You are on page 1of 43

Outline of science

Outline of science
The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science systematic effort of acquiring knowledgethrough observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not provedand the knowledge thus acquired. The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a "scientist". Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures or rules in order to determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but follow them through research policies. These procedures are known as scientific method.

Essence of Science
Main article: Science Research systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge. Scientific discovery observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previously acquired knowledge from abstract thought and everyday experiences. Laboratory facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Objectivity the idea that scientists, in attempting to uncover truths about the natural world, must aspire to eliminate personal or cognitive biases, a priori commitments, emotional involvement, etc. Inquiry any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.

Scientific method
Scientific method body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning, both deductive and inductive. Empirical method Experimental method The steps involved in order to produce a reliable and logical conclusion include: 1. Asking a question about a natural phenomenon 2. Making observations of the phenomenon 3. Forming a hypothesis proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. 4. Predicting a logical consequence of the hypothesis 5. Testing the hypothesis through an experiment methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. The 3 types of scientific experiments are: Controlled experiment experiment that compares the results obtained from an experimental sample against a control sample, which is practically identical to the experimental sample except for the one aspect the effect of which is being tested (the independent variable). Natural experiment empirical study in which the experimental conditions (i.e., which units receive which treatment) are determined by nature or by other factors out of the control of the experimenters and yet the treatment assignment process is arguably exogenous. Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment.

Outline of science Observational study draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator. Field experiment applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world (or as many experimentalists like to say, naturally occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory. See also field research. 6. Creating a conclusion with data gathered in the experiment Deductive-nomological model Scientific modelling Models of scientific method Hypothetico-deductive model proposed description of scientific method. According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. A test that could and does run contrary to predictions of the hypothesis is taken as a falsification of the hypothesis. A test that could but does not run contrary to the hypothesis corroborates the theory.

Branches of science
Branches of science divisions within science with respect to the entity or system concerned, which typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature.

Natural sciences
Natural science Physical sciences Physical science Physics Physics study of matter and its motion through space-time, along with related concepts such as energy and force Acoustics study of mechanical waves in solids, liquids, and gases (such as vibration and sound) Agrophysics study of physics applied to agroecosystems Soil physics study of soil physical properties and processes. Astrophysics study of the physical aspects of celestial objects Atmospheric physics study of the application of physics to the atmosphere Atomic, molecular, and optical physics study of how matter and light interact Biophysics study of physical processes relating to biology Medical physics application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine. Neurophysics branch of biophysics dealing with the nervous system. Chemical physics branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. Computational physics study and implementation of numerical algorithms to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. Condensed matter physics study of the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. Cryogenics cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below 150 C, 238F or 123K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. Dynamics study of the causes of motion and changes in motion

Econophysics interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics

Outline of science Electromagnetism branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. Geophysics the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods Materials physics use of physics to describe materials in many different ways such as force, heat, light and mechanics. Mathematical physics application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. Mechanics branch of physics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. Biomechanics study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics. Classical mechanics one of the two major sub-fields of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the action of a system of forces. Continuum mechanics branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. Fluid mechanics study of fluids and the forces on them. Quantum mechanics branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Thermodynamics branch of physical science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work. Nuclear physics field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. Optics branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Particle physics branch of physics that studies the existence and interactions of particles that are the constituents of what is usually referred to as matter or radiation. Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect. Plasma physics state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Polymer physics field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively. Quantum physics branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Relativity Statics branch of mechanics concerned with the analysis of loads (force, torque/moment) on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at a constant velocity. Solid state physics study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy. Vehicle dynamics dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be ground vehicles.

Outline of science Chemistry Chemistry science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions Analytical chemistry study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials. Astrochemistry study of the abundance and reactions of chemical elements and molecules in the universe, and their interaction with radiation. Cosmochemistry study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions Atmospheric chemistry branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary field of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines Biochemistry study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. Agrochemistry study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation. Bioinorganic chemistry examines the role of metals in biology. Bioorganic chemistry rapidly growing scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry. Biophysical chemistry new branch of chemistry that covers a broad spectrum of research activities involving biological systems. Environmental chemistry scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. Immunochemistry branch of chemistry that involves the study of the reactions and components on the immune system. Medicinal chemistry discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Pharmacology branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. Natural product chemistry chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism - found in nature that usually has a pharmacological or biological activity for use in pharmaceutical drug discovery and drug design. Neurochemistry specific study of neurochemicals, which include neurotransmitters and other molecules such as neuro-active drugs that influence neuron function. Computational chemistry branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems. Chemo-informatics use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. Molecular mechanics uses Newtonian mechanics to model molecular systems. Flavor chemistry someone who uses chemistry to engineer artificial and natural flavors. Flow chemistry chemical reaction is run in a continuously flowing stream rather than in batch production. Geochemistry study of the mechanisms behind major geological systems using chemistry Aqueous geochemistry study of the role of various elements in watersheds, including copper, sulfur, mercury, and how elemental fluxes are exchanged through atmospheric-terrestrial-aquatic interactions

Outline of science Isotope geochemistry study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes using chemistry and geology Ocean chemistry studies the chemistry of marine environments including the influences of different variables. Organic geochemistry study of the impacts and processes that organisms have had on Earth Regional, environmental and exploration geochemistry study of the spatial variation in the chemical composition of materials at the surface of the Earth Inorganic chemistry branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. Nuclear chemistry subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. Radiochemistry chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable). Organic chemistry study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. Petrochemistry branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials. Organometallic chemistry study of chemical compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal. Photochemistry study of chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light by atoms or molecules.. Physical chemistry study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts. Chemical kinetics the study of rates of chemical processes. Chemical thermodynamics study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Electrochemistry branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution. Femtochemistry Femtochemistry is the science that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 1015 seconds (one femtosecond, hence the name). Mathematical chemistry area of research engaged in novel applications of mathematics to chemistry; it concerns itself principally with the mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena. Mechanochemistry coupling of the mechanical and the chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically-stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking), tribology, polymer degradation under shear, cavitation-related phenomena (e.g., sonochemistry and sonoluminescence), shock wave chemistry and physics, and even the burgeoning field of molecular machines. Physical organic chemistry study of the interrelationships between structure and reactivity in organic molecules. Quantum chemistry branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems. Sonochemistry study of the effect of sonic waves and wave properties on chemical systems. Stereochemistry study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules. Supramolecular chemistry area of chemistry beyond the molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. Thermochemistry study of the energy and heat associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. Phytochemistry strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. Polymer chemistry multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules.

Outline of science Solid-state chemistry study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids Multidisciplinary fields involving chemistry Chemical biology scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that involves the application of chemical techniques and tools, often compounds produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. Chemical engineering branch of engineering that deals with physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Chemical oceanography study of the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans. Chemical physics branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. Materials science interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. Nanotechnology study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale Oenology science and study of all aspects of wine and winemaking except vine-growing and grape-harvesting, which is a subfield called viticulture. Spectroscopy study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy Surface science Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solidliquid interfaces, solidgas interfaces, solidvacuum interfaces, and liquid-gas interfaces. Astronomy Astronomy studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation). Astrobiology study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of extraterrestrial life. Astrochemistry study of the abundance and reactions of chemical elements and molecules in the universe, and their interaction with radiation. Astrodynamics application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft. Astrometry branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies. Astrophysics branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties of celestial objects, as well as their interactions and behavior. Cosmochemistry study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions. Cosmology discipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole. Extragalactic astronomy branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside our own Milky Way Galaxy Galactic astronomy study of our own Milky Way galaxy and all its contents. Physical cosmology study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. Planetary geology planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites. Planetary science scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems, in particular those of the Solar System and the processes that form them. Stellar astronomy natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as cosmic

Outline of science background radiation) Earth sciences Earth science all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth Atmospheric sciences umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Biogeography study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. Cartography study and practice of making maps or globes. Climatology study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time Coastal geography study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. Geodesy scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space Geography science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth Geoinformatics science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, geosciences and related branches of engineering. Geology study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. Geomorphology scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them Geostatistics branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets Geophysics physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods. Glaciology study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Hydrology study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. Hydrogeology area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers). Mineralogy study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Meteorology interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Oceanography branch of Earth science that studies the ocean Paleoclimatology study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth Paleontology study of prehistoric life Petrology branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks. Limnology study of inland waters Seismology scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies Soil science study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. Topography study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. Volcanology study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.

Outline of science Environmental sciences Ecology scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment. Freshwater biology scientific biological study of freshwater ecosystems and is a branch of Limnology Marine biology scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water Parasitology Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. Population dynamics Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies short-term and long-term changes in the size and age composition of populations, and the biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. Environmental chemistry Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. Environmental soil science Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. Environmental geology Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. Toxicology branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

Life sciences Biology study of living organisms. Aerobiology study of airborne organic particles Agriculture study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications Anatomy study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans Human anatomy scientific study of the morphology of the adult human. Astrobiology study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universealso known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy Biochemistry study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level Bioengineering study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology Biogeography study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally Bioinformatics use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling Biomechanics often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics Biomedical research study of the human body in health and disease Biophysics study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences Biotechnology new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology Building biology study of the indoor living environment Botany study of plants

Cell biology study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell

Outline of science Conservation Biology study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife Chronobiology field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms. Cryobiology study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings. Developmental biology study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure Embryology study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth). See also topobiology. Gerontology study of aging processes. Ecology study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment Environmental Biology study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity Epidemiology major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations Evolution any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary Biology study of the origin and descent of species over time Evolutionary developmental biology field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved. Paleobiology discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. Paleontology study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Genetics study of genes and heredity Genomics discipline in genetics concerned with the study of the genomes of organisms. Proteomics large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions Population genetics study of changes in gene frequencies in Histology study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy Integrative biology study of whole organisms Limnology study of inland waters Marine Biology study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings Microbiology study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things

Bacteriology study of bacteria. Virology study of viruses and some other virus-like agents Molecular Biology study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry Structural biology branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules Morphology In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. Mycology study of fungi Oceanography study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean Oncology study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings Population ecology study of how population dynamics and extinction Population genetics study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms

Population biology study of groups of conspecific organisms, including

Outline of science Pathobiology or pathology study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease Parasitology study of parasites and parasitism Pharmacology study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines Physiology study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Immunology following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Kinesiology Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement Neurobiology study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology Neuroscience interdisciplinary science that studies the nervous system Histology Phytopathology study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology) Psychobiology study of the biological bases of psychology Sociobiology study of the biological bases of sociology Systematics study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time Cladistics method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades, which consist of an ancestor organism and all its descendants (and nothing else) Phylogeny study of evolutionary relation among groups of organisms (e.g. species, populations), which is discovered through molecular sequencing data and morphological data matrices Taxonomy science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. Zoology study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior Arachnology scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, collectively called arachnids. Acarology study of the taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks Entomology study of insects Myrmecology scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology Coleopterology study of beetles Lepidopterology study of a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (called lepidopterans) Ethology study of animal behavior Helminthology study of worms, especially parasitic worms Herpetology study of reptiles and amphibians Ichthyology study of fish Malacology branch of invertebrate zoology which deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods. Mammalogy study of mammals

10

Cetology branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea. Physical anthropology studies the physical development of the human species. Nematology scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms Ornithology study of birds

Outline of science

11

Cognitive sciences
Cognitive Science interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works.

Formal sciences
Formal science branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as: logic, mathematics, theoretical computer science, information theory, Game theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics. Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules. Computer sciences Computer science study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. Theory of computation branch that deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm Automata theory study of mathematical objects called abstract machines or automata and the computational problems that can be solved using them. Formal languages set of strings of symbols. Computability theory branch of mathematical logic and computer science that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees. Computational complexity theory branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science and mathematics that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other Concurrency theory In computer science, concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other Algorithms step-by-step procedure for calculations Randomized algorithms algorithm which employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic. Distributed algorithms algorithm designed to run on computer hardware constructed from interconnected processors Parallel algorithms algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then put back together again at the end to get the correct result. Data structures particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Computer architecture In computer science and engineering, computer architecture is the practical art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals and the formal modeling of those systems. VLSI design process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip Operating systems set of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs Computer communications (networks) collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information Information theory branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information Internet global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. World wide web part of the Internet; system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.

Outline of science Wireless computing any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind. Mobile computing form of humancomputer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Computer security branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and networks. reliability system design approach and associated service implementation that ensures a prearranged level of operational performance will be met during a contractual measurement period. Cryptography practice and study of hiding information. Fault-tolerant computing property that enables a system (often computer-based) to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components Distributed computing field of computer science that studies distributed systems Grid computing federation of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal Parallel computing form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved concurrently ("in parallel"). High-performance computing computer at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation Quantum computing device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data Computer graphics graphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware. Image processing any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image Scientific visualization interdisciplinary branch of science according to Friendly (2008) "primarily concerned with the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component". Computational geometry branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry Software engineering application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software Formal methods particular kind of mathematically-based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems Formal verification act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics Programming languages artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer Programming paradigms fundamental style of computer programming Object-oriented programming programming paradigm using "objects" data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions to design applications and computer programs Functional programming programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data

12

Outline of science Program semantics field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages Type theory any of several formal systems that can serve as alternatives to naive set theory, or the study of such formalisms in general Compilers computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code) Concurrent programming languages form of computing in which programs are designed as collections of interacting computational processes that may be executed in parallel Information science interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information Database organized collection of data, today typically in digital form Relational database collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed easily Distributed database database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. Object database database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming Multimedia media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. hypermedia computer-based information retrieval system that enables a user to gain or provide access to texts, audio and video recordings, photographs and computer graphics related to a particular subject. Data mining process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large data sets Information retrieval area of study concerned with searching for documents, for information within documents, and for metadata about documents, as well as that of searching structured storage, relational databases, and the World Wide Web. Artificial intelligence branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines. Automated reasoning area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understand different aspects of reasoning. Computer vision field that includes methods for acquiring, processing, analysing, and understanding images and, in general, high-dimensional data from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, e.g., in the forms of decisions. Machine learning scientific discipline concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor data or databases Artificial neural network mathematical model or computational model that is inspired by the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks Natural language processing field of computer science, artificial intelligence (also called machine learning), and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. Computational linguistics interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. Expert systems computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert Robotics branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots Human-computer interaction study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers. Numerical analysis study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

13

Outline of science Algebraic (symbolic) computation relates to algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and equations in symbolic form, as opposed to manipulating the approximations of specific numerical quantities represented by those symbols. Software applications that perform symbolic calculations are called computer algebra systems. Computational number theory study of algorithms for performing number theoretic computations Computational mathematics involves mathematical research in areas of science where computing plays a central and essential role, emphasizing algorithms, numerical methods, and symbolic methods Scientific computing (Computational science) Computational biology (bioinformatics) involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems. Computational science subfield of computer science concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems Computational chemistry branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems Computational neuroscience study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system. Computer-aided engineering broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering tasks. Finite element analysis numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as integral equations. Computational fluid dynamics branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computational economics research discipline at the interface between computer science and economic and management science Computational sociology branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena. Computational finance cross-disciplinary field which relies on computational intelligence, mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions Humanities computing (Digital Humanities) area of research, teaching, and creation concerned with the intersection of computing and the disciplines of the humanities Information systems study of complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data Business informatics discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts. Information technology Management information systems provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively Health informatics discipline at the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care. See also Branches of Computer Science and ACM Computing Classification System [1]

14

Outline of science Mathematics Mathematics search for fundamental truths in pattern, quantity, and change. Algebra one of the main branches of mathematics, it concerns the study of structure, relation and quantity. Group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. Group representation describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces Ring theory study of ringalgebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those familiar from the integers Field theory branch of mathematics which studies the properties of fields Linear algebra branch of mathematics concerning finite or countably infinite dimensional vector spaces, as well as linear mappings between such spaces. Vector space mathematical structure formed by a collection of vectors: objects that may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars in this context. Multilinear algebra extends the methods of linear algebra Lie algebra algebraic structure whose main use is in studying geometric objects such as Lie groups and differentiable manifolds Associative algebra associative ring that has a compatible structure of a vector space over a certain field K or, more generally, of a module over a commutative ring R. Non-associative algebra K-vector space (or more generally a module) A equipped with a K-bilinear map Universal algebra field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures Homological algebra branch of mathematics which studies homology in a general algebraic setting Category theory area of study in mathematics that examines in an abstract way the properties of particular mathematical concepts, by formalising them as collections of objects and arrows (also called morphisms, although this term also has a specific, non category-theoretical sense), where these collections satisfy some basic conditions Lattice theory partially ordered set in which any two elements have a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet). Order theory branch of mathematics which investigates our intuitive notion of order using binary relations. Differential algebra algebras equipped with a derivation, which is a unary function that is linear and satisfies the Leibniz product rule. Analysis branch of pure mathematics that includes the theories of differentiation, integration and measure, limits, infinite series, and analytic functions Real analysis branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the set of real numbers and functions of a real variable. Calculus branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. Complex analysis branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers Functional analysis branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear operators acting upon these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense Operator theory branch of functional analysis that focuses on bounded linear operators, but which includes closed operators and nonlinear operators. Non-standard analysis branch of classical mathematics that formulates analysis using a rigorous notion of an infinitesimal number.

15

Outline of science Harmonic analysis branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. p-adic analysis branch of number theory that deals with the mathematical analysis of functions of p-adic numbers. Ordinary differential equations ordinary differential equation (ODE) is an equation in which there is only one independent variable and one or more derivatives of a dependent variable with respect to the independent variable, so that all the derivatives occurring in the equation are ordinary derivatives. Partial differential equations differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives. Probability theory branch of mathematics concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena. Measure theory systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size. Ergodic theory branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems. Stochastic process collection of random variables; this is often used to represent the evolution of some random value, or system, over time. Geometry branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. Geometry is one of the oldest mathematical sciences. Topology major area of mathematics concerned with properties that are preserved under continuous deformations of objects, such as deformations that involve stretching, but no tearing or gluing. General topology branch of topology which studies properties of topological spaces and structures defined on them. Algebraic topology branch of mathematics which uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces Geometric topology study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another. Differential topology field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds Algebraic geometry branch of mathematics which combines techniques of abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with the language and the problems of geometry Differential geometry mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus and integral calculus, as well as linear algebra and multilinear algebra, to study problems in geometry Projective geometry study of geometric properties that are invariant under projective transformations Affine geometry study of geometric properties which remain unchanged by affine transformations Non-Euclidean geometry either of two specific geometries that are, loosely speaking, obtained by negating the Euclidean parallel postulate, namely hyperbolic and elliptic geometry. Convex geometry branch of geometry studying convex sets, mainly in Euclidean space. Discrete geometry branch of geometry that studies combinatorial properties and constructive methods of discrete geometric objects. Trigonometry Number theory branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers Analytic number theory branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis to solve problems about the integers Algebraic number theory major branch of number theory which studies algebraic structures related to algebraic integers Geometric number theory studies convex bodies and integer vectors in n-dimensional space

16

Outline of science Logic and Foundations of mathematics subfield of mathematics with close connections to the foundations of mathematics, theoretical computer science and philosophical logic. Set theory branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects Proof theory branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques Model theory study of (classes of) mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) using tools from mathematical logic Recursion theory branch of mathematical logic and computer science that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees Modal logic type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality Intuitionistic logic symbolic logic system differing from classical logic in its definition of the meaning of a statement being true Applied mathematics branch of mathematics that concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry. Mathematical statistics study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis Probability likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen Econometrics application of mathematics and statistical methods to economic data Actuarial science discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries. Demography statistical study of human populations and sub-populations. Approximation theory study of how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby. Numerical analysis study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). Optimization (Mathematical programming) selection of a best element from some set of available alternatives. Operations research study of the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions Linear programming mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships Dynamical systems concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space Chaos theory study of the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Fractal geometry mathematical set that has a fractal dimension that usually exceeds its topological dimension and may fall between the integers. Mathematical physics development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics Quantum field theory theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of systems classically parametrized (represented) by an infinite number of degrees of freedom, that is, fields and (in a condensed matter context) many-body systems. Statistical mechanics branch of physics that applies probability theory, which contains mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the study of the thermodynamic behavior of systems composed of a large number of particles.

17

Outline of science Information theory branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information. Cryptography study of means of obscuring information, such as codes and ciphers Combinatorics branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures Coding theory study of the properties of codes and their fitness for a specific application Graph theory study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection Game theory study of strategic decision making. More formally, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers." See also Branches of Mathematics and AMS Mathematics Subject Classification [2] Statistics Statistics collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. Computational statistics interface between statistics and computer science. Data mining process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large data sets Regression estimates the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the independent variables that is, the average value of the dependent variable when the independent variables are held fixed. Simulation Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the system over time. Bootstrap (statistics) method for assigning measures of accuracy to sample estimates (Efron and Tibshirani 1993). Design of experiments design of any information-gathering exercises where variation is present, whether under the full control of the experimenter or not Block design set together with a family of subsets (repeated subsets are allowed at times) whose members are chosen to satisfy some set of properties that are deemed useful for a particular application. Analysis of variance collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation. Response surface methodology explores the relationships between several explanatory variables and one or more response variables. Engineering statistics Engineering statistics combines engineering and statistics Spatial statistics any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Social statistics use of statistical measurement systems to study human behavior in a social environment Statistical modelling formalization of relationships between variables in the form of mathematical equations Biostatistics application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. Epidemiology study of the distribution and patterns of health-events, health-characteristics and their causes or influences in well-defined populations. Multivariate analysis observation and analysis of more than one statistical variable at a time. Structural equation model statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Time series sequence of data points, measured typically at successive time instants spaced at uniform time intervals.

18

Outline of science Reliability theory describes the probability of a system completing its expected function during an interval of time. Quality control process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. Statistical theory provides a basis for the whole range of techniques, in both study design and data analysis, that are used within applications of statistics. Decision theory identifies the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. Mathematical statistics study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis. Probability likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen. Sample Survey process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population in order to conduct a survey. Sampling theory study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. Survey methodology field that studies the sampling of individuals from a population with a view towards making statistical inferences about the population using the sample. Systems science Systems science interdisciplinary field of science that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science. Chaos theory field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy; studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. Complex systems and Complexity Theory studies how relationships between parts give rise to the collective behaviors of a system and how the system interacts and forms relationships with its environment. Cybernetics interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Biocybernetics application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics: neurology, multicellular systems and others. Engineering cybernetics field of cybernetics, which deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems as well as chemical or biological systems. Management cybernetics field of cybernetics concerned with management and organizations. Medical cybernetics branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice. New Cybernetics study of self-organizing systems according to Peter Harries-Jones (1988), "looking beyond the issues of the "first", "old" or "original" cybernetics and their politics and sciences of control, to the autonomy and self-organization capabilities of complex systems". Second-order cybernetics investigates the construction of models of cybernetic systems. Control theory Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems. The external input of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system. Control engineering engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors. Control systems device, or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or system. Dynamical systems concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space. Operations research study of the use of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.

19

Outline of science Systems dynamics approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. Systems analysis study of sets of interacting entities, including computer systems analysis. Systems theory interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. Developmental systems theory overarching theoretical perspective on biological development, heredity, and evolution General systems theory interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. Linear time-invariant systems investigates the response of a linear and time-invariant system to an arbitrary input signal. Mathematical system theory area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations. Systems biology several related trends in bioscience research, and a movement that draws on those trends. Systems ecology interdisciplinary field of ecology, taking a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems. Systems engineering interdisciplinary field of engineering focusing on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over their life cycles. Systems neuroscience subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems. Systems psychology branch of applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.

20

Social sciences
Business studies academic subject combining elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies and economics Civics study of the theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government. Criminology study of the nature, extent, causes, and control of criminal behavior in both the individual and in society. Cultural studies academic field grounded in critical theory and literary criticism. Demography statistical study of human populations and sub-populations. Development studies multidisciplinary branch of social science which addresses issues of concern to developing countries. Economics analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Education in the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another. Environmental studies interdisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment. Gender and sexuality studies field of interdisciplinary study and academic field devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. Gerontology study of the social, psychological and biological aspects of aging. History discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Geography science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth.

Outline of science Human geography branch of the social sciences that studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures with an emphasis on relations of and across space and place. Industrial relations multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship. Information science interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. International studies study of the major political, economic, social, cultural and sacral issues that dominate the international agenda Law set of rules and principles (laws) by which a society is governed, through enforcement by governmental authorities. Legal management social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of State and its elements, Law, Law Practice, Legal Research and Jurisprudence, legal Philosophy, Criminal Justice, Governance, Government structure, Political history and theories, Business Organization and Management, Entrepreneurship, Public Administration and Human Resource Development. Paralegal studies social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of State and its elements, Law, Law Practice, Legal Research and Jurisprudence, legal Philosophy, Criminal Justice, Governance, Government structure, Political history and theories, Business Organization and Management, Entrepreneurship, Public Administration and Human Resource Development. Library science study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. Management act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Media studies academic discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history and effects of various media; in particular, the 'mass media'. Communication studies academic field that deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. Public administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. Social work professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of an individual, group, or community by intervening through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, and teaching on behalf of those afflicted with poverty or any real or perceived social injustices and violations of their human rights. Anthropology Anthropology of religion study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures Applied anthropology application of the method and theory of anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems. Archaeology overview of and topical guide to archaeology Cultural anthropology branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans, collecting data about the impact of global economic and political processes on local cultural realities. Ethnobiology scientific study of dynamic relationships between peoples, biota, and environments, from the distant past to the immediate present. Ethnography Archaeology Biological anthropology Cultural anthropology Linguistic anthropology Social anthropology Ethnology branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity. Ethnopoetics method of recording text versions of oral poetry or narrative performances (i.e., verbal lore) that uses poetic lines, verses, and stanzas (instead of prose paragraphs) to capture the formal, poetic performance

21

Outline of science elements which would otherwise be lost in the written texts. Evolutionary anthropology interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates. Experimental archaeology Experimental archaeology employs a number of different methods, techniques, analyses, and approaches in order to generate and test hypotheses, based upon archaeological source material, like ancient structures or artifacts. Historical archaeology form of archaeology dealing with topics that are already attested in written records. Linguistic anthropology Medical anthropology interdisciplinary field which studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation". Physical anthropology study of the physical development of the human species. Psychological anthropology interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes. Zooarchaeology study of faunal remains. Anthrozoology study of human-animal interaction.

22

Economics Economics analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Macroeconomics branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of the whole economy Microeconomics branch of economics that studies the behavior of individual households and firms in making decisions on the allocation of limited resources Behavioural economics Behavioral economics and the related field, behavioral finance, study the effects of social, cognitive and emotional factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and the consequences for market prices, returns and the resource allocation. Bioeconomics applies the laws of thermodynamics to economic theory Comparative economics comparative study of different systems of economic organization, such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy. Socialist economics economic theories and practices of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems. Development economics branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries. Economic geography study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. Economic history study of economies or economic phenomena in the past. Economic sociology studies both the social effects and the social causes of various economic phenomena. Energy economics broad scientific subject area which includes topics related to supply and use of energy in societies Entrepreneurial Economics study of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship within the economy. Environmental economics subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues. Evolutionary economics part of mainstream economics as well as heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology. Financial economics branch of economics concerned with "the allocation and deployment of economic resources, both spatially and across time, in an uncertain environment". Heterodox economics approaches or to schools of economic thought that are considered outside of "mainstream economics" and sometimes contrasted by expositors with neoclassical economics.

Outline of science Green economics one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks Feminist economics diverse area of economic inquiry that highlights the androcentric biases of traditional economics through critical examinations of economic methodology, epistemology, history and empirical study. Islamic economics body of Islamic studies literature that "identifies and promotes an economic order that conforms to Islamic scripture and traditions," and in the economic world an interest-free Islamic banking system, grounded in Sharia's condemnation of interest (riba). Industrial organization field of economics that builds on the theory of the firm in examining the structure of, and boundaries between, firms and markets. International economics study of the effects upon economic activity of international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the institutions that affect them. Institutional economics study of the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour. Labor economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for labour. Law and Economics application of economic methods to analysis of law. Managerial economics "application of economic concepts and economic analysis to the problems of formulating rational managerial decisions"

23

Monetary economics branch of economics that historically prefigured and remains integrally linked to macroeconomics. Neuroeconomics interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to choose an optimal course of action. Public finance study of the role of the government in the economy. Public economics study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity. Real estate economics application of economic techniques to real estate markets. Resource economics study of supply, demand, and allocation of the Earth's natural resources. Welfare economics branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate economic well-being, especially relative to competitive general equilibrium within an economy as to economic efficiency and the resulting income distribution associated with it. Political economy study of the production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process. Socioeconomics considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets" (not excluding for example, sorting by marriage) and the formation of social norms. Transport economics branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector and has strong linkages with civil engineering. Economic methodology study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning. Computational economics research discipline at the interface between computer science and economic and management science. Econometrics application of mathematics and statistical methods to economic data Mathematical economics application of mathematical methods to represent economic theories and analyze problems posed in economics. Economic statistics topic in applied statistics that concerns the collection, processing, compilation, dissemination, and analysis of economic data. Time series sequence of data points, measured typically at successive time instants spaced at uniform time intervals. Experimental economics application of experimental methods to study economic questions.

Outline of science Linguistics Linguistics scientific study of natural language. Anthropological linguistics study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology, cognition and language. Applied linguistics interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Biolinguistics study of the biology and evolution of language. Clinical linguistics and speech and language pathology sub-discipline of linguistics which involves the application of linguistic theory to the field of Speech-Language Pathology. Cognitive linguistics branch of linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms. Comparative linguistics branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. Computational linguistics interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. Developmental linguistics study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. language acquisition the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words to communicate. Dialectology scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics. dialectometry the study of high levels of structure in geographical dialect networks. Discourse analysis general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken, signed language use or any significant semiotic event. Etymology study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. Evolutionary linguistics the scientific study of both the origins and development of language as well as the cultural evolution of languages. Forensic linguistics application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure. Geolinguistics branch of human geography that studies the geographic distribution of language or its constituent elements. Historical linguistics study of language change. Lexis total vocabulary or lexicon having items of lexical, rather than grammatical, meaning. Linguistic typology subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features. Morphology identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology). Neurolinguistics study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language. Philology study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics. Phonetics branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, orthe equivalent aspects of sign.

24

Phonology branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. Phraseology study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes), in which the component parts of the expression take on

Outline of science a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently. Pragmatics subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Psycholinguistics study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. Sociolinguistics descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Speech science Speech science refers to the study of production, transmission and perception of speech. Speech science involves anatomy, in particular the anatomy of the oro-facial region and neuroanatomy, physiology, and acoustics. Stylistics study and interpretation of texts from a linguistic perspective. Syntax "the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages." Semantics study of meaning. Writing systems and orthography representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system).

25

Psychology Psychology science of behavior and mental processes Behavior analysis philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do can and should be regarded as behaviors, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns or modifying the environment. Biopsychology application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals. Cognitive psychology subdiscipline of psychology exploring internal mental processes. Clinical psychology integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Cultural psychology field of psychology which assumes the idea that culture and mind are inseparable, and that psychological theories grounded in one culture are likely to be limited in applicability when applied to a different culture. Developmental psychology scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Educational psychology study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Evolutionary psychology approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. Experimental psychology application of experimental methods to the study of behavior and the processes that underlie it. Forensic psychology intersection between psychology and the courtroomcriminal, civil, family and Federal. Health psychology concerned with understanding how biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in physical health and illness. Humanistic psychology psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in the context of the tertiary sector beginning to produce in the most developed countries in the world more than the secondary sector was producing, for the first time in human history demanding creativity and new understanding of human capital. Industrial and organizational psychology scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations.

Outline of science Music therapy allied health profession and one of the expressive therapies, consisting of an interpersonal process in which a trained music therapist uses music to help clients to improve or maintain their health. Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. Personality psychology branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Psychometrics field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational measurement. Psychology of religion application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious traditions, as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect. Sensation and perception psychology Applied psychology Applied psychology use of psychological principles and theories to overcome problems in other areas, such as mental health, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law. Psychological testing field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to assess psychological construct(s), such as cognitive and emotional functioning, about a given individual. Clinical psychology integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Community psychology Sense of community Social capital Consumer behaviour study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. Counseling psychology psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Educational psychology study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Forensic psychology intersection between psychology and the courtroomcriminal, civil, family and Federal. Health psychology concerned with understanding how biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in physical health and illness. Industrial and organizational psychology scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations. Legal psychology involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law. Media psychology seeks an understanding of how people perceive, interpret, use, and respond to a media-rich world. Military psychology research, design and application of psychological theories and experimentation data towards understanding, predicting and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations. Occupational health psychology concerned with the psychosocial characteristics of workplaces that contribute to the development of health-related problems in people who work. Pastoral psychology application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious traditions, as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. Political psychology interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding political science, politicians and political behavior through the use of psychological theories. Psychometrics field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational measurement.

26

Outline of science School psychology field that applies principles of clinical psychology and educational psychology to the diagnosis and treatment of children's and adolescents' behavioral and learning problems. Sport psychology interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from the fields of Kinesiology and Psychology. Systems psychology branch of applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems. Traffic psychology study of the behavior of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behavior (Rothengatter, 1997, 223) as well as to the relationship between behavior and accidents Geography Geography study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. Cartography study and practice of making maps or globes. Human geography branch of the social sciences that studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures with an emphasis on relations of and across space and place. Critical geography takes a critical theory (Frankfurt School) approach to the study and analysis of geography. Cultural geography study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places. Feminist geography approach in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space. Economic geography study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. Development geography branch of geography with reference to the standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants. Historical geography study of the human, physical, fictional, theoretical, and "real" geographies of the past. Time geography Political geography & geopolitics field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Marxist geography strand of critical geography that uses the theories and philosophy of Marxism to examine the spatial relations of human geography. Military geography sub-field of geography that is used by, not only the military, but also academics and politicians to understand the geopolitical sphere through the militaristic lens. Strategic geography concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that have an impact on the security and prosperity of nations. Population geography study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places. Social geography branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components. Behavioral geography approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach. Children's geographies area of study within human geography and Childhood Studies which involves researching the places and spaces of children's lives. Health geography application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care. Tourism geography study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity. Urban geography study of areas which have a high concentration of buildings and infrastructure.

27

Outline of science Environmental geography branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. Physical geography branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography. Biogeography study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. Climatology Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Palaeoclimatology study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. Coastal geography study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. Geomorphology scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geodesy scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Hydrology study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. Hydrography mapping (charting) of water topographic features through the measurement of the depths, the tides and currents of a body of water and establishment of the sea, river or lake bed topography and morphology. Glaciology study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Limnology study of inland waters. Oceanography branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. Pedology study of soils in their natural environment. Landscape ecology science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. Palaeogeography study of what the geography was in times past. Regional geography study of world regions. Philosophy Not considered a science by some thinkers,[3] instead considered a precursor of it. Several fields of philosophy are more directly relevant to the natural and social sciences than others. These include: Philosophy study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Epistemology study of how we know what we know; study of the nature and scope of knowledge. Ethics major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. Logic formal science of using reason Philosophy of mind branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. Philosophy of science questions the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science; questions the use and merit of science; sometimes overlaps metaphysics and epistemology by questioning whether scientific results are actually a study of truth.

28

Outline of science Political science Political science social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics. Comparative politics field and a method used in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. Game theory study of strategic decision making. Geopolitics theory that describes the relation between politics and territory whether on local or international scale. political geography field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Ideology set of ideas that constitute one's goals, expectations, and actions. Political economy Political economy originally was the term for studying production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process. Political economy originated in moral philosophy. It developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, polities, hence political economy. Political psychology, bureaucratic, administrative and judicial behaviour Psephology branch of political science which deals with the study and scientific analysis of elections.

29

Voting systems methods by which voters make a choice between options, often in an election or on a policy referendum. Public administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. Public policy generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. Local government studies form of public administration which in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within the a given state. International politics study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). International relations theory study of international relations from a theoretical perspective; it attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Sociology Sociology studies society using various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure. Criminology study of the nature, extent, causes, and control of criminal behavior in both the individual and in society. Demography statistical study of human populations and sub-populations.

Outline of science

30

Applied sciences
Applied sciences application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Agronomy Agronomy science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation. Animal husbandry agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. Aquaculture also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants.[4][5] Algaculture form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. Mariculture cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. Agriculture science of farming Cuniculture also known as rabbit farming, is the breeding and raising domestic rabbits, usually for their meat or fur. Fungiculture process of producing food, medicine, and other products by the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi. Heliciculture also called snail farming, is the process of farming or raising land snails specifically for human consumption, and more recently, to obtain snail slime for cosmetics use. Olericulture science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food. Sericulture also called silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production of silk. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori is the most widely used and intensively studied. Food science study concerned with all technical aspects of foods, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption, an ideology commonly referred to as "from field to fork". Forestry art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources. Arboriculture cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. Silviculture practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. It includes regenerating, tending and harvesting techniques. Horticulture art, science, technology and business of intensive plant cultivation for human use Floriculture discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. Hydroculture growing of plants in a soilless medium, or an aquatic based environment. Plant nutrients are distributed via water. Hydroculture is aquatic horticulture. Hydroponics subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. Permaculture branch of ecological design and ecological engineering, which develop sustainable human settlements and self-maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.

Outline of science Architecture Architecture process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Architectural engineering application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Building science collection of scientific knowledge that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings. Education Education any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another. Engineering Engineering discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of people. Aeronautical engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter with craft that operate outside it. Aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter with craft that operate outside it. Agricultural engineering engineering discipline that applies engineering science and technology to agricultural production and processing. Agricultural science broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. Biomedical engineering application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology. Bioengineering application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science) to solve real-world problems related to the life sciences and/or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at. Chemical engineering application of physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Civil engineering professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Computer engineering design and development of computer systems Control engineering engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors. Electrical engineering field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. Industrial engineering branch of engineering dealing with the optimization of complex processes or systems Language engineering deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community. Marine engineering engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel

31

Outline of science Materials engineering interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. Mechanical engineering discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. Mining engineering engineering discipline that involves the practice, the theory, the science, the technology, and application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Nuclear engineering branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown (fission) as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. Polymer engineering subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics. Software engineering application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software. Systems engineering interdisciplinary field of engineering focusing on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over their life cycles. Health sciences Health science application of science, technology, engineering or mathematics to the delivery of healthcare Conservation medicine emerging, interdisciplinary field that studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Dentistry branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Optometry health care profession concerned with the health of the eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. Medicine science of healing. Anatomy branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. Human anatomy scientific study of the morphology of the adult human. Dermatology branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. Cardiology medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart (specifically the human heart). Gastroenterology branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. Gynecology medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Immunology study of the immune system. Internal medicine medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Neurology medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Ophthalmology branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. Pathology precise study and diagnosis of disease. Pathophysiology study of the changes of normal mechanical, physiological, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease, or resulting from an abnormal syndrome. Pediatrics branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Pharmacy health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. Physiology science of the function of living systems. Psychiatry medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders.

32

Outline of science Radiology medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualised within the human body. Toxicology branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. Urology medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Nutrition studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. Nursing Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Pharmacology branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action Physical therapy Military Physical Therapists working with patients on balance problems, orthopedic/musculoskeletal injuries, amputee, compression wrapping to control edema, and during evaluation/assessment of strength, flexibility, and joint range of motion, massages, etc. . Veterinary medicine branch of science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.

33

Management Management getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Accounting process of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers. Outline of management getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Business Strategy field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms in their external environments. Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. Marketing social and managerial processes by which products, services and value are exchanged in order to fulfil individuals' or group's needs and wants. These processes include, but are not limited to, advertising, promotion, distribution, and sales. Organizational Behavior field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization. Operations those ongoing recurring (cyclic) activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Military sciences Military science study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict. Military Organization structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defence policy. Military Education and Training Recruit training, more commonly known as Basic Training and colloquially called Boot Camp, is the initial indoctrination and instruction given to new military personnel, enlisted and officer. Military History humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships.

Outline of science Military Engineering collection of equipment, vehicles, structures and communication systems that are designed for use in warfare. Military Strategy and Tactics set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals Spatial science GIS geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. Remote sensing acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon, without making physical contact with the object. Photogrammetry practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images.

34

How scientific fields differ


Exact science any field of science capable of accurate quantitative expression or precise predictions and rigorous methods of testing hypotheses, especially reproducible experiments involving quantifiable predictions and measurements. Fundamental science science that describes the most basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing them, such that all other phenomena may be in principle derived from them following the logic of scientific reductionism. Hard and soft science colloquial terms often used when comparing scientific fields of academic research or scholarship, with hard meaning perceived as being more scientific, rigorous, or accurate.

Politics of science
Disruptive technology innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology. Kansas evolution hearings series of hearings held in Topeka, Kansas, United States May 5 to May 12, 2005 by the Kansas State Board of Education and its State Board Science Hearing Committee to change how evolution and the origin of life would be taught in the state's public high school science classes. List of books about the politics of science list of books about the politics of science. Politicization of science politicization of science is the manipulation of science for political gain. Depoliticization of science masking of science politics through the language of neutrality. See Sandra Harding Science by press release refers to scientists who put an unusual focus on publicizing results of research in the media.

History of science
Main article: History of science History of science in general Mathematics Mathematical logic Mathematical statistics Computer science History of scientific method history of scientific method is a history of the methodology of scientific inquiry, as differentiated from a history of science in general. Theories/sociology of science sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been occupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science "works" both in a philosophical and practical sense. Historiography study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own

Outline of science historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science). History of pseudoscience history of pseudoscience is the study of pseudoscientific theories over time. A pseudoscience is a set of ideas that presents itself as science, while it does not meet the criteria to properly be called such. Timeline of scientific discoveries shows the date of publication of major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years.

35

By period
History of science in early cultures history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages. History of science in Classical Antiquity history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy. History of science in the Middle Ages Science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, including practical disciplines, the mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe. History of science in the Renaissance During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, and engineering. Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the "Renaissance Man", displaying skills in numerous diverse areas of study. Scientific revolution scientific revolution is an era associated primarily with the 16th and 17th centuries during which new ideas and knowledge in physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed medieval and ancient views of nature and laid the foundations for modern science. Governmental impact on science during WWII Governmental impact on science during World War II represents the effect of public administration on technological development that provided many advantages to the armed forces, economies and societies in their strategies during the war. By date List of years in science events related to science or technology which occurred in the listed year. Timeline of scientific discoveries shows the date of publication of major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years. Timeline of scientific experiments shows the date of publication of major scientific experiments. Timeline of the history of scientific method shows an overview of the cultural inventions that have contributed to the development of the scientific method.

By field
History of natural science study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. Natural philosophy the study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. History of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. Natural history scientific research of plants or animals, leaning more towards observational rather than experimental methods of study, and encompasses more research published in magazines than in academic journals. History of ecology history of the science of ecology.

Outline of science History of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and virology. History of physical science History of nature describes the most important events and fundamental stages in the development of the planet Earth from its formation to the present day. History of astronomy, Timeline History of chemistry By 1000 BC, ancient civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry. History of geography History of geology, Timeline History of meteorology, Timeline History of physics As forms of science historically developed out of philosophy, physics was originally referred to as natural philosophy, a field of study concerned with "the workings of nature." History of the social sciences has origin in the common stock of Western philosophy and shares various precursors, but began most intentionally in the early 19th century with the positivist philosophy of science. History of science and technology History of scientific method history of the methodology of scientific inquiry, as differentiated from a history of science in general. History of archaeology, Timeline History of cognitive science History of criminal justice Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. History of economics study of different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics from the ancient world to the present day. History of education development of systematic methods of teaching and learning. History of law study of how law has evolved and why it changed. History of linguistics endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language. History of marketing as a recognized discipline, along with concomitant changes in marketing theory and practice. History of parapsychology History of political science social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics. History of psychology, Timeline History of sociology, Timeline

36

By region
History of science in present states, by continent Science and technology in Africa Science and technology in Algeria Science and technology in Angola Science and technology in Morocco Science and technology in South Africa

Science and technology in Argentina Science and technology in Asia Science and technology in Indonesia

Outline of science Science and technology in Japan Science and technology in Malaysia Science and technology in the Philippines Science and technology in the Republic of India Science and technology in the People's Republic of China Science and technology in Canada Science and technology in Colombia Science and technology in Europe Science and technology in Albania Science and technology in Belgium Science and technology in Brussels Science and technology in Bulgaria Science and technology in Germany

37

Science and technology in Flanders Science and technology in Italy Science and technology in Portugal Science and technology in Romania Science and technology in Russia Science and technology in Switzerland Science and technology in Ukraine Science and technology in the United Kingdom Science and technology in Iran Science and technology in Israel Science and technology in Jamaica Science and technology in Pakistan Science and technology in Turkey Science and technology in Venezuela Science and technology in Wallonia Science and technology in the United States

History of science in historic states Science and technology of the Han Dynasty Science and technology in the Ottoman Empire Science and technology of the Song Dynasty Science and technology in the Soviet Union Science and technology of the Tang Dynasty

Outline of science

38

Philosophy of science
Philosophy of science questions the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science.

Scientific community
Scientific community group of all interacting scientists. Big Science a series of changes in science that occurred in industrial nations during and after World War II.

Scientific organizations
Academy of Sciences national academy or another learned society dedicated to sciences.

Scientists
Scientist practitioner of science; an individual who uses scientific method to objectively inquire into the nature of realitybe it the fundamental laws of physics or how people behave. There are many names for scientists, often named in relation to the job that they do. One example of this is a biologist, a scientist who studies biology (the study of living organisms and their environments). Types of scientist By field The scientific fields mentioned below are generally described by the science they study. Agricultural scientist broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. Archaeologist study of human activity, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record). Astronomer astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies. Astrophysicist branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties of celestial objects, as well as their interactions and behavior. Biologist scientist devoted to the study of living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Astrobiologist study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of extraterrestrial life. Biophysicist interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems. Biotechnologist field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Botanist discipline of biology, is the science of plant life. Cognitive scientists scientific study of the mind and its processes. Ecologist scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Entomologist scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology. Evolutionary biologist sub-field of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that have given rise to the diversity of life on Earth. Geneticist biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms. Herpetologist branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and gymnophiona) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras). Immunologist branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.

Outline of science Ichthyologist study of fish. Lepidopterist person who specialises in the study of Lepidoptera, members of an order encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies. Marine biologist scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water. Medical scientist basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. Microbiologist study of microscopic organisms. Mycologist branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e.g., penicillin), food (e.g., beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms) and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. Neuroscientist individual who studies the scientific field of neuroscience or any of its related sub-fields. Ornithologist branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Paleontologist study of prehistoric life. Pathologist precise study and diagnosis of disease. Pharmacologist branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. Physiologist science of the function of living systems. Zoologist branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. Chemist scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Analytical chemist study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials. Biochemist study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Inorganic chemist branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. Organic chemist subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. Physical chemist study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts. Earth scientist all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. Geologist scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Glaciologist study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Hydrologist study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. Limnologist study of inland waters Meteorologist study of weather Mineralogist study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Oceanographer branch of Earth science that studies the ocean Paleontologist study of prehistoric life Seismologist scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. Volcanologist study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena. Informatician science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems.

39

Outline of science Computer scientist scientist who has acquired knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation Library scientist interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information. Management scientist study of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Mathematician person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics, a field that has been informally defined as being concerned with numbers, data, collection, quantity, structure, space, and change. Statistician someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics. Military scientist process of translating national defence policy to produce military capability by employing military scientists, including theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, applied scientists, designers, engineers, test technicians, and military personnel responsible for prototyping. Physicist scientist who does research in physics Psychologist professional or academic title used by individuals who practice psychology Abnormal psychologist branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Educational psychologist psychologist whose differentiating functions may include diagnostic and psycho-educational assessment, psychological counseling in educational communities (students, teachers, parents and academic authorities), community-type psycho-educational intervention, and mediation, coordination, and referral to other professionals, at all levels of the educational system. Biopsychologist application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals. Clinical psychologist integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Comparative psychologist scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Cognitive psychologist subdiscipline of psychology exploring internal mental processes. It is the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems. Developmental psychologist scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Evolutionary psychologist approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. Experimental psychologist study of behavior and the processes that underlie it, by means of experiment Neuropsychologist studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. Social psychologist scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social scientist field of study concerned with society and human behaviours. Anthropologist study of humanity. Ethnologist branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity. Communication scientist academic field that deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. Criminologist study of criminal behavior Demographer statistical study of populations

40

Outline of science Economist professional in the social science discipline of economics. Geographer geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. Political economist study of production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process. Political scientist social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics. Sociologist Technologist Architectural technologist, a specialist in the technology of building design and construction Educational technologist, a specialist in tools to enhance learning Engineering technologist, a specialist who implements technology within a field of engineering Industrial technologist, a specialist in the management, operation, and maintenance of complex operation systems Medical Technologist, a healthcare professional who performs diagnostic analysis on a variety of body fluids Radiologic technologist, a medical professional who applies doses of radiation for imaging and treatment Surgical technologist, a health specialist who facilitates the conduct of invasive surgical procedures By employment status Academic community of students and scholars engaged in higher education and research. Layperson someone who is not an expert or someone who has not had professional training Gentleman scientist financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study as a hobby. Government scientist scientist employed by a country's government

41

Famous scientists Main list: Lists of scientists Aristotle Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Archimedes Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Andreas Vesalius Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body). Nicolaus Copernicus Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Galileo Galilei Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Johannes Kepler German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. Rene Descartes French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. Isaac Newton English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived." Leonhard Euler pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. Pierre-Simon Laplace French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy and statistics. Alexander von Humboldt German geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt.

Outline of science Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. James Clerk Maxwell Scottish physicist and mathematician. Marie Curie Polish physicist and chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. Albert Einstein German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics Linus Pauling American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century. John Bardeen American physicist and electrical engineer, the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice Frederick Sanger English biochemist and a two-time Nobel laureate in chemistry, the only person to have been so. Stephen Hawking British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author.

42

Science education
Science education Scientific literacy encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. acm. org/ class/ http:/ / www. ams. org/ msc/ Friedland, New York Times, April 2012 (http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2012/ 04/ 05/ philosophy-is-not-a-science/ ) Environmental Impact of Aquaculture (http:/ / www. providence. edu/ polisci/ students/ aquaculture/ EnvironmentalImpact. html) Aquacultures growth continuing: improved management techniques can reduce environmental effects of the practice.(UPDATE)." Resource: Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World 16.5 (2009): 20-22. Gale Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 1 October 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/start.do?prodId=EAIM.>.

Article Sources and Contributors

43

Article Sources and Contributors


Outline of science Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=562721056 Contributors: 143vivienne, 2bornot2b, Aeusoes1, Alansohn, Arc de Ciel, Auroranorth, BD2412, Bgwhite, Bhny, Brian345, BryanD, Bsadowski1, Camyoung54, CasualVisitor, Chris the speller, Closedmouth, Cmichael, D1doherty, David Biddulph, David Kernow, Dbachmann, Eukesh, FitzJD, Fraggle81, Gamewizard71, Giraffedata, Hu12, I dream of horses, Jeh, John Michael Rasing, Jonadin93, Jpvinall, Jurema Oliveira, Jyotheeswar Adhi, Kumioko (renamed), LOL, Lawstubes, Marikafragen, Materialscientist, Mdd, Minnecologies, Mogism, Mr. Stradivarius, Mred64, Nigholith, Numb25, OlEnglish, Ottawa4ever, PhnomPencil, Pinethicket, Quiddity, Qwertyus, R'n'B, RESEARCHFAN, Ragesoss, Rjwilmsi, Robert Skyhawk, Robin Hood, Saeed.Veradi, Samuseal, SchreiberBike, Scientific29, Spartan S58, Sun Creator, Tamunagegi, The Transhumanist, The Transhumanist (AWB), VQuakr, Wavelength, Whpq, Widr, Woohookitty, Wrdstck, 76 anonymous edits

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/