open, sharing the benefits of change, and diagnosing and treating remaining problems after the change has occurred. 11.Sociology of Education Provides a study of the regular patterns of relationship between society and the educational processes and the explanation for such relationships which contributes to the analysis and eventual solutions to problems confronting the educational system. 12.Socio-Anthropological Implications to Education

12.1 Schools need to provide the students with a curriculum that gives them insights into their social traditions, customs, institution for the perpetuation of the long-established social order 12.2 Schools together with the community, must teach the young the concepts of social order and social control of the survival of the society. 12.3 Schools need to have activities that reinforce role and status, expectations and values, which are necessary in the promotion of harmonious relationship among members of a group / society 12.4 Schools are a necessity, hence government should see to it that they function as expected and that it works towards improving the educational system and the lot of the people involved in this system 12.5 The community and the schools must work very closely to achieve the goals of the society in terms of having a maximum fit between what the schools produce and the manpower needed by the community 12.6 To ensure that quality outputs are produced by the schools, the government ad TEIs should have policies that are strictly enforced regarding the admission, selection, and retention of teacher candidates 12.7 The government should regularly review the curriculum of basic education and higher learning institutions to make certain that the educational and societal goals are achieved. B. SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY: Relevant Terms and Concepts 1. Philosophy 1.1 the oldest form of systematic, scholarly inquiry 1.2 comes form the Greek word philosophos or one who loves wisdom 1.3 other related meanings the study of the truths or principles underlying all knowledge, being, and reality, including values meanings and purposes of human life the study of the principles of a particular branch of knowledge a system of principles for guidance in practical affairs 2. Social Philosophy 2.1 a normative science that involves the ideal of justice develops arguments that justify political and social institutions, whether real or imagined inquires into the meaning of a persons value experiences and moral questions raised by social order 3. Ethics/Moral Philosophy 3.1 Ethics and Morality are terms both derived from Greek words that mean custom or particular behavior 3.2 Defined as a philosophical science dealing with the morality of human acts 3.3 Is concerned with questions of human moral judgments that is, judgment or right and wrong with respect to human actions 3.4 Come into being when men began to take interest in the values they hold 3.5 Applies to questions involving Individual cases of conscience and obligation Moral ends and purposes ethical motivation or intuition the meaning of life; the purpose of his existence, and the consequences of his actions associative values towards which social process is directed social control in terms of laws, rights, responsibility sense of justice 3.6 Relation with other disciplines

Anthropology investigates the origin of the human body and the behavior of the primitive man; ethics deals with the principles of right conduct as applied to men of all times Sociology describes the general structure and attitude of social groups; ethics studies the social groups with reference to the moral social order 3.7 Divisions of Ethics General ethics discusses the nature of human acts and their relation to morality; includes the ultimate end of man / human acts / morality of human acts / law and conscience / virtue in general Special ethics deals with the application of the general principles of morality to the particular actions of man as an individual and as a member of society includes rights and duties to God / oneself / others (individual ethics); right to life, property and marriages (social ethics); state and political authority (political ethics) and professional ethics 4. Human Acts 4.1 actions that man performs knowingly, freely, voluntarily (as controlled by his own will, volition, and powers) 4.2 may be moral (conforming to norms of morality; immoral (not conforming), and amoral (neither good or bad) 5. Morality 5.1 The concept of morality revolves around the problem of good and evil. In the moral order, human actions are good when they agree with the standards or norms of morality 5.2 In a popular sense, morality means a way of thinking and acting in conformity with virtue of goodness, justice, propriety, fairness, prudence and other standards of behavior expected from individual members of society; in a strict sense, it is the quality of human acts by which we call them right or wrong, good or evil. 5.3 Morality is necessary for the preservation of human dignity and social life. It is the foundation of society the whole happiness of man and even his sanity depends on his moral condition the problems of society cannot be solved except in terms of the moral life of individuals (Merton) 5.4 Moral obligation means duty, oughtness; presupposes freedom to do an act or to omit it that is, mans free and deliberate acts are regulated by moral laws. Sanction is any motive, consideration, or promise which impels one to follow a moral obligation: a good act is worthy or merit and reward; a bad act deserves punishment 5.5 Norms of Morality Standards that indicate the rightness or wrongness, the goodness or evilness, the value or disvalue of a thing Criteria of judgment about the kind of person one ought to be and the kind of actions s/he ought to perform May be remote or proximate remote norms of morality refer to the natural or internal laws of reason and the will of God, which expect one to be a person within a community of persons proximate norms of morality approximate the dictates of conscience which examines and passes judgment on all moral actions; serve as the inner voice of God which cries out mans moral obligation and tells him what to do and what to avoid in the moral order. 5.6 Moral Character involves patterns of attitudes and behavior that result from stages of growth, distinctive quality of personality, experiences, and the will to act in a way consistent to a coherent philosophy (Ornstein, 1990) means to help people, to accept their weaknesses without exploiting them, to see the best in people and to build on t heir strengths, to act civilly, act as an individual even if it means being different from others, to cope with a crisis or adversities or take risks because of ones convictions includes respect for human dignity, caring for the welfare of others, integrating individual interests and social responses, demonstrating integrity, reflecting on moral choices, and seeking peaceful resolution of conflicts 6. Theories of Ethics

6.1 Consequentialism maintains that the morality of an action is determined solely by its consequences hedonism views that only pleasure is good as an end utilitarianism believes that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the test of right or wrong (Betham; Stuart Mill) self realizationism holds that the ultimate end is the full development or perfection of the self (Aristotle) 6.2 Non-consequentialism claims that the morality of an action depends on its intrinsic nature, or on its motives, or on its being in accordance with some rules or principles and either not at all or only partly on consequences 6.3 Divine Command Theory the morality of an act depends on whether it is in accordance with the will of God. (St. Augustine) 6.4 Categorical Imperative Theory holds that for ones action to be morally right, he must do for its own sake and not because of rewards or punishment (Kant) 6.5 Egoism an action is right only if it is in the interest of the agent (Hobbes) 6.6 Situation Ethics the morality of an action depends on the situations and not on the application of the law 6.7 Intuitionism claims that ones knowledge of right and wrong is immediate and self -evident 6.8 Emotive theory claims that moral judgments do not state anything that is capable of being true or false but merely express emotions like oaths or exclamations. 6.9 Ethical relativism holds the view that there is no one correct moral code for all times and peoples, that each group has its own morality relative to its wants and values, and that all moral ideas are relative to a particular culture 7. Values 7.1 generally considered as something a principle, quality, act, or entity that is intrinsically desirable (Hall, et.al.) 7.2 possess a degree of excellence, some lasting genuine merit that rests on deeper intrinsic worth and more enduring qualities than mere preference by individual or in consonance with given cultures (Hall, et. al.) 7.3 are interrelated, not isolated; they reflect one anther 7.4 are dynamic; become personal or social goals and thereafter beget other values which in turn generate further goals 7.5 are positive and negative; function as dos and as donts 7.6 may follow certain hierarchy or order; some are of higher order, some lower e.g., heroism has definitely higher value than pragmatism 7.7 are first subjectively experiences before they are objectively analyzed and interpreted 7.8 are in a sense contagious, the fact that the values system of a people creates a certain national character 8. Value System 8.1 a system of established values, norms, or goals existing and shared in a society or group 8.2 may include, according to Huxley, such primary values are Individual freedom based on facts of human diversity and genetic uniqueness

Charity and compassion based on the psychiatrically ascertained fact that love is as necessary as food for human growth, the love element including thevaluing of self to develop self concept and potentials for growth, and the valuing of others which includes trust as a requirement for good citizenship Intelligence, without which love becomes impotent and individual freedom, unattainable 9. Values Clarification (values building) involves having a clear set of values and realizing the values a person holds depend on such factors as environment, education, and personality 10. Value Ranking a conscious, deliberate process by which a mature person arrives at a fairly wellarticulated, thoughtful ranking of his chosen values; here, interrelationship of values is explored within any given individual. 11. Value Conflict 11.1 conflict and polarization occur when somebody imposes a value ranking on someone else. The highest possibility then of polarity in a group is when two groups of people have opposite rankings. 11.2 may be seen in these situations: a. personal interests vs. public interests b. bayanihan spirit vs. kanya-kanya mentality c. close family ties vs. self-reliance d. personalism vs. group solidarity 12. Justice 12.1 Defined as the habit or readiness to give others what is due them; the constant and perpetual disposition of society to render every man his due. 12.2 The administration of justice is the determination and enforcement of the rights of persons according to law or equity Law stresses the strict rendition of what is due Equity emphasizes fairness 12.3 Justice includes rendering to every man the exact measures of his due without regard to his personal worth of merits 12.4 Justice governs the distribution of rewards and punishment as deserved by an individual 12.5 Justice does not consider all men as equally deserving or equally blameworthy, but discriminates between them to obtain a just proportion and comparison 12.6 Just and responsible government provides man with structures that guarantees his right to live a decent life and protect him from exploitation by his fellowmen and/or certain systems provides every citizen sufficient opportunity for advancement, growth, and development encourages every citizen to help build a just and responsible government, one which promotes growth and progress of its people encourages its people to be vigilant and involved to ensure that they control the government and that it functions effectively for the common good. Has authority, the legitimate power to command or bind the citizens of the state to the common good of the society; the power that directs social order for the common welfare of the whole community. This authority is the result of the social contract between the people and those to whom the people delegate this power. 13. Some Views about the Relation of the Individual to Society 13.1 Individualistic view holds that the society is made up of individuals who are independent of one another; believes that the individual as an indestructible entity and society is merely as effect. 13.2 Socialistic view the individual is subordinate to the society 13.3 Dualistic view recognizes the individual as independent but as he interacts with the others in a society, sees the need to become a part of a group and conform to its rules. 13.4 Organic view assumes that the society and the individual see common interests and that the development of the individual requires social consciousness and involvement; each one needs the other in realizing their own ends but it must be recognized that a moral bond must exist between them so that their ends may be fulfilled

14. Freedom, rights and responsibility 14.1 Freedom in a political context is defined in terms of independence 14.2 Freedom in a social context is defined in terms of rights. 14.3 Freedom is not absolute; it is not doing something without restrictions or reservations or interference and influence of others of some sort. There are certain restrictions or constraints to being free such as laws, norms, customs or traditions, or even ignorance, lack of awareness, disabilities, fears, anxieties, and past experiences 14.4 The whole moral life revolves around the use of freedom: good use guarantees man the affirmation of his better self and the achievements of the purpose of life; abuse of freedom is the origin of mans guilty conduct 14.5 Right: means in Ethics what is just, reasonable, equitable, what ought to be, what is justifiable, something that is owed or due to others (that is, the object of justice); In a broader sense, right means straight, something which in unbent, in contrast to wrong, which means crooked or distorted; hence, in ethics, right actions square with the standards of morality; also means an immunity or privilege protected or enforced by law. natural rights: inherent in the nature of man and are thus above the law such as life, liberty, or pursuit of happiness political rights: privileges of participating in the affairs of government such as the right to vote civil rights: enjoyed by citizens in their private capacity such as the privilege of acquiring property 14.6 Rights and responsibility are correlative; they come in pairs. If one wants more rights and freedom, s/he shall also have to accept more responsibility; thus the precept To whom mush is given, muc h is required. Conversely, one cannot exercise responsibility effectively if s/he is not given freedom to do the job. Rights are intended to be used, not abused. A right is abused when it interferes with the rights of others. All individual rights and freedoms should be conceived in the light of social order and justice. The reciprocation of rights and duties is the true foundation of social order Duties refer to those that are due under justice to another individual or collective persons and to God. If moral obligation embraces ones responsibilities toward himself, duties are properly directed to others Authority refers to the right to give commands, enforce laws, take-action, make decisions and exact obedience, determine or judge Accountability means to be answerable for; emphasizes liability for something of value either contractually or because of ones position of authority Responsibility refers to trust worthy performance of fixed duties and consequent awareness of the penality for failure to do so; is based on good judgment, and relates to obligation and commitment 14.7 Sense of nationhood May be equated with love of country; in the case of the Philippines, it may be synonymous with pagka Pilipino or Filipinism, which is a concept of a community of Filipinos The sum of worthwhile (Filipino) values essential to the development of a sense of oneness and identity of interest with the community and a desire to contribute to common life and national well-being (O.D. Corpuz) An idealogy and commitment: an idealogy, for one must know what a nation is, what it can be, and what it ought to be; a commitment, for one must recognize and accept his duty to help develop and defend his nation as he has so conceived it (De La Costa) Peoples consciousness of unity based on common ancestry, homeland, customs, culture and destiny, which drive them to promote their collective interests over those of people of other countries. Immoderate, exaggerated, or without sense of nationhood contradicts order of reason and the demands of justice and charity 14.8 Nationalism central to nationalism is the conception of sovereignty, entirely independent of any legal or moral authority beyond its own borders. fosters a strong feeling of loyalty to the state and pride in their nationality; hence, education should be

used as a prime means to develop nationalism aims to achieve freedom from foreign oppressors to achieve political self-determination is a moral virtue; an aspect of justice and embraces the duties of man towards his countrymen because he shares with them the same homeland, the same government and common interests C. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS FOR TEACHERS 1. Appropriate ethical standards, values and principles of conduct, as well as the rights and benefits due all teachers have been set forth and are embodied in such documents as the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers and the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers 2. Teachers Rights and Benefits 2.1 Security of tenure: Stability in employment and security of tenure shall be assured the teachers as provided for under existing laws and No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be suspended or dismissed except for cause as provided by law 2.2 Injury benefits: Teachers shall be protected against the consequences of employment injuries in accordance with existing laws 2.3 Leave benefits Maternity leave for married women employees 15-day sick leave and 15-day vacation leave for those teachers designated for continuous duty throughout the year 70-day vacation pay and vacation service credit for teachers not required to render service throughout the year Study leave after seven years of service Medicare benefits to all teachers regardless of age, sex, means or status Disability benefits Death benefits Right to permanent status after having rendered at least 10 years of continuous, efficient, and faithful service Right to freely and without previous authorization establish and join organization of ones own choosing, subject to limitation. Right to academic freedom freedom to investigate and discuss the problem of his science and to express his conclusion without inference from political or ecc lesiastical authority, or form the administrative officials.. unless his methods are found.. to be clearly incompetent or contrary to professional ethics.; includes choice of methods, materials, course requirements Right to be paid in legal tender without any unlawful deductions Right to equitable safeguards in disciplinary cases: right to be informed of the charges right to full access of evidence right to defend himself or be defended by a representative of his choice right to appeal to designated authorities Rights emanating from being persons in authority 3. Ethical principles culled from the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers and the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers The teacher shall maintain the nobility and dignity of the teaching profession maintain continuing professional growth to improve efficiency, competency and productivity, nationally and internationally maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official relations with other professionals, government officials, and with the community transmit to learners cultural and educational heritage of the country; elevate national morality; promote national pride; cultivate love of country; instill allegiance to the constitution and respect for all duly constituted authorities, and promote obedience to the laws of the state

be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, mutual confidence and faith in one another, selfsacrifice for the common good, and full cooperation with colleagues make an honest effort to understand and support eh policies of the school administration refrain from transacting any business in illegal manner show professional courtesy, helpfulness, and sympathy to one another, and exhibit cooperative responsibility to formulate change for the system at all levels be first and foremost concerned with the interest and welfare of the students and deal with students justly establish and maintain cordial relations with parents; inform them of their childrens progres s; seek their cooperation for their childrens guidance and hear their complaints with sympathy and understanding maintain good reputation with respect to financial matters maintain a dignified personality whether in school, in the home, or elsewhere so as to serve as a model worth of emulation by learners, peers, and all others. D. EASTERN PHILOSOPHIES 1. General Eastern Thoughts 1.1 Perceptions regarding mans nature. Man is looked upon as a speck in the universe of things; hence, he does not have as much as the importance accorded him by the west. His existence is simply a continuation of another existence in a long and continuous chain of existence. Man is one Self. This self is the atman and is the seat of consciousness and the deepest selfhood where man is truly man. Individuality is given up voluntarily and places the group or tribe above that of oneself Mans way of life is characterized by harmony (wa in Chinese philosophy) and peace with nature (tao) 2. Concept of freedom 2.1 Lack of freedom surrounds mans birth; man therefore has no free choice, so that there is resignation to ones forbearance of ones sufferings 2.2 Mans goals, desires, and propensities are already laid out by circumstances of his birth. 3. Concept of ideation 3.1 knowledge may be acquired not only through perception and abstraction but also through such ways as inspiration, intuition, and seeing (rishi to Hindu) in a mystic way. 3.2 Intuition a short cut knowledge wherein a seer sees the essence of a thing directly; 3.3 Inspiration the process wherein one forms an idea without passing through the medium of the senses, as what poets experience 3.4 When one sees what other eyes do not normally see or understand, the process is called mystical vision as experienced by the mystical rishis of the India 3.5 The material aspect of knowledge is always coupled with the spiritual 4. Ethics / Moral Law 4.1 Ethics is based on ones station in life: to each station corresponds a certain behavior accordi ng to which a person must live, as Indian philosophy so dictates. 4.2 Moral laws are based on the group, not on each individual. 4.3 The violation of the Code of behavior as demanded by ones status and not by any moral law impressed upon his mind, constitutes a sin. 5. Logic / reasoning is institutional rather than logical; experiential rather than rational 6. Specific Eastern Philosophies 6.1 Hinduism accepts principles of reincarnation and transmigration of souls and or karma distinguishes between prakriti (nature which is objective) and puruska (self, which is subjective) believes that bondage to suffering arises from the involvement of puruska with prakriti and release from it comes when ignorance is overcome through yoga, which is bringing self to understanding through meditation knowledge is acquired through meditation which brings intuitive, non-rational, and direct cognition of natural things. Intuition is the cessation of individuality and identify of self with eternal puruska. Sees God as guiding the world in accordance with the law of karma (good cause bring good

consequence; a bad cause, bad consequence) Salvation is achieved through faith, knowledge, not stealing, chastity, and not being attached to worldly vices 6.2 Buddhism Is a way of life by which one can free himself from ignorance and suffering and establish peace and happiness of mind The goal is the attainment of Nirvana which is a state of mind of complete peace Its teachings consist of the following: all things are in constant change; hence, one should not become attached to impermanent things all beings are subject to suffering nothing exists without cause there is no independent, categorical, and permanent self all bengs have a Buddha nature, every individual is a potential Buddha and should be taught the equality and brotherhood of man Truth is enlightenment and can be attained through the Four noble truths: truth of existence of suffering; truth of the cause of suffering which is ignorance; truth of cessation of suffering; truth of the path to cessation of suffering. Noble Eightfold Path: right understanding, right thought, right speech; right conduct; right livelihood; right effort; right mindfulness; right meditation Six Paramitas: almsgiving; observance of precepts; patience; endeavor; meditation; wisdom. 6.3 Confucianism Believes that human nature is originally good; hence, government should rely on moral example and social education (Mencius) all men are basically good and equal because they are endowed with universal nature according to the principles that underlies it nature and principles are good because it is the characteristic of heaven and earth to create, to produce, to give life, and therefore to love men should be the master of their own destinies; hence, they respect spirits but keep them at a distance the primacy of family and duties of the members must be taught, stressing harmony, unity, and goodness of ethical life 6.4 Taoism Holds that all things originate from Tao (nature), conform to Tao, and to tao they last return Implies a metaphysics of impermanence and change and the person who attains a clear vision of the eternal tao (way) acquires happiness and peace Aims at attaining an awareness of the essential harmony of things Teaches the eternal principles of the Absolute the totality of being and things the phenomenal world and its order the eternal nature of the good man and the principle of his action 6.5 Zen Is a way one to come into harmony with the universal, all-permeating rhythm of the cosmos (nature). When Zen operates successfully, the symptoms of disharmony, consciousness (a danger sign) and will (sickness) disappear so that one is left in a condition of elation or sense of wonder, where the self becomes irrelevant. Believes that when one is in harmony with the cosmos, he loses interest in stressing his won achievements Advocates teaching that does not make use of rational analysis; believes that the doing of the teacher is in itself teaching. Believes that a pupil cannot learn unless he first has made all his mistakes for until then he cannot even begin to understand his teacher Focuses on dependence on oneself, intuition, and silent meditation

6.6 Judaism Teaches one to live in the spirit of mercy, love, charity, tolerance, and self-sacrifice because these are the ways by which to honor and respect God Believes that sorrow and distress chasten, serve to purify the dross, to fit the people for the mission of bringing about the fatherhood of Good and the brotherhood of man clean spirit is above knowledge the chosen people of God should have a sense of nobleness oblige, of heavy responsibility 6.7 Islam Teaches that Man is not absolute; he therefore must always seek Gods (Allahs) guidance and accept willingly whatever comes form His hands Allah is the almighty who is one in His attributes no other being possesses his attributes in perfection and one hi His works no one can do what He has done Believes that there are Immaterial Beings who carry Gods will and prompt man to do good, punish the wicked, and bring revelations to men of righteousness Divine revelations are the universal experience of humanity and must be followed there is life after death 7. Filipino thoughts / philosophy 7.1 In a nationalistic sense, there is no Filipino philosophy to speak of because its content is not universal nor does it transcend mere ethnic or geographical boundaries. The Filipino philosophy can only therefore mean a common perspective, a view point, a thought, or a sense that is peculiarly Filipino as seen in Filipino art and literature, values, and mores. (Quito) 7.2 Some Characteristics of Filipino Thoughts Belief in the existence of the Supreme Being in a personalistic way, the Almighty is thought of as a person who will come to his aid in time of need, over which, however, one has no control, thus, the Filipino says Bahala na or Let God do the rest. Harmony pervades the Filipino mind as it does the oriental mid; allows individuals to be subsumed to the general; hence, the following are observed: a spirit of mutual cooperation that animates community life and denotes awareness of mutual dependence prudence and self-control in order to avoid offending others deep sense of dignity and personal honor as in the precept Sa taong may hiya, ang salita ay panunumpa, which reflects a desire to follow standard and traditional forms of behavior tolerance and the right of everyone to hold his own opinion, to think as he pleases, and to order his life in his own fashion. debt of gratitude (utang na loob) and filial obedience, which reflects moral obligation to others The Filipino psyche is equated to save identify as reflected in his having extreme sensitivity and unreasoning pride which are exemplified through his amor propio fear of failure; hence, his ningas-kogon and being segurista tendencies personalistic perception of laws and mores emotional and expressive rather than being concerned with abstract principle and absolute, and being rational 8. Socio-Philo Implication to Education 8.1 Schools should teach students how to respond to the moral problems of the society emphasizing an authentic concern for the human person. 8.2 Education should provide opportunities for maximum development and inculcation of ethical, cultural moral values. 8.3 Schools need to provide learning activities to develop in the students a strong sense of right and wrong. 8.4 School and community need to work together to develop in the students practical consciousness about happening in the society and to help them form constructive responses through collaboration efforts.

8.5 Education in a democratic society must endeavor to heighten interest and participate in civic-oriented activities to help create a more equitable and just society. 8.6 Education should have enough provisions other than curricular offerings for strengthening ones sense of Filipinism and nationhood. B. SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY: Relevant Terms and Concepts 1. Philosophy 1.1 the oldest form of systematic, scholarly inquiry 1.2 comes form the Greek word philosophos or one who loves wisdom 1.3 other related meanings the study of the truths or principles underlying all knowledge, being, and reality, including values meanings and purposes of human life the study of the principles of a particular branch of knowledge a system of principles for guidance in practical affairs 2. Social Philosophy 2.1 a normative science that involves the ideal of justice develops arguments that justify political and social institutions, whether real or imagined inquires into the meaning of a persons value experiences and moral questions raised by social order 3. Ethics/Moral Philosophy 3.1 Ethics and Morality are terms both derived from Greek words that mean custom or particular behavior 3.2 Defined as a philosophical science dealing with the morality of human acts 3.3 Is concerned with questions of human moral judgments that is, judgment or right and wrong with respect to human actions 3.4 Come into being when men began to take interest in the values they hold 3.5 Applies to questions involving Individual cases of conscience and obligation Moral ends and purposes ethical motivation or intuition the meaning of life; the purpose of his existence, and the consequences of his actions associative values towards which social process is directed social control in terms of laws, rights, responsibility sense of justice 3.6 Relation with other disciplines Anthropology investigates the origin of the human body and the behavior of the primitive man; ethics deals with the principles of right conduct as applied to men of all times Sociology describes the general structure and attitude of social groups; ethics studies the social groups with reference to the moral social order 3.7 Divisions of Ethics General ethics discusses the nature of human acts and their relation to morality; includes the ultimate end of man / human acts / morality of human acts / law and conscience / virtue in general Special ethics deals with the application of the general principles of morality to the particular actions of man as an individual and as a member of society includes rights and duties to God / oneself / others (individual ethics); right to life, property and marriages (social ethics); state and political authority (political ethics) and professional ethics 4. Human Acts 4.1 actions that man performs knowingly, freely, voluntarily (as controlled by his own will, volition, and powers)

4.2 may be moral (conforming to norms of morality; immoral (not conforming), and amoral (neither good or bad) 5. Morality 5.1 The concept of morality revolves around the problem of good and evil. In the moral order, human actions are good when they agree with the standards or norms of morality 5.2 In a popular sense, morality means a way of thinking and acting in conformity with virtue of goodness, justice, propriety, fairness, prudence and other standards of behavior expected from individual members of society; in a strict sense, it is the quality of human acts by which we call them right or wrong, good or evil. 5.3 Morality is necessary for the preservation of human dignity and social life. It is the foundation of society the whole happiness of man and even his sanity depends on his moral condition the problems of society cannot be solved except in terms of the moral life of individuals (Merton) 5.4 Moral obligation means duty, oughtness; presupposes freedom to do an act or to omit it that is, mans free and deliberate acts are regulated by moral laws. Sanction is any motive, consideration, or promise which impels one to follow a moral obligation: a good act is worthy or merit and reward; a bad act deserves punishment 5.5 Norms of Morality Standards that indicate the rightness or wrongness, the goodness or evilness, the value or disvalue of a thing ANTHROPOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION Anthropology derived from the Greek words anthropus meaning man, human and logus, meaning study the study of mankind the science that treats of the origin, development (physical, intellectual, moral, etc.) and especially the cultural development, customs, beliefs, etc, of man. the science of man and his work (Herskovitz) the scientific study of physical, social, and cultural development and behavior of human beings since their appearance on earth. (Jacobs and Stem) the study of humankind, everywhere, throughout time, seeks to produce useful generalization about people and their behavior and to arrive at the fullest possible understanding of human diversity the study of humankind, in all times and places The Discipline of Anthropology Anthropology is traditionally divided into four fields: physical anthropology and the three branches of cultural anthropology, which are archeology, linguistics anthropology, and ethnology. The sub-fields of anthropology are shown below. Anthropology physical anthropology concerned primarily with humans as biological organism cultural anthropology deals with humans as cultural animals; the branch of anthropology that focuses on human behavior archeology studies materials remains, usually in order to describe and explain human behavior linguistic anthropology studies human language ethnology or social anthropology studies cultures from the historical point of view.

Relation of Anthropology to other Sciences Physical anthropology is related to the biological sciences anatomy, embryology, physiology, and genetics. Social anthropology is related to sociology, psychology, geography, economics, and political

science; is likewise related to the humanistic disciplines, such as history, literature, art, and music. Practical Application of Anthropology reduces ethnocentrism by instilling appreciation of other cultures contributes to our understanding of human beings helps to avoid misunderstandings between peoples CULTURE What is Culture? the sum total of what man has learned in living together shared products of human learning a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. a social heritage, transmitted and shared from one generation to another a standard for deciding what is, what can be, how one feels about it, how to go about doing it a fabric of ideas, tasks, skills, beliefs, tools, aesthetic objects, methods of thinking, customs, and institutions into which each member of society is born. a particular stage of civilization of a nation or period, such as Greek culture, the sum total of ways of living built by a group of human beings and transmitted from one generation. historically created designs for living explicit and implicit, rational, irrational, and non-rational, which exists at any given time as potential guides for behavior. ways people learned to live together; behavior learned as a result of living in groups which tend to be patterned and to be transmitted from generation to generation. The environment man has made consisting of artifacts, ideas, language, attitudes, beliefs, customs, etc., existing at a particular time and place.

Classification of Culture Static or dynamic static when it emphasizes cultural transmission, e.g. the same culture is passed on from generation to generation; dynamic, when it emphasizes change, e.g. it goes revision with each generation. Stable or unstable stable when folkways and mores are satisfying, new elements and traits are incorporate smoothly and without conflict; unstable, when the group does not have satisfying solutions to most of its problems and conflict exists between the traditional and radical groups and their values.

Forms of Culture material culture consists of tangible things like houses, clothing, tools, utensils, automobiles, TV, etc. non-material refers to what is symbolic or intangibles such as sentiments, folkways, mores, system of beliefs and knowledge. Folkways traditional ways of doing things in a certain culture e.g. pamamanhikan Mores heavily sanctioned folkways for group survival and are accepted without question as they embody moral views of the group e.g. the ulog of the igorot. custom a habitual practice, e.g. kissing the hands of the elders. Beliefs part of non-material culture, e.g. the belief of the enkantos Characteristics of Culture

only human society possesses culture human cultures vary considerably although they resemble each other in some respect culture tends to persist once learned and accepted culture changes gradually and continuously culture exists in the minds of men who learned from previous generations and who use it to guide their conduct with others. there is a tendency to borrow from other cultures members of a culture may behave differently as in the case of those who belong to sub-cultures no person can escape entirely from his culture

Another Set of Characteristics concerned with actions, ideas, and artifacts which individuals learn, share, and value; others call this organized group behavior an institution. may be regarded as a historical phenomenon, originating through innovation and spread by diffusion may be regarded as a historical phenomenon geographic or locality distribution tends to be patterned repetition of similar approved behaviors so that it has form or structure elements have a function tends to be integrated unity of premises, values, goals subject to change, individual conduct varies, innovations occur, etc. valid to the extent that the local way of life is well-defined, homogenous, stable sometimes designed as a system where interrelated elements are treated as a whole a continuum passed on from individual, from generation to generation symbolic meanings attached and personal motivations

Educational Implications cultures differ and one should not judge another culture by using his own culture as basis to avoid prejudices, there should be more contact between cultures travel, education, and reading about other societies are ways of bringing about tolerance and understanding between nations with more diffusion between cultures, one global society may result society can be improved by improving the culture. since culture is made by man himself, he should develop worthwhile values and wee out those beliefs since culture is learned, the school should inculcate in the young. Good aspects of the culture since the culture changes, the change should be for the better and society should decide what those changes should be the home, the school, and the church, should guard against borrowing from other cultures things that are against the Philippine way of life. LANGUAGE AND WRITING Language a vocal symbolism of speech, with its related bodily gestures and mechanical signals which give precision and finesse to communicate a way of speaking, distinct every culture a system of arbitrary vocals symbols by which members of a social group cooperate and interact by which the learning process is effectuated and given way of life achieved through continuity and change.

Significance and Function of Language language is very important for without which knowledge could not have been maintained and accumulated language is a form of learned behavior by which people communicate with each other, this function is probably one of the most important, if not the most important functions of language. language is the vehicle of culture by which the culture is passed on from generation to generation language is a means of cooperation through which people learn to play together and to work together from the anthropological point of view, language is a way to making people close to one another, of fostering the feeling of belongingness.

Elements of Language According to Herkovitz, every language has three parts: phonemic system consisting of sounds combination of sounds into units that have distinct significance vocabulary combination and recommendation of number 2 into larger units grammar

According to Keesing, the parts language are: set of sound signals, the articulatory or phonetic system phonology structural principles that put sound signals in customary form grammar or porphology (structure) set of meanings for signals and forms (sematics); words embodying all 3 aspects of language in significant interrelation

Kottak gives the following parts: phonology study of sounds in human speech grammar arrangement of sounds into longer sequence of speech or longer utterances lexicon vocabulary or the meaning system of language

Summing up; then all language has: well-defined system of speech sounds grammar way of putting together words, phrases, sentence according to definite rules vocabulary which increase with every culture item

Linguistic Structure Analysis of the language shows that it is composed of: phonemics similar sounds contrasting and mutually exclusive; the same sounds, but different in meaning morphemes minimum significant unit forming a word or part of a word morphology combinations of words into linguistic form. The combination of words into sentences following grammatical rules, such as subject (noun), predicate (verb) and modifier (adverb or adjective).

Importance of the Study of language Language should be studied because it is an aspect of culture that differentiates man from animals. It must be used correctly, as it is the criterion that differentiates the educated from the uneducated. Writing a set of techniques for the graphic representation of speech round-about speech or mechanical gestures; a series of graphic symbols which hold and store information more or less permanently according to the medium, apart from the individuals who are in communication.

Invention of Writing Writing is said to be a more recent invention than language. While language appeared more than a million years ago, that is, when man first acquired the rudiments of culture, the first written record in English were dated A.D. 900. Development of Writing conventionalized pictographs regarded as the earliest from of writing a kind of writing called pictograph or picture writing. Logograph writing appeared in the Near East, in Chinese, and in Maya writing Ideograph developed in China Syllabic writing widespread in Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Sumeria Alphabetic writing this system of writing developed around 1800 B.C. The Phoenicians are credited with the invention of the alphabet

Relation of Writing to Language Language is a complex of patterns that govern or control speech while writing is the written symbol of speech. Writing is recent invention compared to language. All societies having more or less the same level of development possess language, but not writing. Writing is found in advanced societies but may be lacking in primitive tribes. Importance of Writing it is essential to the highly complex civilization it makes possible long distance communication it is a mean of keeping records and preserving them for posterity it is vital to the system of education, research, and to world culture it is considered by scientist as the beginning of true civilization

Educational Implications since language is an agent of culture, one should study the language well and speak it correctly the more language a person knows, the better educated he is and the easier he can adjust to other people. to understand people, it is necessary to know their language knowing peoples language is a means to fostering good public relations since English is the language spoken through most of the world, one should study it well. reading books and magazines is one way of increasing ones vocabulary. a person should learn to write legibly and clearly, as this is a mark of the well educated

fluency in speaking and writing comes with practice; so one should take every opportunity to speak and write well

RELIGION What is Religion? recognition of belief in some source or power that transcends humans and is capable of assessing or harming them. a kind of human behavior which can be classified as belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces response to mans needs for an organized conception of the universe, for mechanism that will allay his anxieties concerning his inability to predict and understand events that do not conform to natural law. the control of the universe; means by which man maintains himself in the scheme of things

From the foregoing definitions, certain characteristics of religion are evident: (1) belief in the supernatural, which is powerful (2) an influence on human behavior, (3) an explanation for what is unexpected. Examples of situations that cannot be explained by science where religion is used to provide the answer: a healthy individual who had no previous history of heart disease suddenly has a heart attack and dies. a person who has cancer as shown by x-ray suddenly shows no trace of the disease after a visit to the Lourdes shrine in France. an out-of-reason typhoon in April destroys a crop a very good husband, rich and good-looking is deserted by his wife. Folk Primitive Religion It is not clear as to where or how religion started, but even the primitive tribes had some kind of religion. American Indians worshipped supernatural beings, as did the ancient Filipinos. The Aztecs of Mexico worshipped a god. The city-state of Athens worshipped the goddess of Athena. The Greeks and the Romans had their gods and goddesses. The Roman emperor and the Egyptian pharaoh were regarded as deities in times of classical antiquity. The Japanese emperor was venerated as descendant of the sungod before World War II. Varieties of Religion Religions of different kinds abound in the world today. The Christian religions are composed of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox, and Judea-Christianity. The non-Christian religions consist of; Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Jewish, Shintoism, Animism. All religions have many things in common rather than differences. The golden rule is part of most religions. Beliefs in Most Societies Regarding Religion Whatever religion people to, different societies have common beliefs as follows: a) religion does things for people, b) it has to do with the power of the universe, the range and intensity of these powers, and the manner in which they influence the lives of people, c) and there are methods by which these powers may be enlisted in behalf of man, not only has benevolent guardians, but also as agents that may help man achieve certain ends. Uses/Functions of Religion explain events or situation that defy comprehension provide comfort in times of stress and anxiety

set guidelines for conduct of human affairs and furnish a sense of common purpose for members of a social group. Provide an organized picture of the universe and establish orderly relationship between man and his surroundings. reduce fears and anxiety and give man not only a feeling of security in the uncertain present, but the hope as well as tolerable future. reflect close and intimate relations with the world of the supernatural and also with animals, plants, and other aspects of nature. reinforce and maintain cultural values support and emphasize particular culturally defined standards of behavior. preserve knowledge through rituals and ceremony rituals and ceremonies together with uniform beliefs contribute to social participation and solidarity. Individual participation in such occasion brings emotional satisfaction Ceremonies serve as a social function, which develop social cohesion and group solidarity. also create and maintain divisions instrument of change e.g. Jesus Christs preaching of love Educational Implications

it is important for every one to have a religion in view of the role that religion plays in one s life since religion influences behavior, one should choose ones religion wisely since the nature and function of all religions are the same, there should be tolerance of all religions one should study ones religion well and live it. apply the teachings of religion to self, family community, and the world.

Sociological Foundations to Education What is the Relation of Sociological Foundation to Education? Essentially, the emphasis of the sociological foundations is on the group. It is imperative to maintain good human relations in the group in order to be able to work together with success. The sociological foundations are concerned with the human relations factorthe behavior of individuals and their relations to each other. If the ultimate purpose of the social sciences is the improvement of human relations, that of education is the improvement of individuals; and therefore of human relations. The individuals and the group are two aspects of the same thing, hence cannot be separated. Man is a social being and exists as part of the group. Personality is developed in the group through interactions with others.

SOCIETY, SOCIALIZATION AND STRATIFICATION What is Society?


derived from the Latin word socios or socialis meaning fellow, companion, or associate. a group of individuals with well defined limits which persists in time,

thus enabling them to develop a set of common ideas, attitude, norms, and sanctions, interaction, and of techniques for living and fitting together (human arrangements) formed based on mans gregariousness or the tendency or desire of people to be with other people. an organized group of population (Kessing) composed of human beings and the institutions by which live together in the culture (Linton) consists of all the people who share a district and continuous way of life (culture), and think of themselves as one united people (Dressier) a social group that occupies territory, recruits its members by intergroup sexual production, and has a shared comprehensive culture (Bertrand) a group of organized individuals who think of themselves a district group, who have something in common, a set of loyalties and sentiments, an esprit de corps which makes the individual under certain circumstances to sacrifice himself for the good of the group (Smith, Stanley, and Shores)

Concepts of a Group

a unit of interesting personalities with varied roles and status among members a unit of interacting personalities with an interdependence of roles and status existing between or among the members (Cole) a number of people at a given time, interrelated and interact with one another with common shared attitudes, sentiments, aspirations, and goals.

There is no limit to group size, but two (dyad) or three (triad) people can constitute a group provided there is interaction among them. Kinds/Classification of Groups

primary or Gemeinschaft intimate personal or face-to-face relationship, e.g. family parents and siblings neighborhood group; school/classmates. The three important primary groups in the education process: the family, the neighborhood group, and the school. Secondary or Gesellschaft impersonal, contractual, business, like, e.g. between seller and costumer; driver and passenger; sales representative and pharmacists.

Other Group Classification According to Self-Identification

o o

o o o

o o

In-group in this group an individual identifies himself with the group and is a sense of belongingness; the individual learns the use of me and we, is characterized by a feeling of solidarity, camaraderie and a protective or sympathetic attitude toward the other members. When the we feeling becomes excessive (strong nationalism) it results in ethnocentrism the belief that the group is the best and all others are inferior. While ethnocentrism defies the principle of cultural relativity the belief that no custom is good or bad, right or wrong in and of itself it has certain functions for the group such as; it contributes to group loyalty and promote group solidarity; it promotes conformity and becomes a form of social control; it promotes nationalism (Henderson 1972:29) out-group - this is the group toward which one has a feeling of indifference, strangeness, avoidance, dislike, entagonism and even hatred (Bierstedt 1970:290) Peer-group a group where the members are approximately equal in age and social economic status. play group a common type of peer group, characterized by in formality and spontaneity most often without adult supervision gang more common among boys than girls: usually there is a formal organization with a recognized leader. Some social scientists say that a gang has the following statement: a recognized leader, passwords and values of behavior, a definite place of meeting or arrangements for getting together, and above all planned activities of anti-social nature. Clique is relatively smaller in size than the gang; arises when two or more persons are related to one another in an intimate fellowship that involves going out together; doing things together, exchanging intimate a personal matters involving emotional sentimental situation; membership is voluntary and informal; members have a commons set of values which determine whether one remains a member or is eventually dropped. reference group a symbolic reference or another for an individual as a point in making evaluations or decisions. one to which the individual refers and with whom he identifies, either consciously or unconsciously. in the phenomenon of anticipatory socialization, the child is anticipating his social role as an audit. He tries to act and behave in the way he visualizes the behavior of the individual whom he admits and expects to be like (e.g. doctors and professors). voluntary association any kind of formal organization in which membership is voluntary may have a set of officers and constitution and by-laws which are highly flexible

Three main types of voluntary associations:

personal interest groups cater to people having the same such as playing golf, chess, mountain climbing, basketball, dancing, aerobics, etc. social service groups those whose purpose cater to doing community, hospital, or welfare services usually referred to today as NGOs. Political action group associations working for the promotion of certain political ideologies or for the election of favored candidates (e.g. Aksyon Demokratiko).

SOCIALIZATION

mean function of society where in patterns of behavior and aspects of personality are inculcated the process whereby the individual acquires the social and cultural heritage of his society (Bertrand) the process of entering the human group, of being included into the secrets of society process of internalizing the norms of standards of the group among a group leads to learning the individuals social position, in society which in turn determine his status. With status go certain right and privileges associated with a given social position.

Status

one of the basic building blocks of social interaction the position assigned by a person in a group or organization

Status Set

to all statuses a person holds at a particular time, e.g. a teenage girl is a daughter to her parents, a sister to her brother, a friend to others in her social circle, and a pitcher to a softball team.

Types of Statuses

ascribed acquired or received at birth, e.g. family name, place of birth, sex, race, etc. achieved assumed voluntary and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and choice, realized through hard work, talent, merit, etc. e.g. president, senator, professor, etc.

master status a social position with exceptional importance for identity, often shaping a persons entire life, e.g. gay status, President, Prime minister, consul, general, etc. (a persons occupation functions as a master status) Role

a second major component of social interaction behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status, e.g. the student role involves attending classes and completing assignments as well as devoting a substantial amount of time for personal enrichment through academic study. Role set

a term introduced by Robert Merton (1968) to identify a number of roles attached to a single status (see drawing illustration) Role conflict

the incompatibility among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses, e.g. parenting as well as working outside the home taxes both physical and emotional strength. Role strain

incompatibility among the roles, corresponding to a single status, e.g. a plant supervisor may wish to be an approachable friend to other workers but his responsibility requires maintaining some measure of personal distance from each employee. Role exit

the process by which people disengage from important social roles, e.g. ex-priests, ex-nuns, ex-husbands, ex-alcoholics, etc.

STRATIFICATION

the system or process of assigning individuals their respective ranks in a society based on income or wealth, education, occupation, and life style. the classification of group members according to certain criteria differ due to the nature of the group, e.g. low, middle, high. a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy

Kinds of Stratification

closed system allow for little changes in social position, e.g. caste open system permit considerable social mobility, e.g. class Caste system

Social stratification based on ascription, e.g. Hindu caste and the apartheld of South Africa Class system

social stratification based on individual achievement more open so that people who gain schooling and skills may experience social mobility in relation to their parents and siblings

The Function of Social Stratification Why are societies stratified at all? One answer, consistent with the structural-functional paradigm, is that social stratification has vital consequences for the operation of society. This argument was presented some fifty years ago by Davis, and Moore. (1945). The Davis-Moore Thesis the assertion that social stratification is universal because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of society. Meritocracy

implied by the Davis-Moore thesis that is productive society is a meritocracy; social stratification is based on personal merit; such societies hold out rewards to develop the talents and encourage the efforts to everyone.

SOCIAL MOBILITY

the movement of a person from one status or social class to another. may be achieved through such factors as education, good works, wealth, increased income, occupation, sex, and beauty, and other means. Connotes that a person who belongs to a lower class, may go up the middle class if he studies, finishes a course, and gets employed.

Types of Social Mobility


vertical, upward, downward horizontal

Other Varieties of Social Mobility


intergenerational a change in social position between generation, as when one ends up in a different social class from ones parents. Intragenerational occurs in the same generation, as when one changes social within ones own lifetime

Educational Implication

since upward mobility can be achieved through education, every one should go to school. there should be free and compulsory basic education (elementary and secondary) the elementary school curriculum should have common content so as to give those from the lower class opportunity to go upward. scholarship for higher education should be given by the government to poor but talented students. the educational system should select and encourage those with special talents (in art, music, etc.) to develop them and aid should be given where needed and to the deserving. etiquette and good manners should be taught to all so that even those from the lower class will feel at ease at special activities with the upper class.

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS The Family

an institution is an organization or establishment for the promotion of a particular object, usually one for some public, education, charitable, or similar purpose, e.g. the Red Cross, UP, LNU, etc. characterized by being (1) relatively universal, (2) relatively permanent, and (3) distinct in terms of function. may also be human, wherein a group of people organize around some important functions that define statutes and roles and facilitate achievements, e.g. the family, a universal institution found not only among civilized people but also in primitive society.

The smallest and most important social institution, with the unique function of producing and rearing the young. composed of a group of interacting persons united by blood, marriage, or adoption, constituting a household, carrying a common culture and performing basic functions. a socially sanctioned group of persons united by kinship, marriage or adoption who share a common habitat generally and interact according to well-defined social roles that maintain and protect its members and perpetuate the society. (Bertrand) a relatively small domestic group of kin who functions as a cooperative unit for economic and other purposes (Popenoe)

Classification of the Family


family of orientation the family into which people are born and in which the major part of their socialization takes place. Family of procreation the family that people create when they marry and have children.

Family Structure/Composition Based on Internal Organization or Membership

nuclear or conjugal (based on marriage) a two generation family group which consists of a couple and their children usually living apart from other relatives; places emphasis on the husband-wife relationship. Extended or consanguine (shared blood) a group which consists of one or more nuclear families plus other relatives; consists of the married couple, their parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins; place primary emphasis on the blood ties with various relatives. Based on Dominance of Authority

patriarchal a family in which the authority is held by the eldest male matriarchal authority is held by the oldest female matrifocal the woman is the central and most important member matricentric the female is the authority figure in the absence of the male at work egalitarian a family structure in which the husband and the wife are equal in authority and privileges Based on Residence

patrilocal a custom in which the married couple lives in the household or community of the husbands parent matrilocal involves a married couple living in household or community

of the wifes parents neolocal the couple lives apart from either spouses parents or other relatives avunculocal prescribes that the newly married couple resides with or near the maternal uncle (mothers brother) of the groom. This type of residence is very rare. The opposite is amitalocal residence. Based on Descent or Lineage the way in which kinship and lineage are traced over generation

patrilineal the fathers side of the family is defined as kin matrilineal the mothers side of the family is defined as kin bilateral the system used in most industrial societies (e.g. U.S.), childrens kinship is tied to both sides of the family and both male and female children are entitled to inherit.

Choice of Mate All societies place some restrictions on the choice of sexual and marriage partners. Incest taboos are powerful prohibitions, against sexual relations between close relative (e.g. between father and daughter, mother and son, brother and sister). Marriage Norms or Patterns

endogamy prescribes marriage within ones group same social category (e.g. race, religion, village, social class). exagomy the social norm that prescribes marriage outside ones own group homogamy the practice of marrying people with the same social, racial, ethnic, and religious background (as most Americans do) It serves two important functions: (1) it increases the chances that the children of a union will be exposed to reasonably consistent socialization experiences, and (2) it reduces disputes over issues other that child socialization. Although people tend to marry others much like themselves, another tendency operates and this is called

marriage gradient the tendency of men to marry women below them in age, education, and occupation

Other Forms of Marriage

monogamy marriage between one man and one woman serial

monogamy polygamy marriage involving more than one husband or wife; plural marriage one man is married to two or more women at the same time (Greek, meaning many men) one woman is married to two or more men at the same time when two or more men mate with two or more women in group marriage.

Functions of the Family


reproduction and rearing of the group cultural transmission or enculturation provide the needed socialization of the child with respect to his role and status provide love and affections and a sense of security for its members provide environment for personality development and growth of selfconcept in relation to others serve as an important mechanism for social control. sexual regulation

Alternative Family Norms (Macionis, 1998:313-35)


one-parent families headed by a single mother/father cohabitation the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple gay and lesbian same sex couples singlehood

Educational Implications

since the family is a very important institution, education for the family life should be part of the curriculum people who intend to get married should be oriented regarding their obligations so that the marriage will be successful in Japan, there is a school for brides. There should be a school or course, not only for the brides but also for grooms. since the average Filipino family is big, the school should teach the advantages of small families. enculturation being a function of the family should pass on only worthwhile values, customs, mores, beliefs, and traditions. sex is the propagation of the race and should therefore be engaged only

by married people it is not only the children who need an education, but also the parents young people should not rush into marriage, but should give themselves time to find out whether they are really in love and suitable for each other. since children are the ones who suffer from broken homes, couples should try hard to be reconciled and their parent, relatives, and friends, should help them toward this end. couples should consult marriage counselors if they often quarrel or are drifting apart so that the marriage may be saved.

SCHOOLING AND EDUCATION The School


another institution that also takes care of socialization and enculturation an institution established by the society for the basic enculturation of the young a certain building having a unity of interacting personalities, a field of social forces, a system of formal-informal control, a special cultural world, a community service agency (Cook and Cook) schooling is a central component of education in industrial and other societies where formal instruction is done under the direction of specially trained teachers (Macionis 1998:334)

The Functions of Schooling (Macionis 1998:337) Structural-Functionalist analysis focuses on ways in which schooling enhances the operation and stability of society. Socialization as societies become more technologically advanced, social institutions must emerge beyond the family to help socialize members of the society to become functioning adults. Important lessons on cultural values and norms are learned in schools at all levels.

Cultural innovation education is not merely a transmission of culture, it is also a factor in the creation of culture through critical inquiry and research. Social integration through the teaching of certain cultural values, people become more unified. This is particularly critical function in culturally diverse societies. social placement schooling serves as a screening and selection process. Performance is evaluated on the basis of achievement. It provides an opportunity for an upward mobility, however ascribe status

still influence people in terms of their success in our educational system.

Latent Functions of Schooling:


schools serves as a source of child care for the rising number of oneparent and two-career families. among teens, schooling consumes much time and considerable energy, inhibiting deviant behavior. schooling also occupies thousands of young people in their twenties for whom few jobs may be available. high schools, colleges, and universities bring together people of marriageable age, many of whom meet their future spouses in the classroom. school networks provide not only friendship, but valuable career opportunities and resources later on in life.

Learning is the lifelong process that includes social and personal experiences that alter ones knowledge, behavior, and attitudes (Propenoe 1995) Education

the social institutions through which society members are with important knowledge, including basic facts, jobs, skills, and cultural values. takes in a host of ways, many of their as informal as a family discussion the formal institution that directs many of the learning experiences within a particular society. the consciously controlled process whereby changes in behavior are produces in the person and through the person within the group. Therefore the ultimate a goal of education is the effective participation of individual in the total process of social interaction whether in terms of social, economic, health or any desirable human value. provides a study of the regular patterns of relationship between society and the educational process and the explanation for such relationships, which contributes to the analysis of problems confronting the educational system. may be formal or informal Formal education sets definite objectives and goals, which are realized through systematic formal instructions and methods. Informal education consists of learning, through interaction with others in the group, learning may be acquired through suggestion, observation, examples, imitation, and inculcation from any of the primary and secondary group or people one is engage in.

Functions of Education: Functionalist Perspectives

socialization the most familiar socialization function of education is to transmit knowledge and technical skills, but students also learns the values and norms of their culture. social control schools are expected to persuade their students that it is necessary to behave according to societys values and norms. Selection and allocation the main burden for selecting and allocating people to other particular occupational positions rests with the schools. assimilation and sub-cultural maintenance a major purpose of education has been to assist in the process assimilation, the absorption of newscomers into society. innovation and change education is often conservative force, but some aspects of education do promote social change especially by producing and spreading new knowledge, values, and beliefs. Conflict Perspective

tracking a system that divides students into different groups of classes on the basis of academic ability, which usually starts as soon as a child enters schools. credentialism the requirement of advanced degrees for certain jobs is seen by functionalists as a way of making sure that the best people are hired to fill important positions.

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