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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 24 (2002) 215221

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Electromagnetic transients in underground transmission systems through the numerical Laplace transform
Luis Naredo a, Pablo Moreno a, Leonardo Guardado b Felipe Alejandro Uribe a,*, Jose
a

pez Mateos Sur 590, CP. 45090, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico CINVESTAV, Unidad Guadalajara, Prol. Lo b ITM, P.O. Box 262, Morelia, Mich, Mexico Received 8 August 2000; revised 24 November 2000; accepted 8 February 2001

Abstract This paper describes a method for the analysis and simulation of electromagnetic transients in underground power transmission and submarine cables. This method uses the frequency domain technique known as the numerical Laplace transform [Int. J. Electl Engng Educ., 15 (1978) 247]. This method can be used, as a principal analysis tool or as a backup for time domain tools such as the EMTP [Electromagnetic Transients Program Reference Manual, Portland, OR, USA (1986)]. Two application cases taken from specialized literature included here, are taken from Wedepohl and Wilcox [Proc. IEE, 120 (1973) 253] and L. Marti [IEEE Trans. Power Del., 3 (1988) 1099], respectively. q 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Power cables; Numerical Laplace transform; Electromagnetic transients

1. Introduction Electric power transmission by cable systems usually is a much more expensive alternative than through aerial lines. There are situations, however, in which the excessive costs are justied completely; as for instance, when there are concerns of environmental, aesthetic or security types. Another case is, when a transmission system should pass through an urban area. Here, the issues related to environment, safety and costs of the right way usually tilt the economic balance towards the use of underground cables. There are also situations in which the only viable solution is the transmission by cable, like the interconnection of islands or peninsulas. In addition, it can be expected that new high power electronic technologies will make the use of underground and submarine cables a much more attractive alternative. To perform electromagnetic analysis of aerial lines there is a large variety of computing programs based on very well established methodologies. To analyze cables, however, the alternatives are very few. Apparently, there is yet no sufciently general and universally accepted computer program to calculate electric parameters of transmission cables over a broad band of frequencies. To calculate electromagnetic transients, the frequency
* Corresponding author. Tel.: 152-3-684-1580, fax: 152-3-684-1708. E-mail address: fauribe@gdl.cinvestav.mx (F.A. Uribe).

domain techniques have been well established for several years; however, a computer program of general access is still missing [5]. Time domain methods, on the other hand, represent the current trend of modeling for transient analysis. Recently, these methods have been incorporating full frequency dependent representations of lines and cables. One problem here is that these representations are still at an experimental stage [6]. In this paper, the development of a computer program to calculate electromagnetic transients on cable transmission systems is described. This program is based on a frequency domain technique known as the numerical Laplace transform (NLT) [1]. The program is intended both, as principal method for transient analysis and as backup to time domain techniques such as EMTP [2]. 2. Modeling of multiconductor cables The electromagnetic behavior of multiconductor lines and cables is described by the following pair of frequency domain Telegrapher's equations [5]: 2 d V ZI dz d I YV dz 1a

1b

0142-0615/02/$ - see front matter q 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0142-061 5(01)00031-X

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Fig. 1(b) schematizes its representation as a two port system. 3. Calculation of Z and Y Fig. 2 depicts the transversal layout of a typical AC underground transmission system. This is conformed by three concentric single-phase cables buried at the same depth. Fig. 2(b) shows the cross-section of each cable. For the system in Fig. 2(a) it is convenient to partition Eq. (1a) as follows: 2 3 2 32 3 V1 Z12 Z13 Z11 I1 7 6 76 7 d 6 6 7 V 76 Z22 Z23 7 4a 2 6 5 4 I2 5 dz 4 2 5 4 V3 symmetric Z33 I3 where V1, V2, and V3 are sub-vectors of phase voltages of the form: 2 3 VN;i 6 7 7 Vi 6 4b 4 VP; i 5 ; VA;i the index i 1; 2; 3 denotes cables 1, 2 and 3, indices N, P and A refer to nucleus, sheath and armor of the corresponding cable. In the same manner, I1, I2 and I3 are following sub-vectors of currents: 2 3 IN;i 6 7 7 Ii 6 4c 4 I P; i 5 IA;i The Z impedance in Eq. (4a) represents the total impedance of the system shown in Fig. 2(a). The Zij sub-blocks in Eq. (4a) with i; j 1; 2; 3 are of 3 3 order. Diagonal

Fig. 1. (a) Multiport cable system. (b) Two port network representation.

where Z and Y are the series impedance and shunt admittance matrices, respectively, both in per unit length, V is the vector of phase voltages and I is the corresponding vector of currents in the conductors. Here the term vector refers to a matrix column. While the obtention of Z and Y is detailed in Refs. [3,5], a summary of the corresponding methods is provided in the next section. The solution of Eqs. (1a) and (1b) is [5]: Vz exp2CzC 1 1 expCzC 2 Iz Y0 exp2CzC 1 2 Y0 expCzC 2 where p C ZY and Y 0 Z21 C: 2d 2a 2b

2c

Expression (2d) corresponds to the cable's characteristic admittance; C1 and C2 in Eq. (2a) are vectors containing the integration constants determined by the boundary conditions of the line or cable under analysis. Consider a multiconductor system of cables of length `l' with one of its ends at z 0 and the other at z l: Let V0 and I0 denote the respective voltage and current vectors at z 0; i.e. V 0 V0 and I0 I0: Let Vl and Il denote further the corresponding vectors of voltages and currents at z l in such a form that Vl Vl and Il 2Il: On applying these boundary values to Eqs. (2a) and (2b), the following two port nodal expression is obtained. " # " #" # I0 A B V0 ; 3a B A Il Vl where A Y0 cothCl B 2Y 0 cosechCl 3b 3c

Fig. 1(a) illustrates a three-phase system of cables and

Fig. 2. Underground transmission system (a) Cable layout. (b) Transversal section of concentric cable.

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blocks Zii with i j are of the form: 2 i i i 3 ZNP ZNA ZN 6 7 i i 7 Zii 6 ZP ZPA 4 5 symmetric
i ZA

C 0i 2pei =loge r2i =r2i21 and 4d G 0i C 0i s i =ei : Note that r2i, r(2i21), e i and s i are as in Fig. 2(b). 4. Modal analysis of cables

5d

5e

i i i i i i , ZNP , ZNA , ZP , ZPA , ZA in Eq. Evaluation of elements ZN (4d) is done through a process which is detailed in Ref. [2]. Off diagonal blocks Zij with i j are of the form: 2 3 1 1 1 6 7 7 4e Zij ZMij 6 4 1 1 1 5;

1 1

Once the matrices Z and Y for a cable have been obtained, one should proceed to calculate matrices C, Y0, A and B for Eqs. (3a3c) two port model. Let X denote the ZY product: X ZY 6a

where ZMij represents the mutual impedance between armors of cables `i' and `j'. This term is obtained by solving Pollaczek's integral. An approximate solution for ZMij, which is employed here, involves regarding the earth as a hollow tube with an innite external radius; this is referred to as the innite ground model. The approximation is adequate for cables buried at very high depths as compared to the thickness of the Skin-Effect layer. It is also adequate for submarine cables. Eq. (1b), as applied to Fig. 2 system, is partitioned as follows: 2 3 2 0 32 3 V1 I1 0 0 Y 11 7 6 76 7 d 6 0 6 7 2 6 I 76 0 5a Y 22 0 7 54 V2 5 dz 4 2 5 4 I3 V3 0 0 Y 0 33 Notice here that the mutual sub-blocks Yij, with i j, are matrices of zeros [2]. The diagonal sub-blocks Yii with i j 1; 2; 3 instead have the following form: 2 0 3 2Y 01 0 Y1 6 7 0 0 0 Yii 6 5b 2Y 02 7 4 2Y 1 Y 1 1 Y 2 5; 0 where: Y 0i G 0i 1 jvC 0i i 1; 2; 3; 5c 2Y 02 Y 02 1 Y 03

Matrices C, Y0, A and B are given in terms of functions of X, as indicated by Eqs. (2c2d) and (3b3c), respectively. The involved functions are transcendental and analytical. The latter property allows the application of modal analysis and of matrix calculus. It is assumed here that matrix X is diagonalizable, which is: X MLM 21 ; where L is 2 l1 6 60 6 L6 6 60 4 0 the eigenvalues matrix given by 3 0 0 0 7 l2 0 0 7 7 7; 7 0 ] 07 5 0 0 ln 6b

6c

and M, the column eigenvectors matrix of X. Let f() denote an analytical function. Then the following property holds [5]: 3 2 f l1 0 0 0 7 6 6 0 f l2 0 0 7 7 6 7 f L 6 6d 7 6 7 6 0 0 ] 0 5 4 0 0 0 f ln

Fig. 3. Circuit representation for a simple transmission system.

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and for non diagonal X it can be written [5]: f X Mf LM21 : 6e

From a physical point of view, the eigenvectors of X correspond to the natural modes of the cable being analyzed, and the eigenvalues are the square propagation constants of the corresponding modes [5]. 5. Transients in power cables Matrices A and B of Eq. (3a) generally are functions of the frequency v . To calculate transients using Laplace transform techniques, `jv ' must rst be substituted by s c 1 jv; where c is a real damping constant [1,7]. In addition to transmission lines, other circuits elements in a network

under study are represented by generalized admittances obtained by assuming excitations of the form `exp2c 1 jvt'. The network can thus be represented by its nodal matrix in the Laplace (or s) domain. For a given excitation, the network responses can be obtained through transfer function method. Consider as an example the network in Fig. 3. Its nodal representation is: #" # " # " IS V0 B A 1 YS 7a B A 1 YL 0 VL Let IS be the known excitation and V0 and VL the unknown responses. If one is interested in VL, an expression of the following form is derived from Eq. (7a): VL HsIS 7b

Fig. 4. Specications of a test system (a) test conguration, (b) cable dimensions, (c) horizontal disposition.

F.A. Uribe et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 24 (2002) 215221

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follows [1,7]: " # 21 ecmDt 1 NX 2pjmn=N ; V s e vLm N n0 Ln n Dt m 0; 1; ; N 2 1

8b

where vLm stands for vL(mDt) and VLn for VL(nDv ), s n snDv; is a data window (Lanczos, Vonn Hann, Hamming, etc.) used for the attenuating Gibbs phenomena errors [7]. Dt and Dv have been chosen as follows: DtDv
Fig. 5. Results obtained for example 1.

2p N

8c

where Hs {B 2 A 1 YS B21 A 1 YL }21 7c

Notice that NDt is the maximum observation time and NDv /2 is the truncation frequency for numerically integrating Eq. (8a). The following expression corresponds to the Matlabe implementation of Eq. (8b):  L : p sigma=delta t;  L expc p t: p ifftV v 8d  L is  L is a vector containing vL(t) sampled in time, V where v the vector with ,VL c 1 jv sampled in frequency, sigma is the vector containing the frequency samples of the data window being applied, t is the vector with the time sampling intervals and ifft() is a Matlabe programmed function which implements the Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm. 7. Transient analysis Consider the cable transmission system shown in Fig. 4(a), from Eq. (7a) VL and V0 are related by the following expression: VL 2A21 BV0 9a

which represents the transfer function of the system of Fig. 3.

6. Numerical Laplace transform Expression (7b) relates unknown voltage VL(s) with source current IS(s) in the Laplace domain. The time domain waveforms for VL(s) must be obtained by applying the following inverse Laplace integral: 1 Z c 1 j1 vL t V sest ds 2p j c 2 j 1 L 8a

The NLT involves approximating Eq. (8a) numerically as

Fig. 6. Results provided in Ref. [3].

220 Table 1 Data for example 2 Copper resistivity (V m) Lead resistivity (V m) Soil resistivity (V m) Relative permitivity insul 1 Relative permitivity insul 2

F.A. Uribe et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 24 (2002) 215221

r Cu r Pb r earth e1 e2

1.72 10 28 2.10 10 27 50 3.5 8.0

with 2 6 7 7 V 0 s 6 4 0 5 0 The NLT technique is applied to expressions (9a) and (9b) with the data provided in Fig. 4(b) and (c), for an observation time of 3 ms and for a number of samples of N 1024: Fig. 5 shows the transient waveforms obtained so far for end core 1 under three different cable lengths, l 10; 20; 40 miles: This example has been taken from an article by Wedepohl and Wilcox ([3]). Fig. 6 shows the results obtained by these authors. Note that the coincidence between the two gures is excellent. A second example is obtained from an article by Luis Marti ([4]). The cable system conguration is as in Fig. 4(a). The transversal geometries are as in Fig. 4(b) and (c); however, the dimensions and material properties are different. Table 1 provides the new data. The length of the cable system is 10 km. The excitation now is a square wave with a 40 ms period. Thus, in the Laplace domain: 3 1 2 exp20:02s 6 s1 2 exp 2 0:04s 7 7 6 7: V 0 s 6 7 6 0 5 4 2 0 On applying the NLT technique to Eqs. (9a) and (9c), the obtained far end transient response for core 1 is shown in
Fig. 8. Results provided in Ref. [4].

1=s

3 9b

Fig. 7. On the other hand, the corresponding response obtained by the methods in Ref. [4] is reproduced in Fig. 8. Note that these two gures differ substantially. One reason for this discrepancy may be a mistake in the data provided and shown in Table 1. Another reason might be that the time domain method used in Ref. [4] was still a prototype and the author did the simulations by injecting harmonics, rather than a step function. His results may therefore include oscillations caused by Gibbs' phenomenon. 8. Conclusions A computer program to calculate transients in underground transmission systems has been implemented using the NLT method. This program permits including the frequency variations of cable parameters in a straightforward manner. The frequency domain transients program can be used either as the principal method of analysis or as a backup for time domain based programs. This last application is very important as full frequency dependent line models are a recent development [6]. References
[1] Wilcox DJ. Numerical Laplace transformation and inversion. Int J Electl Engng Educ 1978;15:247. [2] Dommel HW. Electromagnetic transients program reference manual (EMTP theory book). Prepared for Bonneville Power Administration, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, OR 97208, USA, 1986. [3] Wedepohl LM, Wilcox DJ. Transient and harmonic induction in underground cable systems. Proc IEE 1973;120:25360. [4] Marti L. Simulation of transients in underground cables with frequency dependent modal transformation matrices. IEEE Trans Power Del 1988;3(3):1099110. [5] Wedepohl LM. Electrical characteristics of polyphase transmission systems with special reference to boundary-value calculations at power-line carrier frequencies. Proc IEE 1965;112(11).

9c

Fig. 7. Results obtained for example 2.

F.A. Uribe et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 24 (2002) 215221 [6] Morched A, Gustavsen B, Tartibi A. A universal model for accurate calculation of electromagnetics transients on overhead lines and underground cables. IEEE Trans Power Del 1999; 14(3):103210-8.

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[7] Wedepohl LM. Power systems transients: errors incurred in the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. Proceedings of Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, MWSCAS-1981, 1981. p. 1748.