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Intelligent DC Microgrid With Smart Grid Communications: Control Strategy Consideration and Design

Abstract Aiming at photovoltaic (PV)storage urban building integrated system, this paper proposes a DC micro grid with multilayer control and smart grid communications. The paper focuses on power balancing, with load shedding and PV constrained production, and takes into account the grid availability and grid vulnerability by smart grid messages. The system behavior modeling by MATLAB State flow leads to the whole control strategy design, which concerns the power balancing and imposed power limits by the utility grid, while providing interface for energy management. Experimental results evaluate the feasibility of the proposed control strategy. As further development of this control design, an intelligent multi-layer supervision is suggested. This supervision, able to exchange data with the smart grid, deals with the end-user demand, forecast of photovoltaic production, prediction of load consumption, and energy management. The major technical contribution of this paper is linked to the proposed control design that permits better DC micro grid integration (avoids undesired injection, mitigates fluctuations in grid power, reduces grid peak consumption) and provides possibility to reduce the negative impact on the utility grid thanks to the supervision interface. The power balancing control interface provides possibility for advanced energy management with low speed communication.
CONCLUSION

Micro grid can improve PV penetration efficiency, such as avoiding undesired power injection and mitigating fluctuations in grid power. This paper proposed a control strategy design for dc micro grid with smart grid interaction. The smart grid communication is suggested as grid power usage limits. The control concerns the power balancing with energy management interface, while respecting to power limits imposed by the utility grid and combining metadata and user demand. The power balancing ability is ensured by PV constrained production algorithm and load shedding. Experimental results validate that the control strategy maintains power balancing with respect to grid power limits and storage capacity constraints. It is shown that the grid power injection limit helps avoid undesired injection and downscale power fluctuation. Grid supply limit helps control peak consumption. As further developing of this control design, an intelligent multi-layer supervision was suggested. This supervision, able to exchange data with the smart grid, deals with the end-user demand, forecast of photovoltaic production, prediction of load consumption, and energy cost management. Proper interface key parameter KD given by energy management layer could perform optimized energy flow. By such an interface, the power balancing control and energy management is separated. Low speed communication of KD is required, which is more feasible and flexible to perform energy management in real time application. With PV and load power forecast data, an energy cost optimization will be carried out as future work. The major technical contribution of this paper is linked to the proposed dc microgrid control design that avoids undesired power injection, mitigates fluctuations in grid power and reduces grid peak consumption. The suggested supervision interface could reduce the negative impact of renewable sources on the utility grid through the proposed flexible structure. This paper showed possibility of making PV production more adjustable and controllable for grid. In further work, multi-criteria optimization based on prevision data is going to be designed, predictions uncertainties on power sources and power load request are going to be considered and efficiency of energy conversion is going to be studied.

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