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# LESSON 3 Analysing reflection of waves

Reflection of waves Reflection of a wave occurs when a wave strikes an obstacle such as barrier, plane reflector , mirror and wall. The reflection of waves obeys the law of reflection : (a) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. (b) The incident wave, the reflected wave and the normal lie in the same plane. When the reflection of a wave happened , the wavelength ,, the frequency, f and the speed , v do not change but the direction of propagation of the wave changes. Reflection of water waves To investigate the reflection of water waves a metallic plane reflector is placed at the centre of a ripple tank. The motor with a wooden bar attached is switched on to produce plane waves which propagate towards the reflector. The reflector repositioned to produce different angles of incidence. The following figure shows two examples pattern of the reflection of the water waves. (a) The experiment to investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection of a water wave. Hypothesis: The angle of reflection increases as the angle of incidence increases. Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence Responding variable: Angle of reflection Fixed variable: depth of water in ripple tank List of apparatus and materials: Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply white paper , protractor ,plane reflector and mechanical stroboscope. Arrangement of the apparatus:

(b)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves which propagate towards the reflector. The incident waves and the reflected waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope. The waves are sketched on the screen. By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured = i and the angle of reflection = r The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of incidence.

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Tabulate the data: i r Analysis the data: Plot the graph r against i

## Arrangement of the apparatus

Reflection of light waves When rays of light strike any surface the rays are reflected , unless the surface is black, when they are absorbed. The reflection depend on how smooth the surfaces are. Good mirrors reflect well over 90% of the light that reaches them, with only a small amount being absorbed. A plane mirror is a flat smooth surface which reflects regularly most of the light falling on it. The phenomenon of reflection of light obeys the law of reflection. (a) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. (b) The incident wave, the reflected wave and the normal lie in the same plane. It also can be seen that (a) The size of the image = the size of the object (b) The distance of the image = the distance of the object The experiment to investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection of a light wave. Hypothesis: The angle of reflection increases as the angle of incidence increases. Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence Responding variable: Angle of reflection Fixed variable: position of the plane mirror List of apparatus and materials: Ray box, plane mirror, plasticine, protractor and white paper

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. A normal line ,ON is drawn on the white paper. A ray of light from the ray box is directed to the plane mirror. By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured = i and the angle of reflection = r The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of incidence. Tabulate the data: i r Analysis the data: Plot the graph r against i

Reflection of sound waves The sound waves is reflected by walls and ceilings of buildings, unborn baby or sea bed. Echo is a phenomenon when a sound wave has been reflected of a surface , and is heard after the original sound.

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The experiment to investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection of a sound wave. Hypothesis: The angle of reflection increases as the angle of incidence increases. Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence Responding variable: Angle of reflection Fixed variable: the position of stop watch from the smooth wall. List of apparatus and materials: Cardboard tube, soft wood , stop watch, protractor and smooth wall. Arrangement of the apparatus:

The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of incidence. Tabulate the data: i r Analysis the data: Plot the graph r against i

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured = i The stopwatch is started. The cardboard tube B is moved around until the watch can be heard most clearly. By using the protractor , the angle of reflection is measured = r

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TUTORIAL 3
1 The figure shows a set of a plane waves arriving at a plane reflector placed in a ripple tank. 3 Which figure shows the correct pattern of reflected water waves?

## Which figure shows correctly the reflected waves?

The figure shows a set of a plane waves arriving at a plane reflector placed in a ripple tank.

Which diagram shows how water waves would be reflected by a plane barrier? Which of the following will change? A C 5 wavelength wave direction B D speed of wave frequency of wave

The diagram shows a single ray of light being directed at a plane mirror.

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A B C D 6

## Angle of reflection 55o 35o 35o 55o

The diagram shows a mirror is titled at an angle of 50o to the bench. A ray of light is directed so that it hits the mirror at an angle of 20o to the surface of the mirror.

What is the new angle of reflection of the light ray? A C 00 300 B D 150 600

## What is the angle of reflection? A C E 7 20o 50o 100o B D 40o 700

The figure shows two plane mirrors JK and LM which have been placed at a right angle to each other.

The figure shows two mirrors X and Y inclined to each other at 900 . A ray of light falls upon miror X.

Which of the ray diagram is true to show the path of ray until it emerges from the both the mirrors.

A C E

## 15o 45o 90o

B D

30o 600

What is the value of the angle of the incidence upon mirror Y ? 8 The figure shows a light ray being incident to the surface of plane mirror PQ. The mirror is then rotated anti-clock wise through an angle 15o.

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The figure shows the apparatus is used to investigate the reflection of sound waves. At what position of the cardboard tube is adjusted until a loud ticking sound of the stopwatch is heard?

(a) From the figure above (i) Mark the direction of the propagation of the water waves. (ii) Determine the wavelength of the waves. (iii) Calculate the speed of the water waves. (b) A plane reflector is placed at different inclined angle in front of the water waves as shown in the following figure. Draw the pattern of the reflected wave in the figure. (i)

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Echo is a phenomenon caused by A B C D the refraction of sound waves the reflection of sound waves the diffraction of sound waves the polarization of sound waves

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## The figure shows a sound wave is reflected from a brick wall.

(ii) Compared with the incident wave, the reflected wave has A B C D 13 a greater amplitude a shorter wavelength the same speed the same velocity

The figure shows plane water waves is produced by a vibrating wooden bar vibrates at a rate 15 waves per second.

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Determine by way of ray diagrams, the cars that can be seen by the driver through reflection of rays by the rear view mirror.

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