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A Certain Ambiguity
A Mathematical Novel

Gaurav Suri

Hartosh Singh Bal


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factual mathematics
ctional narrative

mathematical fiction

1919


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A Certain Ambiguity
a certain ambiguity

certainty

Morris Kline
Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty

knowledgevs.
belief

true geometry

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parallelism

logic
vs. meaning

vs. vs.


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vs.


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1886

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CHAPTER

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

LCD

342

342
342

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342342
13
9 3
4

13
342342 13 26334

11 26334 11 2394
7

2394 7 342

1311 7

13 11 7
7 11 13


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1311 7

24 2 3 4
24 6 23 4
13117

13117

13117 1001
342342

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1001 342
342 1001 342342
342(1001) = 342(1000 + 1) = 342000 + 342 = 342342
1001 1001
1001
1311 7
1001

1001 1001

***

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Summertime

***


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***

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Crazeology


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West End Blues

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***

3 5.1


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The Way You Look Tonight

CD

10

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11
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Now's the Time


Bird

12

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208

***

13
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take-home

14

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The woods
are lovely, dark and deep/But I have promises to keep/And miles to go before
I sleep/And miles to go before I sleep.

forestwoods

15
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Percy Klug PK
PK

16

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PK

17
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PK

PK

PK

18

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1
1

1655

943

-1=
predecessor

1 1
- 1 = 0

PK
PK
0
1/0
19
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A = {}
B = {1623.75}
C = {{A}}

20

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N = {1, 2, 3, 4...}

{
} A A N

order

S
1 T T
S T M1 T

21
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= S

M1

= T

M1 T
M2 T

= S

M1

M2

= T

M2 T M3
M4

= S

M1

M2

M3 M4 = T

M5M6
Mn

M S M1 M1 M2M2 M3
M-

1. M-
22

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2. M-
3.

M-

M-
PK M-
M-

M-

M-

23
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M-
PK

M-
M-
= 2 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + 1/16 +
2 1

3.875 3.996
4
24

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4
4 4

25
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= 2 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + 1/16 + 1/32 +


-

1/2 =

1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + 1/16 + 1/32 +

= 1/2 = 2 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 +
1/2 = 2

=4

1/2

2
4

1/2 1/2

26

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0 = (1-1) + (1-1) + (1-1) + (1-1) + (1-1) +


= 1 + (-1 + 1)+(-1 + 1) + (-1 + 1) + (-1 + 1) +
=1+0+0+0+0+=1

0 1

M- M-

M-

27
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***

***
28

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T2
T1

S1
S2

S1 S2T1
T2

29
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1600

PK

30

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16

25

36

S
L

31
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S LL S

P
P

S
L
P S L
S L

32

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L
L S L L
L

33
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***

34

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35
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Classic Papers in Algebraic Number Theory

1961

Elliptic Curves Over Function Fields

1919

1919

36

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&
/

1986 10
The American Atheist
Leonard LevyBlasphemy 508

Chapter 1

Zeno of Elea

2 + 1 + 1/2 +
299
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Mathematics: The Loss of CertaintyMorris
Kline 349

R. M. Sainsbury Paradoxes
16-17

M-
M-

T M 1,
M2, T M
M T

S, M1, M2, M3 T
M
T T M

T T M
M

300

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Chapter 2

Lisieux Nicole
Oresme, 1323-1382

Dirk Struik A Source Book of Mathematics:


1200-1800 134-135 320

Chapter 3

Bhaskara Bhaskaracharya, 1114-1185


Ujjain
Lilavati

301
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Brown
University Kim Plofker 2003 AMS
MAA
The Mathematics Textbook and the Disappointed Daughter: History of a
Mathematical Urban Legend E. Allen Smith
http://www.ams.org/ams/plfkerjmm2003.html.

Pythagoras, 570?-490? BC

Pherekydes

Hippasus

Morris Kline
Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty 104

Chapter 4

302

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Maria Bohm

Amir Aczel The


Mystery of Aleph 131-132

Chapter 5

BaruchBenedictSpinoza, 1632-1677
abominable heresies

The Ethics

III
303
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XI

David Hilbert, 18621943

1899
Grundlagen der Geometrie

1930 9 8
1885 John Derbyshire
Prime Obsession: Bernard Riemann and the Greatest
Unsolved Problems in Mathematics

axiom of choice
A P(A)A
P(A) A
304

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SchroderBernstein A B B A A B

Costa Mittag-Lefer, 1846-1927

Acta Mathematica

Aczel The Mystery of Aleph 154

Chapter 6

28 Morris Kline

Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty


78-88
305
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Gilrolamo Saccheri, 1667-1733

Tomaso Ceva

FakasWolfgangBolyai, 1775-1856
JanosJohannBolyai, 1802-1860

306

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Nicolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky,


1792-1856
1829

1848

Kazan

CourantRobbinsWhat is
307
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Mathematics?
Felix Klein
Roger
Penrose The Road to Reality

Chapter 7

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, 1777-1855

Bolyai
Lobachevsky

Hohenhagen-Inselberg-Brrocken

Kline 1980, 85

Bernard Riemann, 1826-1866

308

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On the Hypotheses
that Lie at the Foundations of Geometry
John DerbyshirePrime
Obsession 126-131

distance metric

Chapter 8

1919 11 7

280
Jennifer Hecht Doubt

309
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Aczel, Amir, The Mystery of the Aleph, Washington Square Press publication
of Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York.
Courant, Richard and Herbert Robbins, What is Mathematics?: An
Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods, 2nd ed./revised by Ian
Stewart, Oxford University Press, New York.
Derbyshire, John, Prime Obsession: Bernard Riemann and the Greatest
Unsolved Problem in Mathematics, Joseph Henry Press, Washington,
D.C.
Kline, Morris, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1980.
Levy, Leonard, Blasphemy, The University of North Carolina Press, WinstonSalem, 1995.
Penrose, Roger, The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the
Universe, Jonathan Cape, London.
Sanisbury, R. M., Paradoxes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK,
second edition.
Spinoza, Benedict, Ethics, Penguin Books, London.
Struik, D. J., A Source Book in Mathematics 1200-1800, Princeton University
Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

310

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Ritika
Vir

Sylvain Cappell
Harold Shapiro Richard
Patterson C. D. Aliprantis
Robert Floyd
Vickie Kearn

Akerxander Paseau Joan Richards

Beth Gallagher

Gaurav Bhatnagar Punya Mishra

Patricia Kimball
Mariea Datiz
M. M. Chawla Ranjan DasSiddhartha DebMarc Frantz
ChitvanSumit GuptaPriya HattiangdiVatsala KaulPraveen Madan
Chaman Nahal
Morris Kline

311
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Copyright 2007 by Princeton University Press


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher.
Complex Chinese translation rights 2009 by Goodness Publishing House

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(Hartosh Singh Bal)


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200910
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(Gaurav Suri), (Hartosh Singh Bal)


, , . .
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A certain ambiguitya
mathematical novel
ISBN 978-986-6614-40-8
867.57
98015517

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