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USGS Denver Jenny M. Stevens
USGS-Menlo Park Chuck Wenger

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(02)2705-5066


2011 2012
2011 3 11 9.0 20,896

2012 6 24
5.7 25 53 3.8
4 100 14,864 9 7
11 19 12 16
5.7 5.6 81 821
6,650
2012 2 26 6.4
1999 9 21 7.3 2012 2 26
7.0 2 6+ 10 5+
2
2012 8 11 6.4
6.3 306 3,037 16,000
4 11 3 38
8.6 1900 11
2013
7.0
2 14 7.3
3 27 6 . 1
1999 921 30

4 6 7.0
4 16 7.7 40

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4 20 7.0 2008 5
12 85 7.9
6 2 6.3
6+
Blind Thrust Fault

Cal TechSan Andreas fault


7.8
7/25/2012

1,500
Parkeld

Puente Hills
blind thrust fault
7.0 12,000
7 2000 2000
30
6.7 99% 4/11/2012

30 63% 6.7
Hayward
fault

30

vi

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2000 921

921

12 57

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vii

1-1

1-2

1-3

1-4

15

23

2-1

24

2-2

33

2-3

36

2-4

39

43

3-1

44

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3-2

48

3-3

53

59

4-1

60

4-2

65

4-3

68

73

5-1

74

5-2

88

5-3

95

5-4

105

115

6-1

118

6-2

125

6-3

133

6-4

136

6-5

167

6-6

179

6-7

182

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II

195

7-1

196

7-2

198

7-3

203

7-4

222

7-5

231

7-6

236

239

8-1

243

8-2

244

8-3

248

8-4

253

259

9-1

260

9-2

263

9-3

269

9-4

272

9-5

276

9-6

290

297

10-1

300

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10-2

323

10-3

328

339

11-1

340

11-2

347

11-3

354

11-4

359

11-5 CPT

369

11-6

374

383

12-1

384

12-2

389

12-3

404

12-4

407

12-5

409

12-6

413

12-7

415

421

455

461

463

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2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4

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(02)2705-5066

2-1

lithosphere

parameterization
17
validation 10 s
-

-1

13 1
10 s s
-

Te
0-10
110120
Goetze and Evans1979
YSEs
AleutianBoninMariana

24

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(02)2705-5066

bathymetric
bending momentKuril

Burov,
2011
International Lithosphere Program, ILP
The Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Programme,
1992-1999, GSHAP
2-1 18 M
7.0 1968 7.0
1986 1990 67 1970 1971 1992
2023 Prasad, 2011, p.26

2-1 Prasad, 2011, p.25

1.1

77.9

18

66.9

120

55.9

180

44.9

6,200

33.9

49,000

22.9

300,000

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(02)2705-5066

25

1.

2-1(a)
footwallhangwall
strike
Orientation
0 180 90 270

dip

0
90slip

0
90 180
270 -90

(1) dip-slip
= 90
270Normal fault
2-1(b)

Reverse faultThrust
fault 2-1(c)

26

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(02)2705-5066

(a)

(d)

(b)

(e)

(c)

2-1
2000121-16

(2) strike-slip
2-1(d) = 0
180

left-lateral or left-handed
right-lateral or right-handed 2-1(d)

2-1(e)

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(02)2705-5066

27

(3)

2.
epicenterhypocenter focus
2-2
5 15
1989 Loma Prieta
11 1971 San Fernando 5
h 2-3
E =
G =
m =
n = G
d = E G

10

2-2
2000121-2(b)

28

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(02)2705-5066

E(m)

G(n)

h
r

2-3


n/m = h2/r2 = sin2
h h = dtan

3.

tremors
1906

1989
1939

60
1999 Izmit

1992 6 28 7.4
Salton SeaLanders

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29

3
6.5 Big Bear
9 Hector Mine
2001
2003 2 22 5.4

USGSRoss S.
SteinStein, December 1999

Stein earthquake
conversationsStein, 2005 1992 Stein
Parsons et al., April, 2000 18

1905 1967 cluster

1905 7 9 M7.9Bulnay
1905 7 M8.4
1931 8 11 M8.0
1957 12 4 M8.1Mogod1967
M7.1 2-4(a)
M 8 strike-slip
5
400 Pollitz et
al.2003
viscoelastic relaxation
20
30

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Russia
1950

52

1905
1905

48

1967

1931

1957

Mongolia

44

40

China
88

92

96
100
(a)

104

Russia
1950

52

108

1959

1991
1958
1967

48
1931
44

1975

1957

Mongolia

1965

M8
7.5 M 8

China
40

88

92
96
100
(b)

6.0 M 7.5
104

108

2-4 (a) (b)

1905M7 (a)M
6 (b)(b)non-Baikal
Baikal 19501959
Pollitz et al., 2003, Fig. 1

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(02)2705-5066

31

f bar
20 M 6 f +0.5 bar

2-4 1905 1967


2-4(a) M 7
1905M8.4375
8 11 m 2 m Baljinnyam et al.,
1993

2-4(b) 1905
M 6 2-2 19791992

2-219791992
Somerville, et al., 1999, Table 1

1992.6.28

75

7.22

2.0

2.7

Tabas, Iran

1978.9.16

58

7.14

2.1

2.5

Loma Prieta, Ca

1989.10.17

30

6.95

1.5

2.7

Kobe, Japan

1995.1.17

24

6.9

2.0

2.8

Borah Peak, Idaho

1983.10.28

23

6.87

0.6

2.9

Nahanni, N.W.T., Cn

1985.12.23

15

6.75

2.5

2.75

Northridge, Ca

1994.1.17

11

6.66

1.25

3.0

Nahanni, N.W.T., Cn

1985.10.05

10

6.63

0.75

2.75

1971.2.9

6.53

0.8

2.8

1979.10.15

6.43

0.7

2.6

3.5

6.33

0.5

2.4

Imperial Valley, Ca

Superstition Hills, Ca (event #3) 1987.11.24

Dyne-cm

Mw

Landers, Ca

San Fernando, Ca (Sirra Madre)

32

Mo1025

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(02)2705-5066

2-219791992
Somerville, et al., 1999, Table 1

Mo1025
Dyne-cm

Mw

Morgan Hill, Ca

1984.4.24

2.1

6.18

0.3

6.8

North Palm Springs, Ca

1986.8.7

1.8

6.14

0.4

3.0

Whittier Narrows, Ca

1987.10.1

5.97

0.3

2.5

Coyote Lake, Ca

1979.6.8

0.35

5.66

0.5

2.8

Ca: California
Cn: Canada

2-2

250

Wysession, 1995
CMB 1920

dislocation

transformfold
510

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33

Phil
ip
Plat pine
e

Re
ykj
ane
rid
s
ge

Eurasia Plate

a tr

Marianas
trench

Pacific
Plate

Kermadec-Tonga
trench

Australia Plate

South E
ast Ind

ian rise

Eurasia
Plate

Caribbean
Plate
Mi
d-A

Mexico
trench
Cocos
Plate

New Hebrides
trench

enc
h

North
America
Pnate

East
Pacic rise

Indian
Plate Jav

Kuril
trench
Japan
trench

h
enc
n tr
utia
e
l
A
Juan
De Fuca
Plate

le-trench
Peru-Chi

tla
nti
cr

South America
Plate

Africa Plate
idg
e

Carlsberg
ridge

Nazca
Plate
Chil
e

rise

tic ridge
tar
An
c
aci

Macquarie
ridge
P

ge
rid
an
i
d
In
icnt
tla

Antarctic Plate

Antarctic Plate

2-5
Fowler, 1990Prasad 2011, Fig. 2.17

NazcaCaribbean
CaribbeanSomali
CoCos 2-5

Mohorovicic
Moho 612 3050

2,900 Gutenberg P
2,900 2,900
5,150 S
5,150 P S
5,150 2-6
34

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(02)2705-5066

400
650

2700
2890

5150

6371
(a) Beatty and Chaikin, eds.,, 1990
Prasad, 2011, Fig. 2.7(b)

40
400
670

100150

2900

5150

6371

(b)
Prasad, 2011, Fig. 2.7(c)

2-6

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35

95%
5%
9
1
3010010 year Allmendinger et al., 2009
-

1 310

- 10

year 1Zoback and Townend, 2001


-

7
8
1
10 10 year Zoback, 1992; Talwani,
-

1999; Allmendinger et al., 2009Marmara


Sea GPS 610 8 210 7 year 1Onckel and
-

Wilson, 2006 30010 9 year 1 500


-

10 9 year 1Thatcher, 2003510


-

-9

year 1110 9 year 1


-

9
1
4610 year
-

Satpura Mountain Belt


9
1
60010 year
-

Mohanty, 2011
GPS

intraplateMohanty, 2011

2-3

1015

3
5
10 10 - m

36

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(02)2705-5066

1 50 -maseismic
2-7

C
U

l0

15

20

25

30

2-7 UC
LC
Gough, 1986, Fig. 1

0.01 - m 1,000,000 - m

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(02)2705-5066

37

host rock

20% rgzr
z g wgz
w
h

Rocky Mountains

Hh

Gough, 1986
10 20
LRZ LRZ 9
30 - m
20 80 - mChen and Chen, 1998
Chen et al.1998magnetotelluric
MTEM

EM

CO 2 HCO3
-

CO2
38

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(02)2705-5066

CO 2

CO2
HCO3 HCO3
-

Mohammadzadeh and Chary,


2005 Chen et al.1998

2-4

7.1 N50
WSeno et al., 1993
Ryukyn

polarity 2-8 5

90%

Wang
and Lee2011

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(02)2705-5066

39

(N)
25.5
25

MIAOLI

24.5
24

TAICHUNG
CHANGHUA

YUNLI

23.5 MAKUNG

22.5

CHIA

CR
TAINAN

23

CHILUNG

TAIPEI
TAOYUAN
HSINCHU

KACHSIUNG

HR

BR

PULI

WF

KUBSHANTAD
ILAN

A'
HUALIEN

JUISUI

CR
B'

TAITUNG
LUTAO

PINGTUNG

8.2
cm
/yr

LIUCHIUHGU
LANHSU

22
21.5

21
20.5

119.5

120

120.5

121

121.5

122

BR
CP
CR
HR
WF
122.5

123

123.5 (E)

2-8
AA' BB' Wang & Lee, 2011, Fig. 1

40

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(02)2705-5066

-V0

-M0

2-9
V = -Vo M = -Mo foreland
deection
Wang & Lee, 2011, Fig. 4

2-9
Wang and Lee2011

Wang2007

segment
back slip
2-10(a)

seismogenic 2-10(b) 2-10

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(02)2705-5066

41

(a)

(b)

2-10(a) (b)

aseismic
Wang, 2007, Fig. 17.1

stick-slipaseismic slip 1 2
3

2-10(b)
Wang, 2007, 541-542

42

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3-1
3-2
3-3

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(02)2705-5066

100 90
ReservoirTriggered Seismicity RTS 1967
Koyna 1940 19401944
Lake Mead
normal stressHubbert and Rubey1959

3-1
HubbertandRubey1959 50

0.1
bar 20
bars Biots1941
consolidationtheory

1.

44

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(02)2705-5066

2.Compaction

3.Diffusion

(1)
(2)

4.

induced

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45

Nurek Manic-3
Monticello

Oroville
KaribaAswan
Koyna 3-1

300
NUREK

250

5.7
OROVILLE

200
150

5.8

4.6
100

4.1
MANIC-3

50

2.8

KARIBA

MONTICELLO

ASWAN 5.3
6.5

KOYNA

3-1Simpson,1986

Leithetal.1984
46

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20
Simpson,1986,pp.30-31

Maharashtra

1967 6.5

3-2
1730'
Koyna
Feb
1713'
Dec

Sep3
Aug28

Oct22

Warna

1700'
5.05.4
0

4.34.9

11.6km

1645'
7330'

7345'

7400'

7415'

3-21993 9 1994 2 Koyna-Wama 4.5

Talwanietal.,1997Prasad,2011,Fig.2.19(b),p.65

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47

3-2

SaltonTroughSAF
40
SAF
SAF SanJacintofault SJF
Imperial fault IF
Gulf of California
SAF
300 SAF SJF IF

Fennoscandian
GrollimundandZoback,2000

LakeCahuilla LC 3-3

2000 300 39
110 31
CoachellaImperial
MexicaliValleysBaja

48

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(02)2705-5066

Indio

SA

shorelinesites
[thisstudy]
shorelinesites
[Larson,1990]
SCIGNsites

33.5

SJ

33

la
uil
ah
C
ke
e
La relin
o
Sh

Sa
lto
n
Se
a

U.S.

Mexico

IF

ElCentro

Mexicali

32.5
CerroPrieto
-116.5

-116

-115.5

-115

3-3Lake Cahuilla 13
SAFSJFIF
Luttrelletal.,2007,Fig.1

1905 34 16 226
EI
CentroIndio1500

260100 SAF SJF

SAF 5 4
3-4

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49

southernSanAndreasruptures
825

1231

982

1502

1676

southernSanJacintoruptures

ImperialValleyruptures

20
0

1940

-20

-40

1906Creation
ofSaltonSea

-60

-80
-100
600

Lakestands from
Waters(1983)

800

1000

Lakefall from Gunola


andRockwell(1996)

1200
1400
A.D.

1600

Lakehistoryused
inthisstudy

1800

2000

3-41500 LakeCahuilla 1906


Luttrelletal.,2007,Fig.2 Waters1983
GurrolaandRockwell1996
5 SAF Fumaletal.,2002 3 SJF Gurrolaand
Rockwell,1996 2 IF ThomasandRockwell,1996
Luttrelletal.,2007.

c=c-fn

(3-1)

10 KPa

50

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(02)2705-5066

40
3-5

relaxation time

H
(a)

h
pc

pc

pc

c=fwgh

h
Z

c=0

(b)

3-5(a)

(b)

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(02)2705-5066

51

c
c

c
0

2
4
6

10

(c)

3-5(c) 10 m

5 Luttrelletal.,2007,
Fig.3

3-5a
5

SmithandSandwell2003,2004
Maxwell m=2/

SAF
0.2 0.6MPa SAF
0.1 0.2 MPa

52

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(02)2705-5066

Heki, 2001; Heki, 2003


Karst 2002
3 8 Hochstaufen Hainzl et al., 2006; Kraft et al.,
2006a,b 2002 9 Gard Rigo et al., 2008
2005 8 Muatatal RiemenstaldenHusenetal.,2007

Hydraulic head

Miller,
2008

3-3

1992 6 28
M7.3 3-6
1 SA
BasinandRangeProvince
8
1992 4 23 M6.1 JoshuaTree
20
60 5
M 5

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53

1992 4 ~12

7.0+
el
en
da
le
F

M4.2
28June
1227

M5.1
4Dec.

M5.3
27Nov.

M5.2
28June
1240

NFFZ

20'

HV

au
lt

M4.7,4.4
29June

M5.3
28June
1443

SanA

340

M5.4
1July

JVF

M5.2
17Aug.
10'

lt.
ahF

BIGBEARM5.1
M6.2
28June
28June 1236
1505
BMF

M5.2
29June

20KM

LANDERS
M7.3
28June
1157

PintoMtn.Fault
M5.4
29June
EPF
M5.2
15Sept.

M5.8
28June
1200
M5.6
28June
1201

ndrea
sFau
ltZon
e

M5.4
5July

EF

30'

lt
au

6.0+

M4.1,4.2
28June
16328.33

ult
Fa
od

5.0+

oF
lic
Ca

4.0+

M4.3,4.1
30June

F
CR

MAGNITUDES

Pisg

40'

o
nw
Le

JOSHUA
TREE
M6.1
23April
M5.0
24July

50'
117

50'

40'

30'

20'

10'

3-6 1992 4 8 M 4

M 5
CRE:CampRock

EF:Emerson

JVF:JohnsonValley

NFFZ:NorthFrontal

BMF:BurntMountain

EPF:EurekaPeak

HVF:HomesteadValley
Haukssonetal.,1993Scholz,2002,Fig.4.15,p.213

54

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(02)2705-5066

M6.2 3
20
3040
Scholz,2002,p.212

swarms 20
15

Mogi1963
heterogeneity
3-7

doubletsmultiplets
compound

Omori
(t)=/(c+t)p

(3-2)

(t) t p c
0 p 1

5%Scholz, 2002,
p.224

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(02)2705-5066

55

MS

(a)

MS

(b)

(c) swarm

MS

3-7 Scholz,2002,Fig.4.22,p.224

LomaPrieta
coseismic

nucleation

Matsushiro

Rangely

56

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(02)2705-5066

Nankai
684 1854
Ansei C D 32
B A 90
1944 Tonankai C 1946
Nankaido B C B A
1896 5 3

6 1939 1967
3-8
1943
300
Scholz,2002,224-234
43

1943
M=7.6

1967
M=7.1

Istanbul

9
5
1953
M=7.2

37

1999
M=7.8

1942
M=7.3

2
1939
M=8.0

6
1957
M=7.1

4
1944
M=7.6

Erzincan

1966
M=6.8

26

42

3-8 1939 1939


1967 1943
Scholz,2002,Fig.4.26,p.233

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57

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1.

Rio Pixcaya
1976 Rio Pixcaya 1976
2 13 U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-165, Slide 32USGS geq
00032-10

2.

1983 11 16 6.6 Kilauea


Caldera U.S.
Geological Survey, Professional paper 1350, page 898, USGS
hvoc 0127-12

464

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3.

Fort Funston
1989 10 17 Loma Prieta Fort Funston
2,830 30
U.S.
Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-547, Slide IV, USGS
pdm 00003-21

4.

Santa Cruz
1989 10 17 Loma Prieta
New Brighton
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-547,
Slide XIII-12USGS tjc 00003-1

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465

5.

7,000
1970 5 31 7,000 1
= 2,000 Huascaran
Ranrahirca RioSanta

1970 6-7
4 USGS plu 00014-4

6.

1989 10 17 Loma Prieta

U.S. Geological
Survey Circular 1045, Fig.24BUSGS pla 00049-3

466

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(02)2705-5066

7.

1970 5 31 Chimbote

U.S. Geological Survey Circular 639, Fig.8


USGS peru 0011-5

8.

Niigata
1964
10
15
T.L. Youd 1964 USGS
gesu 0453-4

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467

9.

1989 10 17 Loma Prieta Moss Landing


Paul's Island
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-547, Slide
XV-3USGS esd 00006-2

10.
1906 4 18 UnionStreet
Earthquake Information Bulletin, v.14, no.3, pp.94-95USGS eib 00469-1

468

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(02)2705-5066

11.
1964 3 27 Portage Turnagain Arm
The Alaska Railroad
Seward

U.S. Army U.S. Geological Survey Professional paper 541USGS aek 00138-2

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469

12.
1964 3 27 Kenai Peninsula
Resurrection Bay
3

U.S. Geological Survey Professional paper 541, Fig.10 U.S.


Geological Survey Professional paper 543-I, Fig.19USGS
aeq 00008-1

470

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(02)2705-5066

. .
, 2013.09

ISBN 978-957-11-7205-7 ()
1.
354.4

102013471

5G28

Earthquake Faulting and Rock & Soil Mechanics










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