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SEISMIC ENGINEERING

CAPABILITIES NRG has a reputation in structural integrity in various sectors of industry where safety and quality are of the highest importance, notably the nuclear, the oil and gas, and the (petro-) chemical industries. NRG can offer its clients a wide range of services in the field of seismic engineering and experience built up over many years: Walkdown assessment of existing structures and equipment, including use of experience database methods and NRG proprietary earthquake experience database Determination of seismic hazard Analysis for seismic loads Design for seismic resistance Development of seismic safety cases Preparation of design substantiation reports Response spectrum analyses Generation of in-structure response spectra Code compliance checks. NRG has extensive linear and non-linear dynamic analysis capabilities in-house and maintains a powerful computer network supporting ANSYS and MARC finite element programs. These are supported by PC based programs such as CARES. NRGs walkdown assessment experience provides a rapid method for evaluating of seismic effects on existing structures and equipment. WHY NRG NRG is an independent consultancy with a strong background in structural engineering for safety applications. The seismic engineering competence is based on highly specialised skills in seismic, dynamic and impact analyses, analysis of multiple failure mechanisms such as fracture, creep rupture, and crushing, and understanding of the behaviour of materials in constructions. By selecting the cost-effective approach to the client's problem and translating results into design consequences, NRGs structural engineering team is able to offer solutions with added value to its clients.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT NRG AT: NRG PETTEN OFFICE WESTERDUINWEG 3 1755 LE PETTEN P.O.BOX 25 1755 ZG PETTEN THE NETHERLANDS

TEL: +31 224 56 4551 FAX: +31 224 56 8490 E-MAIL: HOFMAN@NRG-NL.COM

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CODES AND STANDARDS NRG is proficient with the major (inter-)national codes and standards for seismic qualification of equipment, notably: ASME III British standards BS8110, BS5400, BS2573 KTA2201 Eurocode 8 Seismic qualification can proceed by considering seismic forces by dynamic analysis or equivalent static seismic forces. For nuclear facilities, a classification scheme as illustrated below holds from the viewpoint of their risk importance for containment integrity violation. The design earthquake loads are determined based on the seismic activity of the considered site. (1 kine = velocity of earthquake in 1 cm/s; 1 gal = 1 cm/s2 horizontal peak acceleration.) DESIGN ANALYSIS IN SEISMIC QUALIFICATION NRG offers tailor-made approaches for seismic design analysis, starting with first order analysis and using in-depth analysis only when necessary. Application invariably deter-mines the appropriate approach to seismic design: Safety critical systems, such as in nuclear reactors, petrochemical plants and offshore installations: the design should be made to absorb energy and to avoid damage completely. Linear-elastic modelling is usually applied for design analyses. For non-safety critical systems, such as buildings and infrastructure: the design should be made to survive the earthquake, whilst conceding local damage. Use can be made of ductility in order to increase failure limits. This requires suitable non-linear material modelling for design analyses. Frequency domain analysis is most often applied for seismic analysis, applicable for hand calculations, lumped mass modal analyses and Finite Element Analysis techniques. Techniques such as NRCs SRSS are applied for summation of partial responses for linear-elastic analysis, or Newmark inelastic response spectrum methods for elasto-plastic analysis. Advantages of frequency domain analysis are simplicity and lower cost, however the result is usually conservative. Time-domain analyses offer best-estimate results with cheaper designs, but require finite element analyses, with higher analysis cost.

SEISMIC RE-QUALIFICATION OF PRIMARY COOLING SYSTEM OF HIGH FLUX REACTOR Recent earthquakes in the Netherlands of typical intensity 4 on the Richter scale have provoked the need for seismic re-qualification of the primary cooling system of the High Flux Reactor. The Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) adopted as design basis earthquake was determined from measurement data provided by KNMI and KTA code requirements. The entire system was modelled using line shaped elements and linear elastic material behaviour. Combinations of seismic, pressure, and thermal loads were analysed and evaluated according to ASME III. Both design and operational modifications were proposed and implemented to ensure compliance with ASME stress factor requirements. SEISMIC RE-QUALIFICATION OF HFR REACTOR BUILDING The reactor building consists of a reinforced concrete substructure founded on sand and a steel dome structure. Dome columns are anchored to the concrete foundation. Both the concrete and steel components were modelled using ANSYS. The SSE is specified as the earthquake response spectrum at foundation level, in terms of horizontal and vertical ground accelerations, for two directions (N-S and E-W). Combined seismic, pressure, wind force, crane loading, and thermal loads were considered. The resulting stresses were evaluated against the national regulations for building structures TGB, NEN 6702 and 6770. CONNECTING DUCT ROOF GIRDERS Seismic qualification of the connecting duct roof girders of the primary pump building of the HFR involved taking material ductility into consideration. Since the concrete girders are located just above safety-critical components, the girder must have sufficient reserve load bearing capacity to withstand the safe shutdown earthquake and to prevent collapse. Plastic deformation is allowed, however. Energy absorption by plastic deformation was included during the seismic assessment through non-linear finite element modelling of the girder, taking account of concrete cracking in tension and possible crushing during compression. The seismic safety assessment focussed on bending in the vertical direction and cracking at the bottom side as major possible failure modes. Ductility was included through the Newmark inelastic response spectrum technique.

HFR piping system

HFR foundation

Duct roof girder

LFR FRAME AND CONCRETE SHIELD Seismic qualification of the Low Flux Reactor included analyses of the aluminum frame, which carries the top shield of the reactor. This reinforced concrete top shield is rotatable, in order to provide access to the reactor vessel. Seismic analyses included eigenfrequency calculation, spectrum response analysis, combination of the significant vibrations by means of SRSS, and stress analysis of the frame under the influence of the static load and vertical and horizontal excitation as a result of earthquake loads. Because of the complexity of the geometry, FEM analysis using ANSYS was applied. Based on the fact that local buckling determines the buckling instability of columns or beams, the safety for local as well as global instability was calculated and the safety factors were determined according to the Dutch TGB code. HCL AND HFR CHIMNEYS Seismic requalification of the Hot Cell Laboratories (HCL) and HFR included the chimneys. The HFR chimney consists of a concrete foundation, three piles, socket, and shaft. The reference earthquake for the facility is specified as a response spectrum in horizontal and vertical directions. In the seismic analysis using FEM, the dynamic loading was applied at the bottom of the foundation slab. Static and seismic analyses were performed using a linear elastic material model for the concrete in order to show compliance to adequate safety margins with respect to possible cracking and crushing. SEISMIC QUALIFICATION OF EXISTING PLANTS Initial seismic qualification of the plant structures is followed by a seismic walkdown to identify vulnerable components, including the possible impact of non-safety critical systems on safety critical systems. The walkdown typically results in recommendations on upgrades, such as providing adequate anchorage to electrical cabinets. Case-by-case basis upgrades may also be involved, such as to storage tanks and overhead travelling cranes. These upgrades often require in-depth analysis beyond code and elastic limits to prevent unnecessary and operationally restrictive modifications without compromising overall safety.

LFR frame own modes

Calculated stresses HFR chimney

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT NRG AT:


B-02-007

NRG PETTEN OFFICE WESTERDUINWEG 3 1755 LE PETTEN

P.O.BOX 25 1755 ZG PETTEN THE NETHERLANDS

TEL: +31 224 56 4551 FAX: +31 224 56 8490 E-MAIL: HOFMAN@NRG-NL.COM