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Tony Pham Biology Finals Lecture 1-12 Vocabulary List I 1. Data-evidence; information gathered from observations 2.

Observation-use of one or more of the senses-sight, hearing, touch, smells, and sometimes taste- to gather information 3. Biology-science that seeks to understand the living world 4. Control Experiment-a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same 5. Theory-well-tested explanation that unifies a rage of observations 6. Sexual Reproduction-process by which two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism 7. Compound Microscope-microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image 8. Hypothesis-possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question 9. Homeostasis-process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment 10. Metric System-decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10 List II 1. Protons-positively charged particles 2. Electrons-negatively charged particles with 1/1840 mass of a proton. 3. Carbon-atomic number is six and there are six protons along with six electrons 4. Isotopes- atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons that they contain 5. Covalent Bond-forms when electrons are shared between molecules 6. Water- H2O; made up of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen molecules 7. Organic Compounds contain bonds between carbon atoms 8. Substrate-reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction 9. Unsaturated Fatty Acid- at least one carbon-carbon double bond in fatty acid 10. Enzyme-are proteins that act as biological catalyst List III 1. Prokaryotes-sngled-celled microorganism that lacks a nucleus 2. Eukaryote-organism whose cell contains nuclei 3. Organelles-specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell 4. Cell Theory-idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and that cells come from cells 5. Nucleus-in cells, large structure in side some cells that contain the cell genetic material (DNA) and control the cells activities 6. Osmosis-diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane 7. Isotonic-with balanced concentration of salts and minerals: specially formulated to supply the body's chemical needs in situations in which minerals and fluids are used up by the body 8. Muticellular-organism with more than one cell 9. Unicellular- single celled organism 10. Phagocytosis-the engulfing and ingesting of foreign particles or waste matter by the cytoplasm. List IV 1. Autotroph-able to manufacture nutrients: describes organisms, especially green plants that are capable of making nutrients from inorganic materials 2. Glucose-sugar energy source: a six-carbon monosaccharide produced in plants by photosynthesis and in animals by the metabolism of carbohydrates. (Formula: C6H12O6) 3. Chlorophyll-complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in external skeletons of arthropods 4.Photosynthesis-carbohydrate production using light and chlorophyll: a process by which green plants and other organisms turn carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen, using light energy trapped by chlorophyll 5. Calorie-amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1-Celsius degree 6. Energy-capacity to do work: the capacity of a body or system to do work

7. Cellular Respiration-process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen; made up of glycolysis, in the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. 8. Heterotroph-getting nutrients through food digestion: obtaining nourishment by digesting plant or animal matter, as animals do, as opposed to photosynthesizing food, as plants do 9. Adenosine Troposphere (ATP)-one of the principle chemical compounds that living things use to store energy 10. Fermentation-process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen List V 1. Chromatid- one of the two identical sisters parts of a duplicated chromosome 2. Mitosis-part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell divides producing two cells with the same amount of chromosome as the parent cell 3. Cytokenesis-division of the cytoplasm during cell division 4. Meiosis-process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell; produces four cells commonly used for sex cells 5. Homologous ChromosomesChromosomes that each has a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex partner 6. Diploid-cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes 7. Haploid-cell that only contain a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes 8. Gametes-sex cells 9. Cancer-isorder in which some of the bodys own cells lose the ability to control growth 10. Interphase-period of the cell cycle between cell division List VI 1. Allele-one of number different forms of a gene 2. Pedigree-chart that shows the relationship within a family 3. Probability-something likely to happen 4. Punned Square-diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross 5. Homozygous-two identical alleles coding for a particular trait 6. Heterozygous-two different alleles coding for a particular trait 7. Karyotype-set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs 8. Zygote-fertilized egg 9. Recessive-the trait that does not show but still exists 10. Phenotype-physical characteristics of an organism List VII 1. Nucleotide-monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base 2. Pyrimidine-a biologically significant derivative of pyrimidine, especially the bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil found in RNA and DNA 3. Mutation-change in the DNA sequence that affects the genetic information 4. Anticodon-group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon 5. Translation-the process by which information in messenger RNA directs the sequence of amino acids assembled by a ribosome during protein synthesis 6. Transcription-a molecule of messenger RNA that carries coded genetic information converted from the genetic code held by the DNA during the process of transcription in living cells 7. Hydrogen Bond-an electrostatic interaction between molecules of compounds in which hydrogen atoms are bound to electronegative atoms 8. Double Helix-the molecular structure of DNA, consisting of a pair of polynucleotide strands connected by a series of hydrogen bonds and wound in opposing spirals 9. RNA Polymerase- enzyme that promotes RNA synthesis a polymerase that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA 10. Thymine-one of the four nitrogenous bases in DNA in which it pairs with adenine. (Formula: C5H6N2O2) List VIII 1. Operon-a segment of a chromosome containing the genes that specify the structure of a given protein, alongside the genes that regulate its manufacture 2. Restriction Enzyme-enzyme used to break down DNA: an enzyme that splits DNA into segments at precise locations

3. DNA Ligase-enzyme that repairs DNA double helix: an enzyme that joins up a break in a single strand of DNA so that it reconstitutes the double strand in a DNA molecule 4. Plasmid-small independent circle of DNA: a small circle of DNA that replicates itself independently of chromosomal DNA, especially in the cells of bacteria 5. Introns- noncoding DNA: a section of DNA that is not expressed in the gene product. 6. Exons-interrupted segment of DNA: a discontinuous sequence of DNA that codes for protein synthesis and carries the genetic code for the final messenger RNA molecule 7. Promoter-binding site in DNA chain: in a DNA chain, a sequence to which the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to start transcription 8. Transgenic-describes the technique of transferring genetic material from one organism into the DNA of another 9. Polymerase Chain Reaction-technique to replicate DNA sequence: a technique used to replicate a fragment of DNA and produce a large amount of that sequence 10. Sticky Ends- the end parts that hang off the end of the polymerase chain reaction List IX 1. Variation-a living organism that differs from the normal form for its kind 2. Evolution-theory of development from earlier forms: the theoretical process by which all species develop from earlier forms of life. According to this theory, natural variation in the genetic material of a population favors reproduction by some individuals more than others, so that over the generations all members of the population come to possess the favorable traits 3. Gene Pool-the total of all genes carried by all individuals in an interbreeding population 4. Adaptation-the development of physical and behavioral characteristics that allow organisms to survive and reproduce in their habitats 5. Speciation- formation of a new species; the evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by one species that divides into two or more species that are genetically unique 6. Natural Selection-the process, according to Darwin, by which organisms best suited to survival in their environment achieve greater reproductive success, thereby passing advantageous genetic characteristics on to future generations 7. Vestigial Organs-an organ or part of the body that is now rudimentary and no longer functions, but was formerly fully developed 8. Fossil-the remains of an animal or plant preserved from an earlier era inside a rock or other geologic deposit, often as an impression or in a petrified state 9. Extinction-when a species completely dies off 10. Endosymbiotic Theory-theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms List X 1. Ecology-the study of relationships and the interaction between living things and the environment 2. Species- individuals of the same kind that is able to have fertile offspring 3. Habitat-where an organisms lives 4. Herbivore- and organisms that eats plants 5. Carnivore- an organism that eats meat 6. Decomposer- organisms that convert organic compounds to inorganic compounds 7. Food Chain- series of steps that involve the transfer of energy 8. Trophic Levels- eating habits stage in a food chain that reflects the number of times, energy has been transferred through feeding 9. Water Cycle- the evaporation and condensation of water 10. Niche- the role of an organism within its natural environment that determines its relations with other organisms and ensures its survival