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Lecture7. Sociology Individual and Society Man is a social animal. He lives in social groups in communities and in society.

Human life and society almost go together. Man cannot live without society. Man is biologically and psychologically equipped to live in groups, in society. Society has become an essential condition for human life to arise and to continue. The relationship between individual and society is ultimately one of the profound of all the problems of social philosophy. It is more philosophical rather than sociological because it involves the question of values. Man depends on society. It is in the society that an individual is surrounded and encompassed by culture, a societal force. It is in the society again that he has to conform to the norms, occupy statuses and become members of groups. The question of the relationship between the individual and the society is the starting point of many discussions. It is closely connected with the question of the relationship of man and society. There is two main theories regarding the relationship of man and society .They are the social contract theory and the organismic theory. Social Contract theory The social contract theory throws light on the origin of the society. According to this theory all men are born free and equal. Society came into existence because of the agreement entered into by the individuals. The classical representatives of this school of thought are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Rousseau. Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes was of opinion that society came into being as a means for the protection of men against the consequences of their own nature. Man in the state of nature was in perpetual conflict with his neighbors on account of his essentially selfish nature. The life of man was solitary poor, nasty, brutish and short. Every man was an enemy to every other man. Hobbes in his book Leviathan has made it clear that man found nothing but grief in the company of his fellows. Since the conditions in the state of nature were intolerable and men longed for peace, the people entered into a kind of social contract to ensure for themselves security and certainty of life and property. By mutual agreement they decided to surrender their natural rights into the hands of a few or one with authority to command. The agreement was of each with all and of all with each other. The contract became binding on the whole community as perpetual social bond. Thus in order to protect himself against the evil consequences of his own nature man organized himself in society in order to live in peace with all. John Locke John Locke believed that man in the state of nature was enjoying an ideal liberty free from all sorts of rules and regulations. The state of nature was a state of peace, goodwill, mutual assistance and preservation. But there was no recognized system of law and justice. Hence his peaceful life was often upset by the corruption and viciousness of degenerate men. The men were forced to live in full of fears and continual dangers. In order to escape from this and to gain certainty and security men made a contract to enter into civil society or the state. This contract Locke called social contract. This contract put an end to the state of nature and substituted it by civil society. The social contract was no more than a surrender of rights and powers so that mans remaining rights would be protected and preserved. The contract was for limited and specific purposes and what was given up or surrendered to the whole community and not to a man or to an assembly of men. According to Locke the social contract later on contributed to the governmental control. The governmental contract was made by the society when it established a government and selected a ruler to remove the inconveniences of ill condition. Jean Jacques Rousseau Rousseau the French writer of the 18th century in his famous book The Social Contract wrote that man in the state of nature was a noble savage who led a life of primitive simplicity and idyllic happiness. He was independent, contented, self-sufficient, healthy, fearless and good. It was only primitive instinct and sympathy which united him with others. He knew neither right or wrong and was free from all notions of virtue and vice.

Man enjoyed a pure, unsophisticated, innocent life of perfect freedom and equality in the state of nature. But these conditions did not last long. Population increased and reason was dawned. Simplicity and idyllic happiness disappeared. Families were established, institution of property emerged and human equality was ended. Man began to think in terms of mine and yours. When equality and happiness of the early state was lost, war, murder, conflicts became the order of the day. The escape from this was found in the formation of a civil society. Natural freedom gave place to civil freedom by a social contract. As a result of this contract a multitude of individuals became a collective unity- a civil society .Rousseau said that by virtue of this contract everyone while uniting himself to all remains as free as before. There was only one contract which was social as well as political. The individual surrendered himself completely and unconditionally to the will of the body of which he became a member. The body so created was a moral and collective body and Rousseau called it the general will. The unique feature of the general will was that it represented collective good as distinguished from the private interests of its members. The theory of social contract has been widely criticized as historically there is nothing to show that the society has ever been deliberately created as a result of voluntary agreement or contract. Nor can we suppose that man could ever think of entering into a contract with others when he lived under conditions of extreme simplicity, ignorance and even brutality. The theory seemed to be mere fiction as state of nature never existed. The most primitive people even lived in some form of society however rudimentary or unorganized. There are always two parties to the contract. There cannot be a one-sided contract as was conceived by Hobbes. The advocates of the theory hold that the early individuals entered into the contract for their individual safety and security of property. But history tells us the other way. Early law was more communal than individual and the unit of society was not the individual but the family. Society has moved from status to contract and not from contract to status as the theorists of the social contract argued. According to Sir Henry Maine contract is not the beginning of society but the end of it. Interrelationship Between Individual and Society According to Peter Berger society not only controls our movements but shapes our identity, our thought and our emotions. The structures of society become the structures of our own consciousness. Society does not stop at the surface of our skins. We are entrapped by our own social nature.

Peter Berger says the walls of our imprisonment were there before we appeared on the scene but they are ever rebuilt by ourselves. We are betrayed into the captivity ourselves. We are betrayed into the captivity with our own cooperation. Durkheim says society confronts us as an objective fact. Society is external to ourselves. It encompasses our entire life. The institutions of society pattern our actions and even shape our expectations. We are located in society not only in space but also in time. Our society is an historical entity that extends beyond the temporary life of any individual. Peter Berger says it was there before we were born and it will be there after we are dead. Our lives are but episodes in its majestic march through time. In sum society is the walls of our imprisonment in history.

The Human Society and Communities The Study of Human Society Human Social Behavior

1. To focus on the patterns of interpersonal interactions that characterize our everyday lives. (MIcrosociological level) 2. To concentrate on the larger aspect of the social structure that affect people's lives. (Macro-sociological level) The Nature of Society Society is universal among humans. For ages it has to performed major adaptive functions that have increased the chances of human survival. In case of humans, the social organizations that result in society have enabled man to survive. Every society is organized in such a way that there are rules of conduct, customs, traditions, folkways and mores, and expectations that ensure appropriate behavior among members. .The socialization process inculcates these into all members in the early stages of life. .However, these norms or standards of behavior are never exactly the same from one society to another.

A society's norms determined the behavior of its members. Characteristics of Human Society

1. A society is a social system - it is made up of individuals and groups that interact in a relatively stable and patterned manner. 2. A society is relatively large- the society must be larger in comparison with its surrounding population. For example- a small isolated group like the "Tasaday" (a stone age group) is complete society, even though it consists of only a few hundred people. 3. A society recruits most of its members from within - this is done trough reproduction and socialization. 4. A society sustain itself across generations- this is characteristic is related to the fact that societies recruit their members from within. For any group of people to be a society, they must show their ability to endure and produce and sustain at least several generations of members. 5. A society's member share a culture- sharing a culture gives individuals the vision and sense of purpose to sustain the patterns of interaction that hold together the society. 6. A society occupies a territory- society is restricted to a groups whose members mostly live in a specific, clearly defined geographic area. Types of Societies 1. Hunting and food gathering societies- this is the earliest form of human society.

People survived by foraging for vegetable foods and small game, fishing, hunting larger wild animals, and collecting shellfish. "Hunting is the key characteristic in the development of human social organization". 2. Horticultural societies -these societies are believed to have started some 12,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two distinct approaches to horticulture - Subsistence Farming and Surplus Farming. 1. Subsistence Farming- this refers to an approach that involves only producing enough food to feed the group. These farmers are often found in tropical jungles where the forest always threatens to overgrow the fields. 2. Surplus Farming - People who practice surplus farming live in thickly populated and permanent settlements. In this society, expansion means more land and more captured labor, which in turn establishes an accumulation Of greater surpluses, specialized crafts people, and conspicuous consumption.

3. Pastoral Society- this type of society relies on herding and domestication of animals for food and clothing to satisfy the bulk of the groups's needs. Here, animals raised provide milk, dung (for fuel), skin, sheared fur, and even blood (which was drunk as a major source of protein in East Africa). 4. Agricultural Societies- these societies are characterized by the use of the plow in food production. 5. Industrial Societies- are characterized by more than just use of mechanical means of production. They constitute an entirely new form of society that requires an immense, mobile diversity specialized, highly skilled, and well-coordinated labor force. 6. Post-industrial societies - while industrial societies depend on inventions and advances made by craftspeople, postindustrial society depends on specialized knowledge to bring about continuing progress in technology. Dissolution of Society Four Conditions that will bring about the dissolution of a society: 1. If its members are killed off 2. If its members become apathetic, no longer caring whether or not the society continues to exist 3. If society falls into a state of chaos from which it cannot free itself 4. If the society os absorbed into another society, as a result of conquest, for example. The Study of Community Nature of Community Community- as of consisting of "person in social interaction within a geographical are and having one or more additional ties." Function of Community 1. A system of production, distribution, and consumption. - A community must provide for the basic needs of members and their group- food, clothing, dwelling, transportation, education and other goods needed for basic existence, either by producing them or importing them from outside. 2. A system of socialization- a community must provide mechanisms for the transmission of existing knowledge, social values, and dominant patterns of behavior to the members. The family plays this role in the early stages of individual's development. Eventually, other components of the community such as peer group, work group, the school, the Church, among others, came into play. 3. A system of social control- this requires mechanisms through which conformity to the prevailing group norma are ensured. Formal organization such as the police, the courts, and the Church are important in this aspect. 4. A system of social participation- members of community learn to interact with other members spontaneously, starting from the family to a much bigger group. 5. A system of mutual support- the community is always expected to provide relief and solutions to members' problem. Approaches of the Study of Community .The community as a territorial unit- people think of their community as a physical place or geographic environment in which they live. .The community as a social group- the community may be seen as consisting of the people who are more than an aggregate of isolated individuals and who often interact with one another, have a shared culture, and find their contact with one another meaningful. .The community as a social system- the social system view looks at the community as a relatively enclosed system of interaction centered in some locality. .The community as a network of interactions- As a social system, the community encompasses a broad range of interrelated institutions such as family, schools, churches, and political and civic organizations. .Communities as units of observations

Characteristics of a Community 1. Population aggregate preferable to human group. 2. Delimited area 3. Sharing of historical heritage 4. The number of service of institutions 5. Participating in a common life 6. Consciousness of local unity 7. Ability to act together in solving civic problems. Criteria for Classification 1. The size of population 2. Secondary association- their presence will indicate diversity of the population 3. Social tolerance- caused by diversity of the population and impersonal contacts 4. Secondary controls- controls regulating the complex and predatory relations of members 5. Social Mobility - requires division of the labor, competition, and impersonality. 6. Voluntary associations - based on volunteerism, and voluntaristic character, not kinship ties. 7. Individuation - in which the individual is more independent and self-centered; 8. Spatial segregation- in which the center of city is monopolized by functions of basic importance.

Lecture 9. Sociology Social Institutions Social institutions are established or standardized patterns of rule-governed behavior. They include the family, education, religion, and economic and political institutions. Major Perspectives

Marx Social institutions are determined by their societys mode of production. Social institutions serve to maintain the power of the dominant class. Weber Social institutions are interdependent but no single institution determines the rest. The causes and consequences of social institutions cannot be assumed in advance. Durkheim Set the stage for later functionalist analyses of institutions by concluding that religion promotes social solidarity and collective conscience. Functionalist theory The social institutions listed in this section (along with other social institutions) fulfill functional prerequisites and are essential. Conflict theory Social institutions tend to reinforce inequalities and uphold the power of dominant groups. Emphasizes divisions and conflicts within social institutions. Symbolic interactionism Focuses on interactions and other symbolic communications within social institutions. 1. The Family: A socially defined set of relationships between at least two people related by birth, marriage, adoption, or, in some definitions, long-standing ties of intimacy. Key Questions How do families vary across different societies, historical periods, classes, and ethnic groups? How are authority, resources, and work distributed within families? How do parents, particularly mothers, balance the demands of work and family? What are the causes and effects of divorce, domestic violence, and single parenting? Notes Marx: The family upholds the capitalist economic order by ensuring the reproduction of the working class and by maintaining housewives as a reserve labor force. Functionalist theory: Functions of the family include socializing children, regulating sexual behavior and reproduction, distributing resources, providing social support. 2. Education: A formal process in which knowledge, skills, and values are systematically transmitted from one individual or group to another. Key Questions How do educational practices vary across different societies and historical periods? How does education affect individuals subsequent activities and achievements? What are the effects of class, race, and gender on educational institutions and experiences? What are the causes and consequences of various trends in education, such as grade inflation, violence in schools, and increasing public funding of religious instruction? Notes Marx: Education serves the capitalist order by producing skilled workers with habits such as punctuality and respect for authority.

Functionalist theory: Functions of education include transmitting shared values and beliefs, transmitting specific knowledge and skills, sorting individuals based on skill, and establishing social control over youths. Conflict theory: Educational tracking systems and other differential treatment of students reinforce social inequalities. Symbolic interactionism: Face-to-face interactions in the classroom can have long-range consequences for students educational achievements. 3. Religion: A unified system of beliefs and practices pertaining to the supernatural and to norms about the right way to live that is shared by a group of believers. Sociologists treat religion as a social rather than supernatural phenomenon. Key Questions How do the world religions differ? How are they similar? How have religions developed and changed, and why do people engage with them? What is the relationship between religion and other aspects of social life such as stratification, deviance, and conflict? What are the causes and consequences of contemporary trends such as secularization, the splintering of religious groups, and shifting churchstate relationships? Notes Marx: Religion is the opium of the peopleit masks domination and diverts workers from rebelling against exploitation. Weber: Classified religions by their approach to salvation: Ascetic religions require active self-mastery; mystical religions require passive contemplation. Other-worldly religions require focus on the next life (e.g., heaven); this-worldly religions require focus on earthly life. Durkheim: Religion provides social solidarity and collective conscience; it expresses and celebrates the force of society over the individual. Functionalist theory: Functions of religion include providing meaning for life, reinforcing social norms, strengthening social bonds, and marking status changes (e.g., marriage).Dysfunctions, according to some, include justifying persecution. 4. Economic Institutions: Sociologists understand the economy as the set of arrangements by which a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods, services, and other resources. Key Questions What institutions and relations characterize different economic systems (e.g., capitalism, socialism, and feudalism)? How do consumption and leisure patterns differ among various cultures, historical periods, and social groups? How do the structures of business organizations affect productivity, job satisfaction, and inequalities? What are the causes and consequences of contemporary trends such as economic liberalization, declining unionization, and increased consumer debt? Notes Marx: Economic organization (the means and relations of production) determines the major features of any society. Functionalist theory: Functions of economic institutions include: production and distribution of goods, assignment of individuals to different social roles such as occupations. 5. Political Institutions: Institutions that pertain to the governance of a society, its formal distribution of authority, its use of force, and its relationships to other societies and political units. The state, an important political institution in modern societies, is the apparatus of governance over a particular territory.

Key Questions How do political institutions differ across historical periods and societies? How do different social groups participate in political institutions, and with what consequences? How and why do individuals participate in political processes such as voting or joining lobbying groups? How are political institutions related to other aspects of society, such as the economy and the mass media? Notes Weber: Defines the state as an authority that maintains a monopoly on the use of violence in its territory. See Classical Sociological Thinkers > Max Weber > Key Concepts > Legitimate Authority. Functionalist theory: Functions of political institutions include protection from external enemies, resolving group conflicts, defining societal goals, and strengthening group identity and norms. Pluralism, a particularly functional type of political institution, entails distribution of power among many groups so no one group can gain control. Conflict theory: Pluralism and democracy are illusions that invite the powerless to believe that they have a voice in governance, when in fact their control is quite limited.