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EGR 236 Properties and Mechanics of Materials Lecture 22: Transverse Shear Stress in Beams

Spring 2013

Today: -- Homework questions: -- New Topics: -- Shear Stress in beams -- Homework: Read Section 7:1-3 Work Problems from Chap 7: 13, 16, 24, 30 (modified) Following today's class you should be able to: -- explain how shear stress is set up in a beam subjected to shearing loads -- be able to identify the location of the largest shear stress in a beam -- be able to calculate the shear stress in straight beams of symmetric cross section. Shear Stress in Beams: So far you have learned how to determine the stress caused by the internal bending moment that is set up in beams subjected to loads. While usually not as large as the bending stresses, there are also shear stresses set up by the internal shearing force, V, that may contribute to the failure of the beam.
w M FA x V V L- x FB

Mc I

VQ It

Slats working individually:

To cause the body to deform in the fashion shown below, how must shear stress be applied along the length of the beam:

Shear Stress Distribution over the Cross Section:

h V

NA

In the Equation:

VQ It

Q represents the 1st moment of the area above the line of interest about the Neutral Axis.

Q=Ay
t represents the width of material that separates the area A from the rest of the material of the cross section. In this case, t is equal to the width b. Notice that for typical cross sections, the maximum shear stress occurs at the Neutral Axis. To calculate this for a rectangular cross section:

so

1 1 1 Q = A y = ( bh )( h ) = bh2 2 4 8 1 3 I= bh 12 t =b

A h y NA

max

To calculate this for a circular cross section:

d = 2r

so

1 4r 2 Q = A y = ( r 2 )( ) = r3 2 3 3 1 I = r4 4 t = 2r VQ 4V 4V = = = It ( 1 r 4 )( 2r ) 3 r 2 3 Acircle 4 V( 2 3 r ) 3

y A NA

max =

To calculate shear stress across the section of an I-beam:

(using an approximate method which assumes all mass is concentrated in the flange)

Q = A y (

so

max

1 AI beam d ) VQ V V 4 = = = 1 It AI beam d 2 ( t ) d t Aweb 4

Limitations to the Transverse Shear formula: The shear formula assumes presumes that the shear stress has a parabolic distribution up and down the face of the section. From side to side the shear stress is assumed constant. This is not quite true, but can be used as an approximate formula is the section is relatively high compared to the width. Rule of thumb: Valid for rectangular sections if

VQ It

b<

1 h 4

For sections with smaller height to width ratios than this the shear stress has an increasingly non-uniform distribution across the width.

Example 1: A W200 x 52 I-beam can handle a maximum shear stress of 145 MPa. a) What is the internal shear force, V, associated with this maximum allowable shear stress? b) Where will the critical shear stress occur on the beam? c) Assuming that this beam must only support its own weight, what is the maximum length of span it can cover while staying below this shear stress. d) What is the maximum bending stress for this length? Part a)
w = ___________

VQ It

B A L

Load Diagram FA= Shear Diagram FB =

Moment Diagram

For the W200 x 52 I beam the following geometric values are given: A = 6650 mm2 d = 206 mm tflange = 12.6 mm wflange = 204 mm
A2 A1

tweb = 7.9 mm

VQ It
t = tweb = 7.9mm

where = 145 MPa I = 52.9 x 106 mm4

Q = A1 y1 + A2 y2
= ( 204 12.6 )( 96.7 ) + ( 90.4 7.9 )( 45.2 ) = 280837mm3

Therefore: It ( 145 N / mm2 )( 52.9 106 mm 4 )( 7.9mm ) V= = = 215772 N Q 280837mm3

b) Where would you expect the critical location to. (Along the Neutral Axis wherever the maximum V occursat one end.
w = 52 kg/m x 9.81 m/s2 = 510 N/m

B A L

63.75L2 Moment Diagram

-255L

Expect the maximum shear stress to be at the point along the beam where V is the largest (at either end) and at the level of the neutral axis.

c) Find the maximum length of beam which does not exceed the maximum shear stress: In part a) we found the shear force which matches the maximum shear stress to be 215 772 N. The mass per unit length of the beam is given as: m/L = 52 kg/m

From the Shear moment diagram, this generates a maximum shearing force at either end of the beam of V = 255L . solving for L 255 L = 215772 N L = 846 m long. (this is a really long beam).

d) What normal stress would this correspond to due to bending for the same length of beam.
Mc ( 6375 . ( 846m )2 )( 0103 . m ) ( 1000mm )3 = = = 88.8 106 Pa 6 3 3 I 52.9 10 mm 1m

Comparing this to the tensile strength of steel (400 to 550 MPa) or to the yield strength 152 MPa, the bending stress of 88 MPa falls within the acceptable yield strength. A beam 846 m long seems ridiculous, but according to these calculations, it would be able to support its own weight in regard to stress considerations only.

Example 2: Calculate the maximum shear stress in the T beam Solution:

VQ It

where V = 12 kip To find Q, I, and t you need to locate the neutral axis. The maximum shear will be on the neutral axis. Neutral axis will be through the centroid.
y= % % 2 3* 24 +75 y . * 36 1A 1 + y2 A = = 5.7 in A1 + A2 24 +36

The n

1 3 I = I1 + I2 = bh + Ad 2 12
= 1 1 (4)(6)3 +24(5.7-3) 2 + (12)(3)3 +36(7.5-5.7) 2 12 12
= 72 + 174.96 + 27 + 116.64 = 390 .6 in 4

% % Q= y bot Abot = ytop Atop

% y bot Abot = ( 57 . )( 5.7 4 ) 2

and

t = 4 in

EGR 236 Mechanics of Materials Problem 7:13

HW Set 22

Spring 2013

If the pipe is subjected to a shear of V = 15 kip, determine the maximum shear stress in the pipe. ____________________________________________________________________ Solution:

2.3 in

2 in V

EGR 236 Mechanics of Materials Problem 7:16

HW Set 22

Spring 2013

Determine the largest end forces P that the member can support if the allowable shear stress is 10 ksi. The supports at A and B only exert vertical reactions on the beam. ____________________________________________________________________ Solution:

EGR 236 Mechanics of Materials Problem 7:24

HW Set 22

Spring 2013

Determine the shear stress at points B and C located on the web of the fiberglass beam at section a-a.4 ____________________________________________________________________ Solution:

EGR 236 Mechanics of Materials Problem 7:30

HW Set 22

Spring 2013

Write a spreadsheet application which can be used to determine the maximum shear and bending stress in the beam that has the cross section shown, and is subjected to a specified constant distributed load w and concentrated force P. The spreadsheet should allow the following variables to be entered as input: -- Flange thickness, t1 -- Web thickness, t2 -- Beam depth, h -- Beam width, b -- Beam length L -- Magnitude of concentrated load, P -- Location of concentrated load, a -- Magnitude of distributed load, w -- Location to start of distributed load, d1 -- Location to end of distributed load, d2 Application should calculate and display the following values (with appropriate units) -- Location of Neutral axis of cross section (from the bottom of the beam) -- Moment of inertia of cross section about neutral axis. -- Reaction force at A -- Reaction force at B -- Maximum Bending load -- Location of maximum bending load along the beam (as measured from A) -- Maximum Transverse shear load -- Location of maximum transverse shear load along the beam (as measured from A). Show an application of the program using the values: L = 4 m, a = 2m, P = 1.5 kN, d1 = 0, d2 = 2 m, w = 400 N/m, t1 = 15 mm t2 = 20 mm, b = 50 mm and h = 150 mm