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INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT

OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 1 Section 1 GENERAL Authorization Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 1

1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Authorization The Tanker Operations Manual (OMT) is authorized for use on board all tankers fully managed by International Tanker Management, and it describes the procedures to be adopted for safe operations on board. The Master and all Officers on board are required to acquaint themselves with the contents of this manual and comply with the procedures. In addition to compliance with this manual, the Master or the Officers on board shall abide and comply with International, Flag State or Local rules as applicable. A copy of the manual is provided onboard each vessel and it is subject to revision, and the manual has been compiled as a loose-leaf folder to help in easy updating. The holders of the manual are responsible for updating their copy as revised documents are received from the shore based management and for ensuring that the manual is readily available to department personnel. This manual may be provided to ships staff as appropriate, but never to people outside International Tanker Management, unless the Managers approval is obtained.

Dubai, 2002-12-31

_____________________________ Capt. Ole H Wang President & CEO International Tanker Management

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT


OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 1 Section 2 General Table Of Contents Revision: 4 Date: 06/07/17 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 3

1.2 Table Of Contents CH. SEC. TITLE 1 GENERAL 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 31.12.02


4

REV. NO. 1 4 2

DATE 31.12.02 17.07.06 01.07.04

1 2 3

Authorization Table of Contents Introduction

CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Pre-Loading Operation Loading Operation Operation Checks Planning Discharge Discharge Operations Lightening Operations Ballast/Deballast Operations Maintaining Records Cargo Measuring and Sampling Oil Transfer Procedures Cargo Survey/Calculations Double Hull Operations Bill of Lading & LOI INERT GAS SYSTEM Atmosphere Control Operation of Inert Gas Plant Inerting Cargo Tanks Emergency Procedures Maintenance Procedures Venting Inerting Sequences Flow Diagrams
TANK CLEANING SYSTEM

2 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 0 0

01.07.04 01.07.04 01.07.04 01.07.04 31.12.02 01.07.04 01.07.04 31.12.02 31.12.02 31.12.02 31.12.02 31.12.02 01.07.04

0 0 0 1 0 1

31.10.94 31.10.94 31.10.94 31.12.02 31.10.94 01.07.04 1

4 4 4

1 2 3

Tank Cleaning Guidelines 1 Crude Oil Washing 1 Tank Cleaning & Gas Freeing Equipment 0

17.07.06 31.12.02 31.10.94

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OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 1 Section 2 General Table Of Contents Revision: 4 Date: 06/07/17 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 3

CH. 5

SEC.

TITLE CARGO EQUIPMENTS Pumps Pipelines, Valves and Tanks Opening Heating Coils Coated Tanks Checks and Tests SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oil Tallow Molasses

REV. NO.

DATE

5 1 31.10.94 5 2 01.07.04 5 3 31.12.02 5 4 31.10.94 5 5 01.07.04 6 6 1 31.12.02 6 2 31.12.02 6 3 31.12.02 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 1 31.10.94 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 2 1 0 2

1 1 1

SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Safety Precautions Electrostatic Hazards Pyrophoric Material in Cargo Tanks Effect of Gas and Lack of Oxygen Cargo Hose Handling Pump Room Pollution Prevention Pressure Surge Product Information Sheets INSPECTION Port State Control/U.S.C.G./
Oil Companies

2 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0

01.07.04 01.07.04 31.10.94 31.10.94 31.10.94 01.07.04 01.07.04 31.12.02 01.07.04

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Chapter 1 Section 2 General Table Of Contents Revision: 4 Date: 06/07/17 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 3

9 9 1 31.12.02 9 2 31.10.94 9 3 31.10.94

CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Product Cargoes Vegetable Oils 1 0 0

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OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 1 Section 2 General Table Of Contents Revision: 4 Date: 06/07/17 Appr. by: OHW Page 4 of 3

CH. 10

SEC.

TITLE COMBINATION CARRIERS Description Operation APPENDIX Definitions

REV. NO.

DATE

10 1 31.10.94 10 2 31.10.94 11 11 1 31.10.94

0 0

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT


OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 1 Section 3 GENERAL Introduction Revision: 2 Date: 01.07.04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

1.3 Introduction 1.3.1 Purpose and Scope This manual sets out in a comprehensive manner the guidelines and recommendations for safe operations on board tankers managed by International Tanker Management and its subsidiaries. The guidelines given in this manual are to be supplemented by reference, among others, to the following, which forms a part of the companys SMS and are to be followed: 1. The International Safety Guide for Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) Publications for Tankers as listed in the Yellow Book. Operation and Maintenance Manuals of vessels cargo and ballast equipment. 4. The Managers Ship Safety Management Manual (SSMM) and Vessel Response Plan (VRP) 5. Tank Cleaning Guide by Dr. A Verweys 6. Rules and Regulations of Flag State, Port or terminal regarding operation.

7. Cargo information from the Terminal, Shippers, Owners or Charterers. This manual is written to reflect current practices and to provide a handy reference to personnel on board tankers. Information readily available in greater detail in the above quoted publications/manuals has been, in some cases, only been referred to briefly, to avoid duplication. The operational practices set our herein must be used in conjunction with a thorough knowledge of the ship, its cargo and equipment. To carry out safe operation it is important that it is planned and discussed in detail with concerned personnel. Personnel engaged in the operation must be fully aware of their duties and responsibilities including action to be taken during an emergency. The emergency procedures included provide guidelines for dealing with tanker specific emergencies. These are in addition to the company procedures dealt with in the SSMM and the ship specific VCM. Interaction with Terminal Representatives and Surveyors shall be conducted in such a manner that there is no room for any misunderstanding by any one party of the others action. Where language difficulties are likely to arise, extra precautions shall be taken. All mutual agreement, shall as far as practicable, be in writing.

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OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 1 Section 3 GENERAL Introduction Revision: 2 Date: 01.07.04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

The Master has absolute and overriding authority to take appropriate decision in matters pertaining to safety and environmental protection. If necessary he may request the assistance of the company, without undue delay. This manual does not cover carriage of chemicals for which the relevant manual must be consulted.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 1 of 7 1 of 7

2.0 CARGO HANDLING 2.1 Pre-Loading Operation 2.1.1 Voyage Orders The vessel will usually receive voyage orders from the Owner and Charterer which will contain the following information : Ports of loading and discharge along with draft limitations (if any) Volume to be loaded, grade or grades and API Special requirements of cargo e.g. heating Special properties of cargo e.g. H2S

The Master is responsible for loading in compliance with these orders. If more information about the cargo or any clarification regarding the orders are required the Master should contact the Charterer/Owner without delay, always keeping the Manager informed. 2.1.2 Planning Cargo Stowage The following factors are to be considered when planning stowage of cargo: The limiting load line zone of the loaded passage and the port of destination Draft restrictions during voyage and at the load and discharge ports Consumption on intended passage The stress conditions should be within the permissible limits of the bending moments and sheer force for sea conditions. Sufficient volume for possible expansion of cargo on the intended voyage Two valve segregation of cargo parcels where applicable. Distribution and sequence of multi-grade cargoes Sequence of multi port voyages Trim for efficient discharge and draining of tanks Crude oil washing and final stripping

One tank should be allocated as the last tank of loading. A centre tank at the trimming centre of the vessel is recommended. 2.1.3 Loading Plan A detailed loading plan shall be written down which shall show the following details: Names and quantities of the cargo/products to be loaded

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Cargo each tank is to receive The pipeline system to be used with each grade The sequence in which products are to be received and discharged The final ullage of each tank Forward, midship and aft drafts on sailing Identification of all valves to be closed, lashed and/or sealed The loading rate Stress/BM at various stages of loading Drafts( and airdrafts if terminal restrictions present) at various stages of loading GM at various stages of loading Ballast sequences in relation to loading Depth available alongside at low water Agreement with terminal regarding Vapour Recovery System settings ashore and on board Any special instructions Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 2 of 7 2 of 7

The chief officer, in consultation with the Master, shall prepare the vessels load plan. Information related to the vessels operation in port, e.g. cargo details, connection details, port operation characteristics, tide details, mooring arrangements, special port requirements, etc should be obtained from the Port Guides, Agents, etc, in good time. Similarly, ship specific requirements must also be intimated to the terminal, agents and/or charterers as required. The loading plan shall then be discussed with the watch keeping officers and Pump man. They shall be provided the necessary information and instructions for carrying out their duties and responsibilities. 2.1.4 Tank Capacity When cargo is to be lifted to full capacity, the tanks must not be loaded beyond 98% of their maximum capacity, having due regard to possible expansion of the cargo. The following shall be considered when loading to full capacity: The temperature of cargo at load port The ambient temperature at the load/discharge port and the expected air/sea temperature during voyage Cargo heating required during voyage/discharge Multi-grades :- possibility of heated cargo in adjacent tanks Expansion caused fermentation Tanks with common boundaries with fuel oil tanks (mainly slop tanks) get heated up as the fuel oil is heated up. Sufficient ullage to be allowed for this

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 3 of 7 3 of 7

2.1.5 Overloading The vessel shall at no time be loaded beyond the relevant loadline mark. The Master and Chief Officer shall ensure that cargo calculations must allow for water density, limiting drafts over bars/channels/canals, steaming time on long river transits, and squat. The loadline regulations apply to the midship marks. A laden tanker tend to sag and hence while the draft fore and aft may be within permissible limits, the vessel may be considered to be overloaded due to the midship draft. 2.1.6 Multi-grade Cargoes The recommended procedure for stowage of multi-grade cargoes is by utilizing the vessels natural pipeline segregation. By utilizing the segregation fully, the Chief Officer can optimise the cargo stowage, ensuring load and discharge flexibility and remain within the vessels stress limitations. Two-valve segregation is a minimum requirement unless otherwise clearly advised by the charterer/owner in writing. Any doubt in this regard shall be clarified well in time to avoid delays. In some cases pipeline admixture is tolerated, but ideally there must be no mixture of this kind unless the vessel is asked to load more grades than it is designed for. In such cases clear information on which grades can tolerate admixture must be obtained. The vessels Owner/charter and the terminal must be made aware of the vessels intentions and requirements well in time. Such instruction shall be obtained in writing. If multi-grade cargoes also involve multi-port load or discharge options, many different stowage plans may have to be considered for optimising cargo uplift and to meet trim and stability requirements. The simultaneous loading or discharging of two or more grades should be considered to reduce time in port. The sequence of cargo operation shall be so that topping off or draining of tanks doesnt occur all at once with the officer in charge being overwhelmed. Masters must not hesitate to obtain advice from charterers or the Manager at any time regarding the loading of multi-grade cargoes. To avoid delays. 2.1.7 Loading Rate The loading rate shall be decided based on the following: Pipeline/Valve size and the design of the pipeline system Number of tanks being loaded The possibility of static accumulation (esp. static accumulator cargoes) Possibility of water or air in shore lines increasing electrostatic hazards

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 4 of 7 4 of 7

Cargo temperature (thermal shock to steel work) Topping up rate and prevention of hydraulic shock to ship and shore lines when closing valves during completion of loading Venting capacity of P/V valves or Mast Riser Number of portable gauging equipments on board.

2.1.8 Free Surface Effect To reduce free surface effects and sloshing stress on the vessel, it is desirable that tanks are as full as possible (98%), leaving minimum number of slack tanks. When tanks have to be left slack, the volume in the slack tanks should be calculated so as to safely remain within the sloshing limits prescribed for the vessel. 2.1.9 Loading On Top (Crude Oil Carriers) The crude oil residues remaining after tank washing and decanting are to be stored in the vessels slop tank until disposal ashore to terminal facilities can be arranged or the next cargo is Loaded on Top. Charterers must be advised on receiving orders about the grade and total quantity of slops held (water and oil) and written confirmation must be obtained from them that it is permissible to load on top. 2.1.10 Planning Cargo Operation In planning cargo operations the vital factors to be considered are: Equipment Personnel Safety

It is important to plan and stagger the topping off sequence and allow sufficient time between two tanks. 2.1.11 Equipment The equipment used in cargo operations shall be checked during the ballast passage and all defects that can be repaired shall be attended to. At no time shall any equipment be used if the safety features are found not to be operational, till they are effectively repaired. The loading plan shall be suitably amended in case some defects likely to cause problems in cargo handling. Oil spill prevention equipment shall be readily available. Fire fighting equipment should be made ready and available for use. Hand held radios should be tested and reserve batteries must be available for use.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 5 of 7 5 of 7

Measuring instruments, flashlights and personnel protection equipment shall be available and ready to use. 2.1.12 Personnel Port watches shall be set to ensure safe manning levels at all times during cargo operations. A licensed deck officer must be on watch at all times and a rating present at the manifold throughout the operation. There shall be sufficient men on watch to tend to the moorings. All personnel shall be briefed before loading on action to be taken in an emergency and the emergency communication procedures with the shore terminal. 2.1.13 Ship-Shore Safety Check list The ship-shore safety checklist as per International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) shall be completed after physically checking that all items applicable to the vessel are complied with. This checklist shall be completed in co-ordination with the terminal representative. 2.1.14 Deballasting Vessel should always arrive in the load port with clean ballast and also decanted slops, unless otherwise specified in the Voyage Orders or if vessel is required to carry additional ballast due to exceptional circumstances (e.g. heavy weather) or to maintain required draft. When alongside, unless terminal, local or international rules require otherwise, the vessel will deballast to sea, prior loading, after obtaining permission from the terminal. Simultaneous deballasting and loading of cargo tanks shall not be attempted unless there is at least a two valve separation and the Master is satisfied that the separation valves are tight. On completion of deballasting all possible water shall be drained from the cargo tanks. If ballast is being discharged ashore, the final stripping shall be done through the small diameter stripping discharge line. Permanent or segregated ballast may of course be discharged simultaneously when vessel is loading cargo. On some vessels this will be required to be delayed until some cargo has been loaded to enable the loading arms to stay in place or to reduce the effect of wind in light ship condition. In exceptional circumstances where only permanent or segregated ballast is

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 6 of 7 6 of 7

Insufficient, it may be required to load part of the cargo, deballast and then resume/ complete loading. This should not be attempted unless all precautions for contamination or pollution are taken. 2.1.15 Tank Inspection Prior to loading, the vessels tanks should be inspected by the terminal representative and / or surveyor(s), who should sign an OBQ certificate, indicating the amount of sediment, oil and free water remaining in the tanks prior loading. 2.1.16 Setting PV Valves The vessel should use closed loading with all ullage ports closed, except for initial and final inspection. All cargo tank vents should be set to the loading position. I.G. Valves shall be correctly set to avoid vapor contamination. Ensure that the Inert Gas plant is shut down, the deck isolation valve is shut and the main inert gas venting valves are open. Where vapour return system (VRS) is required to be used, ensure only appropriate valves are opened and the rest closed. When using VRS, it is imperative that the water is drained from the IG lines. Vapour line alarms shall be tested to ensure that it is working satisfactorily. 2.1.17 Lining up Pipelines and Valves The pipeline to be used for each grade of cargo shall be clearly made known to ships personnel. A copy of the loading plan shall be provided to the terminal representative to avoid any misunderstanding of the ships requirement. Once the sequence of loading has been agreed to, the pipelines and valves shall be set for loading. Vessels fitted with drop lines for loading, should use those lines for receiving cargo, bypassing the pump room. Valves not in use, both in pump room and on deck shall be firmly closed and where required, lashed. Where valves are operated from the Cargo control room or a deck junction box, suitable indication shall be provided to prevent accidental operation. The manifold lines, not in use, are to be blanked with all bolts in place and tight. The position of all main, stripping, tank and pump room valves must be checked to ensure that those valves, which are to be shut, are in fact closed.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 1 CARGO HANDLING Pre-Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page: 7 of 7 7 of 7

The setting of valves shall be carried out by one person and independently checked by an Officer. The Chief Officer will finally check that al is in order before giving the order to start loading. 2.1.18 High Level Alarms The High level and High-High Level alarms systems shall be kept operational at all times during cargo operations. The system shall be checked, tested and records maintained in form BD10, as described in Ch. 5.5.3 of this manual.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 2 CARGO HANDLING Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 6

2.2 Loading Operation 2.2.1 Manifold Valve The manifold valve should remain shut until the Chief Officer is satisfied in all respects with the vessels readiness to load. The order to open the manifold valve shall be given by the Chief Officer. 2.2.2 Start of Loading The initial flow of oil should be at a reduced rate. The line set up should then be checked by: Ensuring that the cargo is flowing into tanks designated for that cargo/grade only. Other tanks should also be checked for any change in ullage. Looking over side for any possible escape of oil through sea valves.

The manifold connections being used and blanks on lines not in used must be checked for any leaks. This must be done sides and the stern manifold (if fitted). Only after these checks have been made and found satisfactory, should the Chief Officer inform the terminal to load at the agreed full loading rate. When required, vessels engaged in the clean product trade should stop loading when the oil level in the tank is about 0.5 Meters above the bottom. Samples are then to be drawn from all cargo tanks carrying that grade and analysed before loading is resumed. 2.2.3 Monitoring Cargo Tanks The ullage of the tanks being loaded should be frequently and regularly monitored, especially when tanks are approaching the topping off range. Tanks, which are already topped up, must also be monitored to ensure that levels of cargo in these tanks do not alter. The cargo temperature and density should be taken at the start of loading. If the parameters differ from those used for planning cargo stowage, the revised calculation must be made and the corrected ullage made known to the personnel engaged in cargo operations. A careful record of the hourly load/discharge ullage and rates must be kept. This must be crosschecked with the terminal. If any large discrepancy is detected during loading an immediate investigation must be carried out. (Dont forget to check empty/ballast tanks). The ships stresses should be monitored through out the operation, to ensure that they remain within acceptable limits.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 2 CARGO HANDLING Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 6

Steel tapes are NOT to be used for ullaging during loading. At least 30 minutes must be allowed after loading has been completed before lowering a steel tape into a tank. During cargo operations a close watch must be kept on empty tanks to see that that they are in fact empty. This is very important when handling multi-grade cargoes and on completion of cargo. NEVER ASSUME a tank to be empty. Always CHECK & BE CERTAIN. Remote tank ullages and soundings must be regularly verified / crosschecked with manual readings, in any case at least once a watch. 2.2.4 Failure of Tank Gauging System Cargo operations to a tank must be suspended if the cargo tank level monitoring system is inoperative until alternate means of safely gauging tank level has been established. In case of total failure of the level gauging system the complete cargo operation must be suspended until a satisfactory form of gauging has been established. 2.2.5 Topping off Tanks The following points should be considered when topping off tanks: Closing off one tank valve increases the rate of flow to other tanks on the same line. As the vessel trims by the sterns, the rate of flow into after tanks Which are open will increase. The rate of flow into any tank, which is nearly full, can quickly be reduced by opening the valve to an empty tank on the same line. This procedure, in conjunction with closing the valve on the full tank, permits precise control of loading of individual tanks. The person in charge of topping off tanks must give the operation his undivided attention and should not asked to perform other duties simultaneously.

The greater the pressure against a manual valve, the longer it will take to open or close it 2.2.6 Changing Tanks From the standpoint of oil pollution and safety, the most critical operation during loading is pressing up a tank to the pre-determined ullage, securing and preventing further inflow and transferring the oil flow to other tank at the same time. To carry out this critical operation safely: There must be sufficient manpower available to operate valves and read ullage.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 2 CARGO HANDLING Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 6

The men should clearly understand the operation and must pay full attention to their duties. There should be no over-pressurising of ships or shore lines by closing too many valves against the loading pressure. As the topping off stage is approached, the flow to the tank involved must be regulated so that full attention can be paid to securing one tank at a time. The liquid level in topped off tanks should be checked frequently to ensure that the level is not rising through the tank valve not being properly sealed. PV valves are set in correct position. Topping off ullages, after allowing for the vessels trim and list, should be precalculated and be known to all involved personnel. Staff involved in this operation must be briefed and made well conversant with the procedure, as well as the location & operation of the valves.

2.2.7 Final Tank The loading rate shall be reduced to the minimum well in time and in no case be increased when only one tank remains to be topped up. Adequate notice should be given to the terminal when approaching the end of cargo. The order to stop loading shall be given by the Chief Officer based on the: Time required by the terminal for shutting down Cargo remaining in the pipe line and loading arms Remaining space available in other tanks Possibility that vessel may receive more cargo due to delay by the terminal in shutting down

2.2.8 Disconnecting Loading Arms The procedures for draining and disconnecting of loading arms or hoses vary from terminal to terminal, but generally the loading arms are drained back to the ships tanks. It is however, likely that a small quantity of oil remains in the loading arm at the time of disconnection. Drums, drip trays and bags of absorbent material must be readily available near the manifold. 2.2.9 Checks After Loading When loading arms have been drained, the OOW shall ensure that all valves in the cargo system are closed, all appropriate tank openings are closed and that pressure/ vacuum relief valves are correctly set. The OOW must report to the Chief Officer on completion of the above task.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 2 CARGO HANDLING Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 6

2.2.10 Intransit Care Of Cargo The following shall be considered during in-transit of the cargo:
Follow instructions as per charter party requirements. Ullages and water cuts to be regularly taken and logged. Instructions on this are generally given in the voyage orders and will normally would require the results to be sent to the charterers. Cargo Temperatures to be maintained and logged regularly as per charter party requirements. Positive IG pressure to be maintained at all times and cargo tanks to be gas tight. Release of cargo vapours to be strictly monitored and should be released manually only in case of absolute emergency. Proper log for vapour release to be maintained. If the evaporation loss is greater than 0.2%, a protest letter to be issued. When carrying multi grade cargo, vapour and cargo contamination to be avoided.

2.2.11 Release of cargo vapour during transit Release of cargo vapours shall be strictly monitored and manual release should only be carried out in case of absolute emergency. Proper log for vapour release shall be maintained. If the evaporation loss is greater than 0.2%, a protest letter shall issued. In deciding when to release the pressure in cargo tanks, due consideration must be given to the following factors:
ambient temperature, volatility of cargo and vapor pressure of the cargo, the rolling of the vessel in rough weather, the volume of cargo in the tank in relation to the vapor space available.

Temperature changes when transiting from one region to the next is also an important factor which will influence the decision to release pressure in cargo tanks. Various researches on this aspect has shown that release of vapors or IG due to daily temperature fluctuations from morning to afternoon and during nightfall become unnecessary if the process of cargo tank pressure rise or fall is clearly understood. It is obvious that tank temperature will rise from sunrise to sunset reaching its highest during the afternoon and then gradually reducing and remaining low from sunset to next sunrise. The increase in vapor released from cargo inside the tank space will effect the pressure of the tank and will vary in relation to the variation in temperature. The general tendency is then to release cargo vapors/IG during the afternoon by a reasonable amount. After a period of time this will also entail topping of the IG by using the top-up IG

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 2 CARGO HANDLING Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 5 of 6

generator or boiler flue gas as is feasible. This will necessitate extra costs for bunker consumption in addition to air pollution caused by release of cargo. In order to avoid or reduce the frequency of such release it is important to understand the concepts of gas evolution and plan vapor release to minimise this activity. Various solutions are available to prevent unnecessary release of vapors to the atmosphere. One method and probably the least expensive solution is to maintain a balanced pressure in the cargo tank at all times during transit. Cargo tanks are fitted with a rated PV valve and also when connected to a common system additional protection is provided by means of the PV breaker. It is preferable that the pressure release itself via the PV valve instead of releasing it manually. As long as the tank pressure does not rise close to the limits set on either the PV valve or the PV Breaker, there is no requirement for releasing the pressure in the tank. During the night the subsequent fall in pressure in the tank will thus remain within an acceptable range and maintain a positive pressure in the cargo tank. Using this philosophy the number of times it would be necessary to release pressure is reduced considerably and in some cases is not required at all. It is recommend that all vessels follow this routine on board. A second method is to install a vapor recovery system, which will suck vapor from the space in the cargo tank and will pump it back into the liquid cargo. This will release the vapor back to the cargo itself and has shown to reduce losses due to vapor release by as much as 80%. However installation and maintenance is costly and thus is not preferred by many owners. Besides the above it should be remembered that the decision to reduce venting should always be such that vessel safety is not compromised at any stage. 2.2.12 Cargo Watches A careful record of all events during the cargo watches is to be maintained. Such information is to be handed over to the next watch keeping staff, in addition to the disposition of valves, loading/discharging rates, cargo plans including deviations if any, existing condition of cargo / ballast in tanks, special requirements from the port / terminal, master / Chief Officers orders, etc, etc. All information possible must be handed over in writing to the next watch keeper to assist him to continue an effective watch towards safe operation. The valve position indicators on the mimic console in the CCR must be correctly maintained. All functions on this console must be tested for correct functioning and maintained as such.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 2 CARGO HANDLING Loading Operation Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 6 of 6

The persons taking over the watch must physically verify the status of the valves onboard. Valves, which are required to be shut, must actually be shut particular attention must be exercised to ensure that critical valves are kept shut. Both taking over and handing over officers must endorse this in the ships log.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 3 CARGO HANDLING Operational Checks Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 4

2.3 Operational Checks During cargo operation frequent checks shall be made as described hereunder. 2.3.1 Moorings The OOW is responsible for frequent and careful tending of moorings. When tending moorings which have become slack or too taut. It should be ensured that the tightening or slackening of individual moorings does not result in vessel moving away from berth or exert undue stresses on other mooring lines/loading arms. The following should be considered when tending moorings: Significant increase in wind speed or change in wind direction, particularly when vessel is in light condition Swell conditions Periods of maximum tidal flow Low under water clearance The close passing of other ships

Special care must be exercised when a tanker is berthed at a buoy mooring to prevent the vessel over-riding the buoy. At single point moorings a watchman equipped with a walkie-talkie shall be stationed on the forecastle. He is to report to the OOW immediately if in doubt about the state of the mooring. If the vessel is at a multi-buoy moorings, frequent tending of lines will be necessary to keep the vessel in position and to keep vessel movement to a minimum.

Excessive movement of a vessel at berth or buoy may cause rupture of cargo


connections and may result in severe pollution. Ropes, wires and rope tails used for mooring shall be well maintained and checked for wear and tear at frequent intervals. Replacements shall be ordered to ensure that vessels always have sufficient wires/ropes for a safe mooring operation. Emergency towing wires (fire wires) shall be in good order. The wires shall be rigged correctly at either end on the off shore side on completion of mooring and tended to during cargo operations. The eye must always be at the correct height above sea level. Sufficient slack shall be retained between the bollard and chock to enable tugs to tow efficiently in an emergency.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 3 CARGO HANDLING Operational Checks Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 4

2.3.2 Manifold Frequent checks shall be made of the manifold and hose connections. This should also include a visual check of the shore end of the connection, as well as the manifold connections, which are not in use. Care shall be taken to ensure that the loop made by a cargo hose is sufficiently supported by the straps to avoid undue stresses and not acutely bent. A licensed deck officer should supervise manifold connection and disconnection. Staff involved in this operation shall wear the requisite personal protection gear. Safety Guidelines: Reference is made to the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen (COSWP) describing precautions to be taken against personal injury. Some of the common injuries to protect against are: Hand / fingers being caught between flanges or between reducers, etc Use of incorrect size or incorrect type of spanners which could slip causing injury Attempting to disconnect the flanges without first releasing the pressure inside the pipeline.

It is important to ensure that the location of resting the loading arms on deck or the manifold gratings is of adequate strength. Any spill of the cargo at the manifold must be immediately cleaned. Only spark resistant tools should be used in gas hazardous area. The manifold drip trays should be kept empty at all times, to mitigate any fire hazard and prevent personnel from exposure to fumes. Spillage in to these trays should be drained out and dried at the very earliest. Whenever loading arms / hoses are disconnected, these must be blanked off effectively before transferring them over side to jetty or double banked vessel, to avoid any chances of pollution. 2.3.3 Pump Room The pump room shall be checked for leaks at least once every hour. When cargo pumps are in operation these checks shall be made at 30 minutes interval. The pump room ventilation shall be kept on through out the operation. The lower most vent flap on the vent trunk should be open and other vent flaps closed, so as to maximise the extraction of gases from the pump room.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 3 CARGO HANDLING Operational Checks Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 4

Prior to entering pump room "Enclosed space entry permit" shall be made. The permit shall be displayed at the entrance of the pump room. Personnel entering pump rooms shall carry personal gas monitoring equipment. This shall preferably be a multi-gas detector measuring hydrocarbon, oxygen and H2S. Persons entering the pump room shall: Inform the Chief Officer or O.O.W and obtain permission. Ensure that the pump room ventilation is on

Be in close contact with the person on deck or cargo control room The pump room gas detection and alarm system shall be tested and that it is maintained in operational condition at all times. (ALSO PLEASE REFER TO Ch 7.6.3 MORE DETAILS ON PUMP ROOM ENTRY & SAFETY REQUIREMENTS) 2.3.4 Weather Careful watch shall be kept for adverse weather conditions. During electrical storm, the cargo operations should be stopped and all tank openings and vent lines closed. Close liaison must be maintained with terminal authorities when vessel is at an open sea berth or buoy, if sudden and rapid changes in weather conditions are expected. Weather forecast for the area must be taken and monitored for the entire stay in port. This would greatly assist the ships management in planning / adjusting the operations. Such reports are also available from most terminals, when requested. 2.3.5 Water Around Vessel A close watch should be kept on water around the vessel for oil traces. If oil is seen around vessel, and suspected to be from own ship, procedure as per the Vessels Response Plan (VRP) shall be followed. All necessary authorities shall be informed and entry made in the log book. 2.3.6 Gas Evolution When loading high vapour pressure cargoes, a watch should be kept on the wind speed and direction. When there is little air movement, a gas cloud may form on the lee side of accommodation. The ships staff must be made aware of the danger and it may be required to stop loading in extreme cases.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 3 CARGO HANDLING Operational Checks Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 4

2.3.7 Handling of Stores It must be remembered that some ports / terminals do not permit the handling of stores while cargo operation is in progress, whilst some terminal require special permission and handling procedures. In any case, care should be exercised while handling stores, so as to prevent any sparks from being generated. So far as practicable, stores should be handled on aft decks where gas concentrations are likely to be minimum. Particular attention should be paid to the handling of stores like drums, heavy spare parts, etc, which could generate sparks during handling. 2.3.8 Cargo Hydraulic System The cargo hydraulic system shall be regularly checked to ensure correct operation. The oil level in the hydraulic tank and the reserve tank (where fitted) shall be regularly monitored and required oil levels maintained. Adequate oil reserves shall be maintained onboard at all times. The emergency or alternate hydraulic system, including hand operated portable equipment shall be tested and kept ready at all times. A record of the running hours for each motor should be maintained - some ships may be provided with a meter for recording this. A fully operational and overhauled spare hydraulic motor should be maintained onboard, so far as possible. Adequate spares for the overhaul and repairs for the cargo hydraulic system and the cargo hydraulic valves shall be identified and maintained onboard. The cargo hydraulic system shall be monitored for malfunctions and leaks during the operation and these shall be evaluated and repaired at the first opportunity. A record of repairs effected to the various valves, motors, actuators, etc shall be maintained, alongwith the valve timings.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 4 CARGO HANDLING Planning Discharge Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 3

2.4 Planning Discharge 2.4.1 Objective The discharge operation shall be planned to meet the following objectives: To maximise out turn from the vessel and avoid cargo retention claims. To operate cargo systems to the highest safety and anti-pollution standards.

2.4.2 Pre-Arrival Meeting Well before arrival at a discharge port the following should be carried out: All officers connected with the discharging operation, particularly the Chief Officer and Chief Engineer must be aware of the Charter Party requirements The Chief Officer and Chief Engineer shall confirm the status of cargo pumps and pump controls, tachometers and pressure gauges. They shall also discuss how the cargo pumps can be used to optimum levels.

2.4.3 Discharging Strategy The ability of a vessel to achieve a good performance depends on the ability of the vessel to maintain, operate and use the discharge equipment skilfully, intelligently and with careful planning. Maximum discharge rates are achieved when all cargo pumps are used for bulk discharge for the longest possible time during discharge. This means that tanks nearing draining level must be staggered to enable internal stripping to take place simultaneously as bulk discharge. The discharging sequence shall be such that an effective trim is maintained from an early stage of the operation. This will allow effective stripping by the main pump and leave minimal quantities for final stripping. The need to maintain trim shall not result in a situation where due to limited ullage in the aft tanks, an overflow of cargo takes place from the aft tanks. Great care must be taken especially in the initial stages of discharge. When all tanks are loaded to full capacity, it is advisable to drop all tanks to a safe ullage before trimming the vessel.

2.4.4 Discharging Plan The Chief Officer, in consultation with the Master should prepare a detailed discharging plan in ample time before arrival at the discharge port. Information related to the vessels operation in port, e.g. connection details, port operation characteristics, tide details, mooring arrangements, special port requirements, etc should be obtained from the Port Guides, Agents, etc, as

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 4 CARGO HANDLING Planning Discharge Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 3

necessary. Similarly, ship specific requirements must also be intimated to the terminal, agents and/or charterers as required. The plan should include: A sketch of the vessles cargo tank layout showing cargo distribution. In case of multi-grades, a separate colour code for each grade carried. Discharging sequence and berth time, subject to approval from the terminal. Trim, Drafts, Stress/BM, GM at various stages of discharge operation. Trim, draft and stress restrictions/requirements, if any. No. of cargo pumps to be used. The back pressure to be maintained at the manifold (usually 100 psi (7 kg/cm2) at the ships manifold). The crude oil washing programme, including the identity of tanks to be washed and the time of each cycle. Instructions for ballasting during discharge. Instructions for duty officers and ratings on watch.

The discharge plan has to be approved by the Master and discussed with the duty officers. The pumpman is to fully briefed about the discharging / COW and ballasting procedure. A copy of the discharge plan shall be made available for reference at all times during the operation. 2.4.5 Discharging Time Terminals may impose a maximum time limit for berth occupancy. The discharge plan will have to take this into consideration. In some cases, ballasting of cargo tanks may have to be delayed until after leaving berth, if weather is favourable.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 4 CARGO HANDLING Planning Discharge Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 3

2.4.6 Methods of Planning Some of the various methods used for planning are Bar Charts and Flow diagrams. Bar Charts Discharging Sequence
No.1 Pump No.2 Pump No.3 Pump 1W 3C 4C 2C 4W 5C 1C 6W 2W 5W 6W Slop Tank

Hours:

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Discharging Times ---Hours The bar chart has the following features: Enables planning of cargo discharge sequence. Indicates activity schedule of each pump and tanks assigned to each pump. Shows the change over schedule and approximate time for each tank. Easily adaptable if operational snags require a change in plans. Help in mobilising personnel at proper time for change over.

2.4.7 Flow Diagrams No. 1 Pump 1W 2C 1C 6W No.2 Pump 3C 4W 2W 6W No.3 Pump 4C 5C 5W Slop Tanks

The features of flow diagrams are: Shows the pumping sequence for each pump and tanks assigned When two pumps are made common these can be indicated by joining the two activity lines. This method is particularly useful when cargo segregation is required or multi-grade cargoes are carried.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 5 CARGO HANDLING Discharge Operations Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 4

2.5 Discharge Operations 2.5.1 On Arrival When the vessel arrives at the discharge port the Chief Officer is to discuss with the Terminal representative the proposed discharge plan and obtain acceptance especially if the vessel intends to carry out crude oil washing. The Master must issue a Cargo Hose Request letter, indicating the maximum number of cargo hoses the vessel can utilize for the operation, unless previously agreed upon by all parties. 2.5.2 Discharge Over the Tide If the vessel is required to discharge over the tide i.e due to restricted depth of water the vessel has to discharge a sufficient quantity to remain afloat when the tide ebbs. Masters are to ensure that they can reach the required draft by assessing the capability of ships cargo pumps, the anticipated shore back pressure and the discharge rate. If the Master is not satisfied with the progress, he should not hesitate to take action to interrupt discharging operations and move away from the berth. In all such cases, vessel should be maintained on an even keel. 2.5.3 High Back Pressure If shore tanks are full or are located at considerable distance, high back pressure will be experienced at the ships pump/rail, reducing the effective discharge rate. It will also be difficult to strip out tanks. The terminal should be requested to change over to an empty tank during stripping or assist in reducing the back pressure. 2.5.4 Inert Gas system See procedures detailed in Ch. 3, "Inert Gas System 2.5.5 Crude Oil Washing See procedures detailed in Ch. 4.2 Crude Oil Washing 2.5.6 Discharge Performance The Charter Party (CP), terminal or port requirements regarding discharge performance must be known to Officers co-ordinating cargo discharge. Most CPs require vessel to maintain 100 psi (7 kg/cm2) back pressure at

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 5 CARGO HANDLING Discharge Operations Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 4

the ships rail. If higher back pressure is permitted by the terminal, the vessel shall maintain the higher permitted back pressure provided safe operations are not compromised. Every effort must be maintained to maintain required pressure for the maximum period possible, by utilising cargo pumps to maximum effect and by minimising time used for stripping. As full compensation can be claimed by cargo receivers for any pumpable cargo remaining on board (even one barrel) after discharging, maximum diligence must be exercised to ensure that all tanks are efficiently drained. The following will assist in achieving a satisfactory discharge out turn: Vessel must be trimmed to the maximum allowable trim by stern during final stripping of all cargo tanks. 100% COW of all cargo tanks (if permitted by terminal or instructed by charterers) to allow free flow of liquid cargo to suction bell mouths and to prevent sludge accumulation near lightening holes and the bell mouth.

The discharge performance shall be carefully monitored at hourly intervals and the details filled in the Pumping Performance Record. On completion of discharge the signature of the Terminal representative must be obtained. This is very important to defeat claims from the receivers as to the pumping performance. Full records and details of operation of pumps, hourly ullages, discharge rates as well as details of shore restrictions or stoppages with reasons should be maintained. If vessel is unable to strip the cargo tanks completely dry with eductors/stripping pumps, the ROB report must be endorsed as follows Un-pumpable and unreachable by vessels permanent pumps 2.5.7 Line Stripping Proper use of the Marpol (Small Diameter) line shall be made. Top lines should be well drained after completion of discharge and residues pumped ashore through this line. This will improve cargo out turn and reduce the time required for washing lines. 2.5.8 Factors Affecting Discharge Performance Discharge performance can be seriously affected among others, by the following By Vessel
Improper or poor planning of discharge operation

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 5 CARGO HANDLING Discharge Operations Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 4

Failure to coordinate with terminal on vessels requirements for optimal discharge performance. Ships equipment not utilized to full capacity. One pump pumping against another where one pump does not discharge at all. The pumps should be tuned to discharge at equal pressure / rpm. IG not working properly. Inadequate trim resulting in prolonged stripping time and increased ROB.

By Terminal
Failure to provide requested number of hoses/connection. Diameter of hoses less than ships pipeline restricting flow Shore tanks located for from jetty or in higher altitude with no booster ashore.

In all cases where the discharge performance has been affected due to shore restrictions or limitations a letter of protest must be issued. This must well supported by documents to show that the vessel was unable to comply with charter party requirements due to the restriction / limitation on the vessel. Such a procedure will help avoid claims for cargo retention or demurrage. Never hesitate to lodge a letter of protest. 2.5.9 Discharging Reports On completion of discharge the performance should be analyzed and discussed by the Master and senior officers with special emphasis on compliance with Charter Party requirement. If vessel has not been able to meet Charter Party requirements a discharge report should be sent to the Manager which should contain: Details of terminal incl. size and number of hoses and shore lines, distance to shore tanks and other factors affecting performance. Full explanation of the reasons for poor performance. Details of restrictions placed on vessel due to operational factors or by the terminal. A brief description of the method of discharge including the pumps, lines and manifold used. Condition of pumping equipment and if defects has affected the performance.

The above report should contain sufficient detail to defend any future claims that may develop. As it may take many months after an event for claims to be raised, it is essential that accurate records are maintained.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 5 CARGO HANDLING Discharge Operations Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 4

The discharge report should not be forwarded to other parties unless instructed by the Manager.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 6 CARGO HANDLING Lightening Operations Revision: 1 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

2.6 Lightening Operations 2.6.1 Objective The objective of this section is to provide guidelines to a vessel engaged in lightening operation at sea. 2.6.2 Reference Vessels instructed to carry out a lightening when underway or at anchor shall be guided by the ICS/OCIMF publication Ship to Ship Transfer Guide a copy of which can be found in the ships library. 2.6.3 Guidelines Vessels are frequently required to transfer cargo from ship to ship to barge (and vice-versa) either in port or at sea or when at anchor. Bunkering operations are usually carried out in this manner. The safety considerations given hereunder are mainly for transfer of cargo but are equally applicable to bunker operations. Instructions for lightening operations will be issued by the Charterers and unless it is prohibited under the Charter Party, this instruction may be complied with. However, the Owner and the Manager must always be informed when a vessel is ordered to carry out a Ship-to-Ship (STS) lightening operation. 2.6.3.1 Lightening Operations When Underway or At Anchor For a safe STS operation the following shall be among those taken into account: Good communications between vessels. Geography of the area designated for the operation anchorage position, depth of water, holding ground, available sea room for coming alongside/casting off, etc. Weather conditions anticipated during period of operation Expected tidal conditions Available of fenders: - Whether of correct size and type required to protect the vessels from contact damage?

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 6 CARGO HANDLING Lightening Operations Revision: 1 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

Suitability of own vessel for operation including compatible mooring arrangement between the vessels ensuring correct leads for moorings line. Adequate hoses, cranes / derricks Ships staff familiar with safety and contingency practices Permission obtained from port or local authorities (if required). The likely effect of any port restriction on the operation. Contingency procedures should be finalised and made known to every one involved, before commencement of operation. This should include emergencies that could arise while double banking, while separating and during cargo operation. Also, all staff must be familiar with the procedure for emergency separation from other vessel.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 7 CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING Ballast / Deballast Operations Revision: 3 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 4

2.7 Ballast / Deballast Operations 2.7.1 Responsibility The Chief Officer shall be responsible for proper operational and pollution procedures to be followed during ballasting or deballasting. He will be guided by the Master as to the quantity of ballast to be taken. 2.7.2 Ballasting General Ballasting for berthing and unberthing is left to the discretion of the Master. The Master must bear in mind that excessive ballast on berthing will cause unnecessary delay in pumping out and draining / educting the additional tanks. On the other hand, inadequate ballast on departure for sea could put the safety of the vessel at risk and make her unseaworthy. (Vessel is to always meet safe draft requirements) Taking ballast in river ports could result in excessive mud accumulation. In such cases it is advisable to take minimum safe ballast preferably at times of High Water. This ballast shall be exchanged as soon as possible to prevent / reduce mud accumulation. Some chemicals / mud conditioners have been found to effectively reduce mud accumulation. Some factors to be considered when deciding on the quantities of ballast to take for any particular part of the voyage:
Weather conditions expected during the berthing/unberthing operation and voyage. Tidal conditions and current expected at the berth. Tug availability during berthing/unberthing operations. Practice of the port or terminal and/or Pilotage requirements. Vessels manoeuvrability at a particular draft. Propeller and bow thrust units fully submerged. Depth of water alongside on a tidal berth or draft restriction over a bar/channel. Less ballast could permit earlier berthing or departure. Type of operation to be undertaken. (Lay-by for instance, or dry-docking). Air-draft and/or freeboard limitations alongside a terminal, ship or in channel. Efficient ballasting will reduce stress, corrosion and improve speed/fuel economy. Route to be taken. Navigational requirements may require less draft at certain stages of the passage. Tank cleaning and ballast change requirements.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 7 CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING Ballast / Deballast Operations Revision: 3 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 4

2.7.3 Distribution of Ballast Ballast is to be evenly distributed to minimise localised stress. Ballast is to be taken only in tanks with cathodic protection to minimise corrosion except in an emergency. If ships tanks are not fitted with anodes, ballast pattern should be varied every voyage to limit corrosion in tanks regularly used. Tanks are to be either empty or filled to capacity. Slacks tanks are to be avoided. A good trim will increase propeller efficiency, but should not be excessive so as to avoid interfering with operation of engine room machinery especially lub. oil system and level gauges. Changing of ballast (dirty/clean) should be done as soon as possible after leaving discharge port to enable oily water slops to settle during passage. 2.7.4 Discharge of Ballast
Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME)

Any discharge of ballast from cargo tanks shall take place with the ODME in operation. The ODME shall be operated as per the manufacturers instructions. Print outs from ODME are required to be maintained on board for three years. In case the ODME is not operating as required, the Manager must be informed immediately. Essential spares must be carried on board for emergency repairs.
Procedure

The most critical time with respect to chances of pollution are when starting discharge changing tanks or lines and when nearing the oil/water interface level. Surface water of the ballast tanks must be checked to ensure they are free of oil, prior to commencement of discharge. The discharge of ballast to sea shall cease well in time before reaching the oil/water interface level (about 1 metre). As there is a time lag between the time the sample is drawn by the ODME and the result displayed, it is important not to wait until the allowable limit is exceeded. This is also applicable to vessels equipped with a automatic shut down of cargo pump or overboard discharge valve when the oil content exceeds 15 ppm. A person equipped with portable radio shall be delegated to watch over side throughout the period of deballasting and communicate any signs of oil in water immediately to the cargo control room. The permissible stress conditions shall not be exceeded when deballasting (or simultaneous changing of ballast) is carried out.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 7 CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING Ballast / Deballast Operations Revision: 3 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 4

2.7.5 Vessels with Inerted Tanks Such vessels should take care to ensure that IG pressure is maintained in tanks during deballasting and that the oxygen content doesnt exceed 8%. 2.7.6 Segretated Ballast Vessels capable of meeting the draft requirements with segregated ballast only should avoid taking ballast in cargo tanks, except if required in heavy weather conditions. During loading discharge of this ballast may have to be regulated or delayed until sufficient cargo is on board to ensure that vessel has the necessary draft or freeboard to meet the safety and terminal requirements. Bending moments and shearing force limits should not be exceeded, irrespective of whether the vessel is at sea or in harbour. The maximum stresses should be kept within prudent limits, taking into account factors like the vessels age, condition and weather. 2.7.7 Double Hull Tankers - Caution In double hull tankers with wide centre tanks, sufficient reserve stability may not exist due to: cargo centre of gravity being increased by the height of the double bottom the free surface effect of the large, single tank arrangement

The combined effect of these factors may result in a substantial deduction of meta-centric height. Special attention will therefore need to be exercised during loading and discharging operations concurrent with ballast handling, to ensure that adequate stability is maintained at all times. 2.7.8 Ballast Lines Passing Through Cargo Tanks Some ships are so designed that the ballast pipelines pass through the cargo oil tanks. Special care and precautions should be taken in such cases, to prevent the ingress of cargo oil leakages in to the ballast pipelines and/or tanks. Suggested precautions include: Always keep the ballast lines full (loaded or ballast). Check atmosphere & sounding of all ballast tanks regularly. While ballasting, initially ballast one of the forward most tanks and take sample of the ballast and check for any trace of oil.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 7 CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING Ballast / Deballast Operations Revision: 3 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 4

During loaded passage check all ballast tanks visually. Especially check following places Penetrating pieces. Cargo side bulkhead & weld seams. Pressure test the ballast line when ever cargo tanks through which it is passing are gas free When line pressurised to the rated capacity especially check that (a) the line flanges and bolt for tightness, (b) penetrating pieces & expansion joints and (c) ballast tank side bulkhead & weld seams Check valve timings are correct every quarter. Any changes made to the timings to be recorded. Cargo tanks through which the ballast line is passing should be scheduled to load only after deballasting is completed, so far as practicable. Similarly these tanks should be discharged first (i.e. before ballasting commences) as far as practicable. While deballasting, a constant watch is to be maintained in the vicinity of the overboard discharge valve to check for any oil traces in the water. Ballast line to be tested for integrity at least once in three months. This could be done without tank cleaning. Start the ballast eductor and with the main suction valve shut and watch the suction gauge pressure. Now open the main suction valve with all tank valves shut. The eductor gauge should show same reading, as was the case when the main suction valve was shut. This procedure should be done on a ballast voyage. On vessels where only electric ballast pumps are provided, the pump is not to be started unless the lines are first filled completely by gravity. As far as possible ballasting by gravity should be done until the level of water in the tanks is same as the height of the pipeline inside the tanks.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 8 CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING Maintaining Records Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

2.8 Maintaining Records 2.8.1 Objective To provide a quick reference guide of important records to be maintained on board a tanker. 2.8.2 Guidelines Tankers due to the nature of cargo are required by law to maintain records of various operations on board. Additional records may have to be maintained to meet flag state, local terminal or charterers requirements. Managers forms are to be filled in as appropriate. The following is to be regarded as the minimum requirement The various forms as required by the owners / commercial operators shall also be filled in as appropriate. 2.8.3 Statutory Requirements
Oil Record Book Part II ( To be retained for minimum three years after date of last entry) ODME record ( Same as above) Record of Oxygen Content and Pressure of Inert Gas supply Ship/shore safety Check list

2.8.4 Managers Forms


Terminal Report Harbour Report OBQ/ROB Report Cargo Pumping Performance Data Cargo Pump Log (Engine room) Inert Gas Log COW : Pre-arrival Checks at Discharge Port COW : Checklist Log book for Calibration of Measuring/Testing Equipment.

2.8.5 Additional Records


Date of pressure testing of cargo lines, COW/tank washing lines and valves, the test medium (e.g. air, water) and the test pressure. Date, test medium and the pressure when heating coils were tested.

Date and record of details of internal inspection of tanks.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 8 CARGO AND BALLAST HANDLING Maintaining Records Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

Date of test of alarms, emergency trips of cargo pumps. Maintenance records of cargo, IG and tank washing equipment. Record of Oxygen content in tanks during Crude Oil Washing. Record of Vessel Experience Factor for each loaded voyage.

2.8.6 Notices
Warning notice at gangway USCG notice regarding pollution near Overboard Discharge valves Oil Transfer Procedures

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 9 CARGO HANDLING Cargo Measuring and Sampling Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

2.9 Cargo Measuring and Sampling 2.9.1 General Cargo Measurement and sampling must be carried out in the presence of an officer. The opening of ullage ports or covers and the con trol of tank pressure by unauthorised personnel is prohibited. When measuring or sampling care must be taken to avoid inhaling gas. Personnel should stand at right angles to the direction of the wind. Tank openings should be open only long enough for measuring and sampling to take place. Cargo samples should be representative of the cargo in the whole tank and should be taken from at least three different levels. The containers used for storing samples must be clean and free of any residue from previous cargo, chemicals or odour. New containers are preferred. Samples are usually sealed and receipt obtained from the vessel. The Chief Officer shall ensure that the seals are properly in place at the time of receipt. At the discharge port the consignees sample should be handed over and receipt obtained from the consignees representative. 2.9.2 Inerted Tanks Ships with IG system will have closed gauging system for measurements during cargo operations. Where vapour locks are fitted and can be adopted to measure and/or sample the cargo, these can be used to avoid releasing IG pressure. The valves of the vapour lock should not be opened with the tank under pressure, without firmly securing the tape/sampler to the stub pipe. Care should be taken to prevent blow back of vapour. Sonic, temperature and sampling probes for measurement/sampling must be used in accordance with good safety practices and the manufacturers instructions. If tanks are to depressurised for measuring/sampling, the following precautions shall be taken: Tanks are not to be depressurized when mooring/unmooring operations are in progress or if tugs are alongside. A minimum positive inert gas pressure should be maintained during the operation No cargo or ballast operations should be undertaken when reducing IG pressure. Only one access point should be open and for as short a period as possible. On completion, all openings should be closed and tanks re-pressurized with IG

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 9 CARGO HANDLING Cargo Measuring and Sampling Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

2.9.3 Stowage of Cargo Samples Oil cargo samples are hazardous and must not be stored in the cargo control room or anywhere within the accommodated space, even as a temporary measure because: Smoking is generally permitted in this area and some samples are highly flammable. Persons in the area may be affected if the cargo is toxic This area is in the ships safe zone and stowage samples in this area will render it a hazardous area under the rules.

A designated area must be available for stowing samples and suitably marked. Cargo samples should be retained on board for one year from the date of completion of discharge of that cargo. Cargo samples shall preferably be stowed in compartments covered by fixed fire fighting system.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 10 CARGO HANDLING Oil Transfer Procedures Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 1

2.10 Oil Transfer Procedures 2.10.1 Introduction A detailed oil transfer procedure is to be made and must be available for inspection by regulatory authorities in the U.S. However it is advisable that this procedure is adopted on all tankers including those not calling at U.S ports as other countries may have similar local laws. 2.10.2 Reference Vessels trading to USA should refer to the publication: Code of Federal Regulations Title 33, parts 1-99, Navigation and Navigable waters, a copy of which is available in the ships library, for full details.

2.10.3 Requirements for Oil Transfer Procedure The Oil Transfer Procedure
Available for inspection by US Coast Guard and other relevant body Legibly printed (typed) Permanently posted or available at a place where it can be seen by ships staff.

The Oil Transfer Procedure should contain: List of each product chemical / generic name. Line diagram of each oil transfer piping, including location of each valve, pump control device vent and overflow. Location of shut off valve or other device that separates any bilge from the oil transfer system. Description of and procedures for emptying the discharge containment system. No. of persons required to be on duty for oil transfer operations. Duties by title of each officer, person in charge, tanker man, deckhand and any other person required for oil transfer operations. Procedures and duty assignments for tending to mooring during the transfer. Procedure for operating the emergency shutdown and communication equipment Procedure for topping off tanks. Procedure for ensuring that all valves used for transfer are closed upon completion. Procedures for reporting all discharge into the water Procedure for closing and opening the vessel openings - ullage openings, sounding ports, tank cleaning openings etc.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 11 CARGO HANDLING Cargo Survey / Calculations Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

2.11 Cargo Survey / Calculations 2.11.1 Cargo Surveys Inspection One or more cargo surveyors are appointed by the charterer, shipper and the consignee to carry out inspections of the vessel, which may include : Inspection of vessels tanks for suitability to load the intended cargo, including cleanliness, cargo carried in the tanks on previous voyages, effective operation of heating coils. Cargo measurement, including on board quantity (OBQ) prior loading, quantity of slops (if to be discharged, segregated or commingled with cargo), quantity of cargo after loading/prior discharge and the cargo remaining on board (ROB) after discharge.

Full cooperation is to be extended to the surveyors in carrying out their duties and an officer is to accompany the surveyor during tank inspection, ullaging and sampling. Valves which are sealed by load port surveyors may be broken only with the surveyors permission at the discharge port. The Chief Officer shall independently calculate the quantity of cargo loaded/discharged and in case of any discrepancy the following remark shall be made in the surveyors report :Signed for Ullages and Tenperatures Only If any Note of Protest is issued by the surveyor for any reason whatsoever, they may be accepted only after inserting the remark for Receipt Only If required, the vessel shall protest in return exdplaining in detail its view of the matter . 2.11.2 Cargo Calculation Oil cargo is calculated with the use of ASIM tables and a copy of all applicable volumes should be carried on board. Large variations may occur in the quantity ascertained to be on board by the vessel and surveyor(s). The reasons could be : Use of different conversion tables by ship and surveyor Improper application of corrections for volume, weight and trim Wedge Formula not being used to differentiate between unpumpable ROB. pumpable and

All cargo tanks must be gauged and quantities calculated in each port of loading or discharge irrespective of whether or not the cargo was loaded or discharged from a particular tank. Apparent cargo differences, (e.g caused by

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 11 CARGO HANDLING Cargo Survey / Calculations Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

intertank valve leakage) will be detected at an early stage and cargo claims or contamination averted. 2.11.3 Conventions The following conventions are used when arriving at the final quantity : Quantities in U.S Barrels (Bbls) are rounded to the nearest barrel Quantities in Long/Metric/Short tons are expressed to the nearest second decimal. Interpolation or extrapolation between values of the various ASTM tables is not to be carried out unless expressly stated. The introduction to the applicable table should be referred to and complied with Density x Volume(in litres at same temp ) = Weight in Kgs in vacuum

For Example for most Crude oils :-

To obtain Weight in air at 15C = (Density (table 56) - 0.0011) x Vol at 15C. 2.11.4 Ullage, OBQ and ROB Reports The Managers forms for these reports must be filled in. The surveyors signature shall be obtained in the completed forms. Circumstances which may affect the accuracy of the readings must be entered in the report. 2.11.5 Wedge Formula It is a formula, which must be used to determine by mathematical means the volumes of small quantities of ROB/OBQ of cargo that doesnt extend from bulkhead within a tank. This is applicable only to liquid hydrocarbons.

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Chapter 2 Section 12 CARGO HANDLING DOUBLE HULL OPERATIONS Revision: 0 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

2.12 DOUBLE HULL OPERATIONS 2.12.1 Objective The Objective of this section is to provide guidelines relating to the operations of double hull tankers. 2.12.2 Reference Reference shall be made to International Safety Guide For Oil Tankers & Terminals by ICS/OCIMF, a copy of which will be available in the ships library. 2.12.3 Stability Considerations Intact stability, which had not been a major concern for single hull tankers, can be a concern in the operation of double hull tankers. The main problem likely to be encountered is the effect on the transverse metacentric height of liquid free surface in the cargo and double bottom tanks. These free surface effects could result in the transverse metacentric height being significantly reduced. On double hull tankers, lolling incidents could occur, usually while loading or unloading cargo. Lolling is an uncontrollable list caused by inadequate transverse stability in the upright condition. Cases of 15 degree list have been know to occur. This is a result of having large free water surface that can cause the ship to become unstable. These lolling incidents have damaged loading arms and piers and resulted in ship damage. On double hull tankers, ballast tanks surround the cargo tanks forming a U shaped tank. When the level of the ballast water is within the bottom portion of the ballast tank, the water surface is as wide as the breadth of the ship, with a large free surface area. To prevent lolling, this free surface can be reduced by one half by providing a watertight girder at the centerline. However, this is not the case for some double hull tankers which is fitted with a U shaped ballast tank without a centerline subdivision. To avoid intact stability problems, adequate operational procedures are necessary to prevent the crew from encountering unstable conditions during cargo operations. The guidelines and instruction as given in every ships loading manual shall be strictly complied with.

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Chapter 2 Section 12 CARGO HANDLING DOUBLE HULL OPERATIONS Revision: 0 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

2.12.4 Routine Monitoring of Double Hull Spaces Double hull spaces shall be regularly monitored in order to check the integrity of the inner shell plating. The ballast tank atmosphere shall be monitored for presence of hydrocarbon gases and by regular sounding/ullaging of the ballast tanks. The atmosphere in each double hull tank shall be regularly monitored for hydrocarbon content : Regularly during loaded passage Prior to ballasting the tank following a period of heavy weather After an unusual event or occurrence eg. Unexpected lists, unforeseen operational problems. Each tank should be monitored at least once a week during loaded passage and the results recorded. Ballast tank should also be sounded on a regular basis to detect any leakage of oil into them. After ballasting, tanks should be visually checked to ascertain if there is any presence of oil. Prior deballasting, a visual check should also be carried out to ensure that there is no oil traces in the ballast. The hydrocarbon measurements shall be taken with a portable gas detector at designated sampling points using fixed lines or a portable sampling hose or with a fixed gas detection system where one is installed. The result shall be recorded. On ships where a fixed gas detection system is installed, a procedure shall be developed to ensure that the tank atmosphere is monitor on a regular basis and results shall be recorded. Information as to the point of origin of the fixed sampling line should be readily available to the ship staff. During ballast voyages, the sounding of the ballast tanks should also be monitored regularly as an additional measure to detect any ingress of water into or out of the ballast tank. The fixed sampling lines and fixed gas detection system shall be maintained and calibrated as required as per the manufacturers instructions.

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Chapter 2 Section 13 INERT GAS SYSTEM Bill of Lading & LOI Revision: 0 Date: 01.07.04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 1

2.13 BILL OF LADING & LETTER OF INDEMNITY Signing Bills of Lading The Master is responsible for ensuring that each detail in the B/L is thoroughly examined and correct before he signs the required number of originals. B/L signed by an agent on behalf of the cargo Owner If an agent is authorised by the consignee to receive the cargo on behalf of the consignee or the last in an unbroken chain of endorses, he should identify himself and provide proof that he has been duly appointed by the cargo owner (or last endorsee). On the receipt, he shall sign on behalf of the cargo owner (only his or his companys name is not sufficient). Delivery of Cargo against Original B/L The Master shall deliver the cargo only against presentation of (at least) one original B/L duly signed by the cargo owner. If the vessel delivers the cargo outside the delivery range stated in the B/L, Master should demand all original Bills of Lading being presented and signed prior commencing discharge. It is the vessels responsibility to deliver the cargo to the correct cargo owner, stated as consignee in the front page of the B/L or to whom the cargo has been properly endorsed. The endorsement shall be evidence that the cargo has been endorsed from the cargo owner to another consignee. Wrong Delivery If the master delivers the cargo to an incorrect consignee, a major commercial claim could be raised against the Owner. Therefore the Master shall check carefully and ensure that the correct consignees are receiving the cargo and that the person signing the B/L for receipt of cargo on behalf of the consignee, is in fact the consignees legal representative. Letter of Indemnity (LOI) In some instances the Original B/L is not available for presentation and the Cargo Owner may present a Letter of Indemnity to the vessels owner or commercial manager against any claim regarding delivery of cargo. In such cases, the instructions to release the cargo shall be received from the vessels owners/commercial managers in writing and not from the charterer or cargo owner.

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Chapter 2 Section 13 INERT GAS SYSTEM Bill of Lading & LOI Revision: 0 Date: 01.07.04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 1

A signed receipt for delivery of cargo shall be obtained from cargo owners for the cargo discharged against LOI. The format for such wordings should be obtained from the vessels commercial operators well in advance. Alternatively, the commercial operators may confirm receipt of LOI and request Master in writing to release the cargo. When in doubt If in doubt, regarding signing of B/L or release of cargo or in any matter concerning delivery of cargo, the Owner or commercial manager shall be contacted at ANY time, without delay, for any assistance or to clear any doubt. Failure to comply may result in severe economic loss and or complaints from the owners / charterers. ROB CARGO CLAIMS In case there is a risk of cargo claim for ROB (on tankers or combination carriers) or for any other reason, a P & I surveyor shall be called on behalf of the Owner. Claims for ROB after completion of discharge have increased and are not usually covered by P&I due to a standard clause which says that the cover does not include: Liability for shortage arising from failure to discharge all cargo on board unless the Member can show that all reasonable and applicable discharge methods were attempted. Hence cover cannot be expected unless it can be proved that the claim for ROB was caused by extreme circumstances such as damage to vessel or inability to rent portable pumps in case of failure of discharging equipment etc. All P&I Clubs follow this policy and only very special circumstances can the Clubs be persuaded to include such losses under the Omnibus Clause. EARLY DEPARTURE PROCEDURE Predominantly in the tanker trade, a shipper, loading terminal or charterer may request the ship to follow Early Departure Procedure (EDP). Amongst other things, EDP usually involves the Master signing an otherwise completed bill of lading, except for the quantity or weight. Once the BL figures are declared, the Master then authorises the agent to fill in the declared figures in the Bill of Lading.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 2 Section 13 INERT GAS SYSTEM Bill of Lading & LOI Revision: 0 Date: 01.07.04 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 1

Sometimes the master is asked to sign a signed but otherwise blank bill of lading. Clearly this procedure exposes the Company to significant liabilities and if the Master is requested to sign a blank bill of lading, he should refuse and contact the Commercial Operators immediately. It is important that the consent of the vessels Commercial Operators is obtained, prior agreeing to EDP.

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Chapter 3 Section 1 INERT GAS SYSTEM Atmosphere Control Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 1

3.0 INERT GAS SYSTEM 3.1 Atmosphere Control 3.1.1 Objective To detail the standards of operation and maintenance of Inert Gas System (IGS) on board vessels fitted with such a system. 3.1.2 Reference Reference must be made to:1. The ships Inert Gas Manual 2. IMO Inert Gas System (available in ships library) 3.1.3 Responsibility The Chief officer is to ensure that the Inert Gas System is operated as per Manufacturers requirements and to comply with local and flag state regulations. The Chief Engineer in coordination with the chief Officer is responsible for the maintenance of the Inert Gas System. 3.1.4 Cargo Tank Atmosphere Control Tankers fitted with an IG system should have their cargo tanks in an non flammable condition at all times. It follows that : Tanks should be kept in an inert condition whenever they contain cargo, residues or ballast. The oxygen content shall be kept at 8% or less by volume with a positive gas pressure in all cargo tanks. The atmosphere within the should make the transition from an inert condition to the gas free condition without passing through the flammable range. In practice, this means that before any cargo tank is gas freed, it must be purged with inert gas until it is below the critical dilution line. The cargo tanks should be inerted before loading is commenced.

To maintain cargo tanks in a non-flammable condition the IG plant will be used to: Inert gas free tanks Supply inert gas maintains positive pressure during cargo discharge, deballasting, tank cleaning operations and sea passage. Pure tanks of hydrocarbon gas prior to gas freeing.

In addition, the IG fans may be used for gas freeing, using intake of fresh air

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Chapter 3 Section 2 INERT GAS SYSTEM Operation of Inert Gas Plant Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

3.2 Operation of Inert Gas Plant

Note: Although individual IG plants may have a different design, in most cases the
procedure for starting up, shutting down and testing for safety are similar and are given below: 3.2.1 Start up procedures The start up procedures for IG plant operation are :
Ensure that the portable oxygen analyser, fixed oxygen analyser/recorder and IG pressure indicator and recorder are working correctly and correctly calibrated. Each time the IG plant is run, the Oxygen and pressure recorder chart must be marked with the date and type of operation being carried out. Ensure the oxygen content of boiler flue gas is 5% by volume or less. Ensure that power is available for all control, alarm & automatic shutdown operations. Ensure that the quantity of water needed by the scrubber and deck seal is being maintained satisfactorily by the respective pumps. Test operation of the alarm and shut down features of the system for scrubber water supply, and high and low levels. Check that the fresh air inlet valve to the IG fans is closed and the blank secured. Shut off air to any air sealing arrangements for the flue gas-isolating valve. Open the flue gas-isolating valve. Open the selected blower suction value. Ensure that the other blower suction and discharge valves are shut unless it is intended to use both blowers together. (On some ships, interlocks will prevent simultaneous operation of both fan blowers.) Start the blower, test blower failure alarm. Open the blower discharge valve. Open the re-circulating valve to enable the plant to stabilise. Open the inert gas regulating valve. Check that oxygen content of IG is 5% or less by volume. The inert gas system is now read, to deliver gas to the cargo tanks.

3.2.2 Shut Down procedures To shut down the IG plant: Check all tank atmosphere and ensure oxygen level is not more than 8% and the required tank pressure has been obtained. Shut the deck-isolating valve. Shut the gas pressure-regulating valve.

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Chapter 3 Section 2 INERT GAS SYSTEM Operation of Inert Gas Plant Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

Close blower suction and discharge valves. Check that the drains are clear. Open water washing system on the blower while it is still rotating with the power supply of the motor supply off. Shut down the water washing plant after 10 Min. Close the flue gas isolating valve and open air sealing system. Keep the full water supply to the scrubbing tower ON for one hour. Fresh water wash the scrubber tower after shutting down the seawater supply. Ensure that the water supply to the deck seal is satisfactory, that an adequate seal is maintained and that the seal arrangements are in order.

3.2.3 Safety Check When the IG plant is Shutdown The following safety checks shall be made when the IG plant is shutdown: The water supply and the level in the deck seal is to be checked daily. The water level in water loops installed in pipe work for gas, water or pressure transducers is to be checked, to prevent the back flow of hydrocarbon gases into safe areas. In cold weather, ensure that the arrangements to prevent the freezing of sealing water in the deck seal and pressure-vacuum breaker are in order. Check the IG pressure and record in the deck logbook once every watch. If the pressure in inerted tankers falls below 100 mm the tanks have to be topped-off with inert gas.

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Chapter 3 Section 3 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Cargo Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 01.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 4

3.3 Inerting Cargo Tanks 3.3.1 Contents This section contains the procedure for inert gas operation of cargo tanks when : Tanks are Empty and Gas Free Deballasting Loading On Loaded passage Discharging Tank Washing (including COW and water washing) In Ballast Condition Purging prior Gas freeing Re-inerting after tank entry

3.3.2 Empty and Gas Free Tanks The following procedure may be following for inerting empty and gas free tanks: Inert gas should be introduced through the distribution system while venting the air in the tank to the atmosphere. Venting should be through an opening as far away from the inert gas inlet point as possible. If fitted, purge pipes should be used. Inerting should continue unit all the tanks have an oxygen content of less than 8% by volume. The process may be monitored by testing the oxygen content of the escaping gas from the purge pipe/vent or designated points for this purpose from at least one location at each end of the tank and at three different levels, until the oxygen content is found to be less than 8% throughout the tank. Care must be taken to ensure that the tests are representative of the atmosphere of the entire tank. The possibility of pockets of high oxygen content must be noted. In tanks with a wash bulkhead or in forward tanks with longitudinal partitions, the oxygen content of the tank must be verified on each side of the wash bulkhead or partition and at different levels. On completion of inerting, all the tanks should be pressurised and kept common with the inert gas main. A positive pressure of over 100 mm water gauge should be maintained at all times, by topping up if necessary. Tanks which have been cleaned and gas freed should re-inerted as early as possible during ballast passage to permit full testing of the IG system and verification of gas tightness of tank openings, valves etc.

3.3.3 Deballasting Deballasting of cargo tanks shall not be started unitl :-

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Chapter 3 Section 3 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Cargo Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 01.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 4

All cargo tanks, including slop tanks, are connected to IG main. All IG tank isolating valves are to be locked in open position. All other cargo and slop tank openings, including vent valves, are closed. The IG main is isolated from the atmosphere. All valves isolating mast risers form the IG main are shut. The IG plant is producing gas with an O content of not more than 5% The deck isolating valve is open.

3.3.4 During Loading When loading cargo, the deck isolation valve is to be closed and the IG plant shutdown unless other cargo tanks are being deballasted simultaneously. The high velocity vent valves and/or connections to mast risers must be open and all other openings are to be kept closed to minimise flammable vapour on desk. Inert gas deck branch valves are to be locked in open position. 3.3.5 In Loaded Condition During the loaded passage a positive pressure of inert gas of at least 100 mm water gauge is to maintained in the cargo tanks by topping up with inert gas as required. When topping up inert gas, the oxygen content of the supply is to be 5% or less. Loss of inert gas pressure can be caused by leakage from tank openings and falling air and sea temperatures. On motor ships the load may have to be increased to bring down oxygen content of flue gas. It may also be necessary to restrict the output of inert gas blowers to prevent air being drawn down the uptake during topping up operation.

3.3.6 During Cargo Discharge On vessels not fitted with vapour locks on ullage pipes, it is often required to reduce IG pressure in tanks prior arrival to enable manual gauging and cargo sampling. During these operations, minimum number of tank openings are to be

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Chapter 3 Section 3 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Cargo Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 01.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 4

open for no longer than is necessary. The tanks are to be pressurised again before discharge commences. Where possible and permitted, remote indicating ullaging systems and manual systems equipped with vapour locks must be used. Discharging shall not commence until the conditions given under the heading During Discharge of Water Ballast in this section are not fulfilled. Ideally a positive pressure of about 600-1000 mm WG must be maintained in all tanks throughout the period of discharge. The pressure may be reduced towards the end to permit draining of manifold and R.O.B. survey. 3.3.7 Tank Washing including Crude Oil Washing and Water Washing Before each tank is washed, the oxygen level must be determined at three levels at the top, middle and bottom of the tank and the oxygen content should not exceed 8%. Where tanks have partial wash bulkhead or longitudinal subdivisions the measurements must be taken in each section of the tank. The oxygen content and pressure of inert gas being delivered must be continuously recorded and the record charts clearly marked with time of starting operations. Washing must stopped if: The oxygen level in the tank exceeds 8% by volume OR The pressure in the tank is no longer positive.

Washing must not be restarted until satisfactory conditions are restored. 3.3.8 Ballast Condition During ballast passage, tanks other than those necessary to be gas free for tank entry, are to be kept inerted with a positive pressure of not less than 100 mm Water Gauge, having oxygen content not exceeding 8% by volume.

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Chapter 3 Section 3 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Cargo Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 01.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 4

3.3.9 Purging Prior to Gas-Freeing When it is necessary to gas free a tank after washing, the concentration of the hydrocarbon vapour must be reduced by purging the cargo tank with inert gas until the hydrocarbon content of the tank atmosphere has reduced to 2% as measured by an appropriate instrument. Care must be taken to ensure that the measurement is representative of the entire tank. 3.3.10 Re-inerting After Tank Entry After all personnel have left the tank, any equipment in the tank and the IG branch line blank is to be removed, tank openings secured. Open IG branch valve and inert tank.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 3 Section 4 INERT GAS SYSTEM Emergency Procedures Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

3.4 Emergency Procedures 3.4.1 Failure of Inert Gas Plant Failure of Insert Gas System is said to occur when: It is unable to deliver the required quantity and quality of inert gas. It is unable to keep up the pressure in the cargo tanks. The IG plant is shut down due to interlocks being activated.

Action to be taken in case of failure

Immediate action must be taken to prevent any air being drawn into the tanks. All discharging, deballasting, tank washing, ullanging or sampling must cease and the IG deck-isolating valve must be closed. Cargo operations, as above, shall not be recommenced until the IG plant is returned to service and tanks are satisfactorily inert. If it is established that the inert Gas plant cannot be restarted for a prolonged period due to complete breakdown, Manger is to be consulted before any recommencement of operations. Any metallic component of the sampling, ullaging or dipping system must be securely bonded to earth and should remain so for 5 Hours after cessation of inert gas injection. Only natural fibre rope is to be used for suspending the equipment. The above measures are necessary for two reasons : Static electricity Pyrophoric lgnition

Details of the dangers caused by the above are covered under the Chapter 7 in this manual. 3.4.2 High Oxygen Content High oxygen content may be caused or indicated by the following conditions : Poor combustion control at the boiler, especially under low load conditions. Drawing air into the uptake, when the boiler gas output is less than the IG blower demand, especially under low load conditions. Air leaks between the IG blower and the boiler uptake, or at IG shaft seals. Faulty operation or calibration of the oxygen analyzer. Inert gas plant operating in the recirculation mode or entry of air into the IG main through the PV valves or mast risers due to mal-operation.

If the IG plant is delivering inert gas with an oxygen content of more than 8% than all cargo tank operations ( including COW and water washing ) are to be stopped

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 3 Section 4 INERT GAS SYSTEM Emergency Procedures Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

and the fault is to be traced and repaired. All crude oil washing and water washing of tanks is to be stopped. The inability to maintain positive pressure during cargo discharge or deballasting operations may be caused by : Inadvertent closure of the inert gas valves Faulty operation of the automatic pressure control system Inadequate blower pressure, or a cargo a cargo rate in excess of the blower output. (Specially at the commencement of discharging to an empty tank ashore or to a vessel alongside.)

In such cases the cargo discharging or deballasting operations must be stooped or continued at reduced rate depending on whether or not positive pressure can be maintained in the tank a while the fault is rectified.

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Chapter 3 Section 5 INERT GAS SYSTEM Maintenance Procedures Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 5

3.5 Maintenance Procedures 3.5.1 Contents This section contains details the following: Operational Efficiency of the IG plant. Maintenance procedures for the components of the IG system viz :Inert gas source, Boiler flue gas valve, Scrubber/ Demister, IG blowers, Gas regulating and recirculating valves, Deck water seal, Non return valves, Deck lines, P.V breaker, Transducers and sampling points. Maintenance chart for reference

3.5.2 Operational Efficiency of IG System For safe operation and optimum efficiency the IG system must be capable of: Preventing the passage of hot, unwashed and wet gases to the deck main. Preventing the return of hydro carbon vapours and gases to the boilers and engine room.(Safe Zone) Maintaining a positive pressure in the cargo tank at all times. Ensuring that the cargo tanks are not over pressurized by IG or by cargo vapours.

3.5.3 Inert Gas Source - Boiler Flue Gas or IG Generator 3.5.3.1 Operational Checks
Combustion efficiency must be ensured with burners, furnace, tubes, soot blowing equipment etc. frequent checks on the

Efficient operation of boiler automatic controls with specific attention to air/fuel ratio to ensure correct oxygen levels though the range of high and low load operation. Large and rapid fluctuations of the steam demand should be avoided. Large and rapid demand of IG should be avoided, especially during initial stages. If flue gas from a boiler is used as a source, the boiler should not be steamed at excessively low load.

3.5.4 Boiler Flue Gas Valve 3.5.4.1 Operational Checks


Remote indicators for valve positions OPEN and CLOSED must be operational. Routine checks must be made to ensure that the indications correspond to the actual valve position. Interlocks to prevent soot - blowing with the uptake valve in open position must be regularly tested. Conversely the interlock to prevent opening of the uptake valve when soot blowing is in progress must also be tested. Sealing arrangement at valve glands etc. must be checked to confirm that there is no ingress of air. Soot blowing, if steam, for uptake valves must have adequate drainage facility to avoid the risk of acid corrosion.

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Chapter 3 Section 5 INERT GAS SYSTEM Maintenance Procedures Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 5

3.5.5 Scrubber 3.5.5.1 Hot Gas Inlet The condition of the hot gas inlet pipe must be checked from inside and outside for acid corrosion and supports. Corrosion or cracks can allow hot gas to short circuit past the scrubber water seal. 3.5.5.2 Acid Corrosion The pressure/flow rate of scrubber cooling water is critical to its correct operation. Check and maintain to design requirements. Sulphuric acid production temperature is between 90C and 140C. Flow rate is vital to give correct base temperature and correct position of sulphuric acid production. If the location of the acid production zone moves high enough it could be carried into the inert gas main with potential corrosion hazards. Check effluent discharge pipe for acid attack especially if the scrubber water supply has failed allowing effluent temperatures to rise. 3.5.5.3 Washing and Solids Removal Various techniques are used for this purpose to enable the gas to be drawn upwards through the tower under the suction of the blowers. A inspection of the tower should include check to ensure that the gas paths are as designed and no displacement of internal fittings has occurred. 3.5.5.4 Cool Gas Exit The water removal arrangements from the gas must be frequently checked. Low velocity demisters should have a differential pressure pressure gauge across it to check the condition of the demister. A clogged demister will result in increased gas velocities and carry over to the blowers. 3.5.5.5 Damage to Internals Following damages can occur in scrubber: In acid-resistant epoxy-resin coatings : cracks due to temperature stress In rubber lined scrubber internals : blisters & loss of adhesion to metal In fibre glass linings : sudden change in temperature can cause failure

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Chapter 3 Section 5 INERT GAS SYSTEM Maintenance Procedures Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 5

3.5.6 Inert Gas Blowers To a limited degree, internal visual inspections can / will reveal damage at an early stage. An inspection of the inert gas blowers is to include: An internal inspection of the blower casing for soot deposits or signs of corrosion attack. Examination and operational check of fixed or portable water washing system. Inspection of the drain lines from the blower casing to ensure they are clear and operative. Observation of the blower under operating conditions for signs of excessive vibration, indicating too large an imbalance.

3.5.7 Gas Regulating and Recirculating Valves The correct operation of these valves which are reverse controlled is very important to maintain correct gas flow rates, especially during start-up and low inert gas loads. Checks must include condition of valve seats, discs and spindles, indication of acid corrosion attack, correct indication of valve in remote indicators, proper function of interlocks, microswitches and other control equipment. 3.5.8 Deck Water Seal This unit performs an important safety function and is to be maintained in a good condition. Open deck water seal for internal inspection to check : The shell lining condition. For any acid corrosion of shell, inlet pipes, heating coils, level control and effluent discharge pipes, gas inlet foot and at the base of level control weirs. Sludge accumulation in the level control weirs. The demister supports and trays.

The U - Seal arrangement of the effluent drain and seal water supply must be checked. 3.5.9 Non-Return Valves The valves must be checked for free operation, condition of gland/valve seats/discs as well as condition of sealing rings and valve body.

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Chapter 3 Section 5 INERT GAS SYSTEM Maintenance Procedures Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr. by: OHW Page 4 of 5

3.5.10 Deck Lines The lines shall be inspected externally for signs of corrosion, specially flange ends, expansion joints and undersides. 3.5.11 Suggested Maintenance Procedures Component Preventive Maintenance
Flue Gas Isolating v/v Flue gas scrubber Operate the Valve Cleaning with compressed air or steam Dismantling for inspection and cleaning Water flush Cleaning of demister Dismantling of level regulators and temperature probes for inspection Opening for full internal inspection Flushing with scrubber water pump for about 11lr. Dismantling of the valve for overhaul, inspection of pipeline and overboard end Vibration check Flushing Internal inspection through hatches Insulation check Dismantling for full overhaul of bearings, shaft tightening and other necessary work. Dismantling of level regulators/float valves for Inspection Opening for total internal inspection Overhaul of auto-valves Moving and lubricating the valves if necessary Opening for internal inspection Operating and lubricating the valves Opening for internal inspection Opening for overhaul Removal of condensation in instrument air supply Opening of gas regulating valves for overhaul Check liquid level when system at atmospheric Pressure Adjust 0(Zero) setting by spanning with Nitrogen gas Check operations of Oxygen content and IG pressure recorders Check air pressure to individual installation Inspect, clean and overhaul reducing valves.

Maintenance Interval
Before start up and 1 week. Before operating valve. Boiler shut down. After use 3 months 6 months Dry docking After use Dry docking/repair period Whilst running After use 6 months 6 months 2 years/dry docking 6 months 1 year 1 year 1 week and before start 1 year 3 months 1 year 1 year Before start As appropriate 3 months Before supplying inert gas to tanks Before supplying inert gas to tanks Every voyage Every 6 months

Overboard pipes and value from flue gas scrubber Blowers

Deck water seal

Deck mechanical non-return valve PV valves Deck isolating valve Pressure regulating system Liquid filled PV breaker Oxygen Analyser Recorders Supply of air

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Chapter 3 Section 5 INERT GAS SYSTEM Maintenance Procedures Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr. by: OHW Page 5 of 5

3.5.12 Summary of Malfunctions, Primary and Secondary Consequence Components


Flue Gas Isolating Valves Inert Gas scrubber

Malfunctions
Soot Deposits Corrosion Defective gland seals Failed cooling water Supply Corrosion and/or erosion of spray nozzles water pipes, float switches Corrosion of shell

Primary Effects
Sticking. Leakage of flue gas to scrubber or environment. Risk of overheating and auto shut down of system. Insufficient SO and soot extraction.Inoperative alarm and safety devices.

Possible Consequence
Start up problems. Corrosion of scrubber and flue gas line. Control equipment failures. Alarm equipment failures. Operational Disturbance. Damage to non-metallic parts.

Leakages.

Risk of secondary damage to blowers and other components in the system after the scrubber.

Clogged demister and wet filters Scrubber effluent line and overboard valve Corrosion damage

Gas pressure drop and increased water carry-over. Leakage to the engine room.

Operational disturbance. Ingress of air. Low inert gas pressure in deck line. Increased risk of damage to the blower. Risk of flooding of engine room if outlet is below water line. Bearing Damage. Toxic Hazard. Blower damage. Backflow of tank gas to mach. space, Leakage of water. Backflow of tank gas.

Inert gas blowers

Soot deposits Corrosion Misalignment Local vibrations Corrosion main line Corrosion on switch Malfunction or blockage of Venturi line Soot deposits Corrosion Soot deposits Corrosion Lack of liquid Excessive liquid

Imbalance. Gas leakage. Ballbearing fatigue. Gas short circuit. operational disturbance of alarm system and level control. Sticking or leaking valve.

Deck water seal

Mechanical nonreturnvalve on deck line PV relief valves Liquid filled PV breaker

Operational disturbances Pressure loss(capacity) Risk of damage to tanks due to excessive pressure. Release of gas to atmosphere. structural damage.

Sticking or leaking valves. No back up to PV valve.

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Chapter 3 Section 6 INERT GAS SYSTEM Venting Revision: 1 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

3.6 Venting 3.6.1 Pressure Vacuum (P.V.) Valves These valves are fitted on tanks to provide for flow of small volumes of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures caused by pressure variations on a tank. These are usually set to lift to release when the pressure in the tank rise to 1400 mm WG and to let in air if a vacuum is created in the tank. This acts as major safety device protecting the tank from severe structural damage in case of pressure or the development of vacuum in the tank. It is important that the valves are maintained in a free and operating condition at all times and tried out manually at least once every week. Depending on the nature of the cargo and possible oxidation some solid deposits are likely in the operating parts of the P.V. valve, which will prevent it from operating as designed. Hence a regular programme of cleaning shall be set up and adhered to. The wire mesh (flame screen) on the air inlet side shall be of approved size (30 x 30 per sq. inch) and shall be inspected at frequent intervals and renewed as required. 3.6.2 Mast Riser Valve Where fitted these must be operated manually once every week and inspected for wear and tear at intervals not exceeding three months. Wire mesh also should be inspected at the same time and renewed as found necessary. By - pass valves (if any) shall be tested for correct operation prior loading cargo. 3.6.3 P.V. Breaker Usually designed to lift at about 2100 mm WG, this prevents over-pressuring of the Inert Gas line and system if the P.V. valves do not operate as designed or are unable to cope with the build up of pressure in the tank. The P.V. Breaker, if filled with water, must be protected from freezing by adding glycol. Inspections shall be made at weekly intervals to ensure correct level of liquid (water) is maintained. Maintaining correct level of liquid in the breaker is extremely important for effective functioning of the P.V. breaker. Lack of liquid may result in air entering the IG main with serious consequences. 3.6.4 P.V. Breaker All vents on deck should be inspected for wear and tear at interval not exceeding three months. A record of such inspection should be maintained, preferably in the ships PMS.

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OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 3 Section 6 INERT GAS SYSTEM Venting Revision: 1 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

3.6.5 Spares Onboard Vessels should carry at least one spare PV valve, which should be overhauled and maintained in good working condition at all times. This can be used to replace a malfunctioning PV valve very quickly, at any time. Sufficient quantity of spare wire mesh material shall be maintained onboard to replace at least 20 percent of the vents onboard. Vessels should carry at least one spare branch IG valve, which should be overhauled and maintained in good working condition at all times. This can be used to replace a malfunctioning IG branch valve very quickly, at any time. Sufficient quantity of anti freeze for the PV breaker, shall be carried onboard for at least one full change Spare fixed oxygen-analyzing unit in good working condition, for the IG system should be available onboard for immediate replacement, in case of need.

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Chapter 3 Section 7 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Sequences-Flow Diagrams Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 4

3.7 Inerting Sequences-Flow Diagrams 3.7.1 Loading Cargo or Ballast

3.7.2 Loaded or Ballast Passsage

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Chapter 3 Section 7 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Sequences-Flow Diagrams Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 4

3.7.3 Discharge Cargo or Ballast

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Chapter 3 Section 7 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Sequences-Flow Diagrams Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 4

3.7.4 Inerting or Purging

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Chapter 3 Section 7 INERT GAS SYSTEM Inerting Sequences-Flow Diagrams Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 4

3.7.5 Tank Washing with water

3.7.6 Gas Freeing

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 7

4.0 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM 4.1 Tank Cleaning Guidelines 4.1.1 Objective To detail some of the factors involved in tank cleaning operations, mainly for tankers involved in the carriage of products. 4.1.2 Reference Reference must be made to Tank Cleaning Guide by Dr. A. Verwey, a copy which will be available in the ships library. 4.1.3 Responsibility It is the Masters responsibility to ensure that the vessel is ready in all respects to receive the nominated cargo. The Chief Officer, will be responsible for actual tank cleaning operations under the guidance of the Master. 4.1.4 Introduction A vessel on time charter prior commencing tank cleaning should assess if cleaning is necessary in view of the pervious cargo carried. This is because there are many cargoes where only the draining of lines and pumps is necessary and small admixture is allowed. Any decision to clean tanks or otherwise must be approved by the charterers. A product tanker on voyage charter will usually be asked to have her tanks ready for inspection, hence it will be necessary for tanks to be clean, dry and gas free. A vessel not fitted with segregated ballast tanks will need to clean the tanks for carrying clean ballast. However, it must be realised that: Unnecessary or excessive tank cleaning will wear down the tank coating

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 7

Where future cargo nomination is not known, a full tank cleaning to a high standard will be required. When details of nomination are made known the cleaning standards may be re-evaluated. For commercial reasons, lesser the tank cleaning, the greater is the saving cost and time. in

The above does not mean that short cuts can be taken or that proper tank cleaning should not be carried out, as such an action may lead to avoidable and costly delays. 4.1.5 Guidelines 4.1.5.1 Assessment The Tank Cleaning Guide (Dr. A. Verwey) can be used as a reference guide for the degree and nature of tank cleaning required. Very informative compatibility charts and guidance notes in the book will assist in the assessment. Masters must also base tank-cleaning requirements on their experience and knowledge of the trade and the vessels capability. Cargo tanks are to be cleaned to : Meet clean ballast requirements Meet cleanliness for cargo requirements Gas free for routine desludge/scaling and mopping up procedures Gas free for repairs at sea or for drydock/yard repairs.

Following specification are critical point to be observed, either singly or in combination when considering cleaning requirements: Flash point, Colour, Octane Value, Gum residue, Distillation end point, Sulphur free requirement, lead free requirement, Initial Boiling Point.

4.1.5.2 Tank Atmosphere Tank washing should preferably be carried out in any of the following atmosphere: -

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 7

Inert

the requirement is that the tank atmosphere should not exceed 8% by volume, a positive pressure maintained in the tank. The oxygen level and pressure must be constantly monitored with an oxygen analyzer.

Too Lean

- an atmosphere made non-flammable by reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons to below the lower Flammable Limit (LFL). Precautions should be aimed at achieving and maintaining this condition, plus avoidance of ignition sources. The LFL must be constantly monitored during washing with a flammable gas indicating instrument.

4.1.5.3 Marine Pollution Improper disposal of tank washing has been the cause of many cases of marine pollution. The personnel engaged in tank cleaning activity must fully be aware of the pollution regulations and ensure that Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME) is in use through the period when tank washings are being disposed off. If the equipment is out of order and repair by ships staff is not possible, the Manager must be advised immediately in order to arrange repairs by a service engineer. The oil record book must be completed after every cleaning operation. Complete details as required by law shall be filled in. 4.1.5.4 Cargo Pipeline Washing and Draining Line washing is a very important operation and failure to clean and/or drain the lines thoroughly can lead to contamination and very costly claims.

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 4 of 7

Often a small percentage or quantity of the previous cargo or water is sufficient to put the next cargo off-grade. Line washing must be carried out in systematic way so that the possibility of small pockets of cargo remaining in lines, pumps gas risers or manifolds are removed. Before clean ballast is taken in cargo tanks it must be ensured that the lines to be used for ballasting / deballasting are thoroughly flushed and clean. Failure to do so will mean the clean ballast tanks will have to be cleaned again, resulting in costly delays. Branch lines may have to be drained back into the tank for final drying by educting and mopping. Surveyors may require that individual tank cargo valves are opened to test for water in the lines. In case water is found, additional mopping and drying will be required. Similarly, pump strainers may be asked to opened to check for water/oil residues, specially after vegetable or animal oils are carried. Thus, it is very important for pumps and strainers to be clean and dry. For water critical cargoes it may be necessary to blow the lines through with compressed air to ensure that they are dry. Manifold drains shall be opened and checked for any water residue. 4.1.6 Cleaning for White Oils after Black Oil Due to considerable contamination problems and difficulty in ensuring complete pipeline cleanliness, it is not recommended to carry white oils immediately after black. Usually, this change over is achieved gradually by carrying intermediate cargoes two or more times with extensive cleaning between each voyage.

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 5 of 7

However, if vessels may still be required to change over from black to white oil directly. In such cases Masters should seek immediate advice from the Manager. Time permitting, it is possible to clean tanks with washing machines alone. Detergents will need to be used, especially if time is short. Vessels frequently changing from black to white oils should be ensure that vessel has sufficient cleaning chemicals are on board to meet voyage requirements. It is advisable to initially clean the bottom of the tank and then directly proceed with the top section and work downwards. The duration and wash cycle for each tank shall depend on the tanks configuration and number of machines. The maximum permissible temperature and pressure shall be used. Any restriction on high temperature or type of chemical to be used must be complied with, especially in coated tanks. Residues and scale will need to be lifted from the tanks. The lines and pumps will also need to be thoroughly washed with hot water and chemicals and this can be done by circulating the solution from one tank to another. 4.1.7 Use of Chemicals All personnel handling chemicals should take full safety precautions. Provided the tank is cleaned with sufficient machines with water at a good temperature and pressure, most tanks can be washed to the desired standard without the use of detergents/chemicals for the black/white oil trade and most animal/vegetable oils. It is often difficult to dispose of slops containing chemicals and this must be borne in mind when chemicals are to be used. Many terminals dont have reception facilities for slops containing chemicals and this may result in costly delays. Chemicals used in tank cleaning are basically detergents. While they greatly assist in cleaning tanks, their value should not be overestimated. They are excellent in removing the smell of previous cargoes (specially important if the next cargo is an edible oil or vegetable oil). Depending on the requirement for

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 6 of 7

cleanliness, a milder detergent can be used in preference to a tank cleaning chemical. Chemicals Used Must Be Compatible with the Tank Coating System 4.1.7.1 Methods Chemicals Used For Tank Washing with

The common methods are :- Injection, Recirculation, Hand Spraying and Scrubbing Injection The chemical is injected into the tank washing system by portable or fixed air driven pumps. The concentration of chemical required is specified by the manufacturer and can be regulated at the pump. Recirculation This is a more economical method when extensive tank cleaning with chemicals is required. However unless the tank is inserted, it is not recommended for use after petroleum cargoes, due to the problems of static accumulation. Detergent/chemical is added to the water in the slop tank to the required ratio as recommended by the manufacturers and topped up during cleaning to maintain concentration. The solution is then heated to the required temperature. The wash recirculation is started in which the cleaning action of the chemicals emulsifies the oils, which is then held in suspension in the wash water and returned to the slop tank. Sufficient solution must be held in the slop tank to allow the emulsified solution to settle and ensure that it is not immediately recirculated into the system. Hand Spraying and Scrubbing Hand spraying is usually undertaken using an extended nozzle and with the chemical under pressure. The chemical is sprayed in undiluted or diluted form as per the makers recommendation and allowed to stand and soak the sprayed area. The chemical must not be allowed to dry as this will then be very difficult to remove.

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Chapter 4 Section 1 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning Guidelines Revision: 1 Date: 17.07.06 Appr.by: OHW Page 7 of 7

Cleaning detergents can also be applied by hand and the area scrubbed to remove particularly resistant residues. 4.1.8 General Notes on Restrictions of Carriage Certain light fuel oils may be susceptible to wax contamination, while some medium grades can be put off-spec by traces of vanadium. If the previous cargo was waxy or contained traces of vanadium, thorough machine washing will be required when a sensitive grade is to be loaded. When preparing tanks to load low viscosity fuel oils, fairly stringent cleaning will be required if the last cargo was of a waxy nature. Special cleaning will be required if loading any of the following crude oils:Tia Juana, Pesado, Lagunillas, Cabimas, Bachequero, Laguna, Palanca and all seria and Meri Crudes. Vegetable and animal oils require three lead free cargoes prior to carriage.

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 7

4.2 Crude Oil Washing 4.2.1 Objective To explain the purpose of Crude Oil Washing (C.O.W) and set guidelines for procedures to be adopted by vessels carrying out this operation. 4.2.2 Reference Reference shall be made to :1. The ships Crude Oil Washing Manual - which will detail the sequence to the adopted along with duration of wash cycles. 2. IMO-Crude Oil Washing systems : copy available in ships library. 3. Intertanko Effective Crude Oil Washing 4.2.3 Responsibility The Master shall be, at all times, totally responsible to the Owners and Manager for ensuring safe and efficient C.O.W. programme. The Chief Officer is responsible to the Master for planning the C.O.W. programme and its implementation. All C.O.W. programmes drawn up by the Chief Officer must be fully discussed with the Master and approval obtained before carrying out C.O.W. The Chief Officer must ensure that all other personnel actively engaged in the C.O.W. programme fully understand their role and area of responsibility. The Chief Engineer shall be responsible for the efficient operation of the Inert Gas plant at all times during the C.O.W. programme. The Chief Officer shall discuss the plan with the Chief Engineer so that each understands the requirements of the other. 4.2.4 Documentation The following documentation will be required to be filled in and retained on board to meet most International and terminal regulation :1. A detailed C.O.W. plan showing identity of tanks to be washed, the washing sequence and the wash cycle times. 2. Managers forms: D33, D37, D38, D39 (ref.: Yellow Book) :3. Record of oxygen measurements taken of tanks before and during C.O.W. 4.2.5 Purpose of Crude Oil Washing The purpose of carrying out C.O.W. for cleaning tanks includes : Increased cargo recovery resulting in lesser R.O.B. claims

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 7

Less deadweight loss due to reduced sludge and wax residues Reduced workload at sea due to less tank washing Less corrosion Reduced time in preparing tanks for drydocking/repairs etc Pollution control

Almost all crude cargoes result in deposits of sludge on tank bottoms and other structures in the tanks. Typically at least 50% of this residue will cling on to members other than the tank bottom. The sludge consists mainly of waxy and asphaltic constituents of crude oil to the suction bell mouth. The minimum number of tanks to be crude oil washed is specified in the C.O.W. manual. However, it is preferable to C.O.W. 100% cargo tanks at every discharge. 4.2.6 Guidelines on Planning The following shall be considered when planning a discharge operation involving C.O.W: While nominating the tanks to be crude oil washed during the discharge due considerations shall be given to the estimated amount of sludge expected in each tank. It is also important to know whether the crude oil is suitable for washing. Crude oil washing with a liquid containing sludge would effect its efficiency in the removal of deposited sludge. In some cases it would probably mean additional deposition in the tank being washed. It is important that the crude oil wash medium must have adequate final fluidity. This is a function of temperature. Typically the minimum temperature required for COW of a precipitated paraffinic sludge phase would be 30 degree C. Examples of paraffinic crude oils are Gulf of Suez mix, Flotta, Iranian Heavy, Iranian light etc. Sludge is described as a "Memory Liquid" i.e although the required force is applied to the sludge to promote flow, it will after a short period readopt its original form and stop flowing. This will create a problem for its removal from tanks. Vessels need a good stern trim to induce flow to suction positions in a tank. Subject to stress and bending moment restrictions, a minimum trim of 6M is normally recommended for VLCC's. Reference to be made to the COW manual of the vessel for further details. For effective COW, the aft bays of the tank should be kept clean with drain holes in web frames fully open for flow of washing media. If there is

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 7

a lot of sediments in the aft bay, the washing should start with the aft machines, bottom washing these bays only with approximately 50cms of oil left in the tank before normal COW is started. The Marpol requirement for COW effectiveness for double hull vessels, complying with 13F(3), have the dips from each tank recorded in the "Operations and Equipment Manual". A comparision of these figures with the actual ROB after discharging to measure the deviation is a further means of guaging the Crude Oil Washing efficiency. However due to the nature of cargo and difference in trim condition, some allowance will have to be made for practical reasons. For vessels which do not complying with 13F(3), the effectiveness measure is the theoritical volume of oil sheen on top of ballast water in the tank which is to be less than 0.00085 of the physical volume of the tank. Reference shall be made to the publication - "Effective Crude Oil Washing" - by Intertanko which gives certain guideline and recommendation for improving Crude Oil Washing performance. Delays caused by tank washing can be minimized by careful advance planning and avoiding over-washing. A totally successful C.O.W. program presupposes that all cargo pumps, washing equipment and the Inert Gas Plant to be in good working order.

The additional time used for C.O.W. will be : Least when the shore back pressure limits are reached while the ship is still below its full pumping capacity. Most when the ships discharge is not limited by shore restrictions. The number of tanks to be Crude Oil Washed must always be maximized (terminal permitting) to ensure minimum sludge/wax retention in tanks. No ballast is permitted to be taken in tanks, which have not been C.O.W. The designated clean ballast tank will have to water washed in addition to achieve the required standard. Water washing of crude oil washed tanks should however, be kept to the minimum. No C.O.W. shall be carried out at any terminal usless WRITTEN permission has been obtained from those in authority at that terminal. In the event of Charterer or Owner requesting vessel to cancel or vary the C.O.W. programme, you may do so as long as such request does not involve a lowering of safety or pollution prevention standards. In all such cases the Manager must be informed.

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 4 of 7

4.2.7 Tank Atmosphere Control Prior to commencement of any C.O.W. the oxygen content within the tanks must be tested. If the oxygen content>8% C.O.W. must NOT be started until the tank(s) have been purged with IG to reduce the O2 level. The general requirement during C.O.W. is for O2 level below 8% in tank corresponding to an on-line O2 level of below 5% Certain terminals, however, have more stringent requirements. A vessel discharging in such terminals shall strictly comply with the terminals rules and regulations. No C.O.W. shall be carried out in any tank unless there is a good positive I.G. pressure within the tanks to be washed. Washing shall be stopped if I.G. pressure drops below 100mm W.G. After completion of discharge and C.O.W. operations all tanks must be purged with IG to reduce the level of hydrocarbon gas to below the flammable limit. It should be noted that most ports will not permit gas freeing or purging when alongside or in port as a safety and anti air-pollution measure. Before commencement of crude oil washing, it must be ensured that the crude oil being used contains no water, as presence of water will significantly increase the generation of static electricity. Action to be taken is :- Pump out at least 1 metre from each tank to be used for supply of crude oil for washing. - The slop tank should be fully pumped out and refilled with drycrude from other tanks before being used as a supply tank. 4.2.8 Preparation Prior Arrival at Discharge Port The Managers form for this purpose is to be used as the guideline and it must be ensured that all checks listed in the form have been carried out. Deficiencies, if any, must be rectified to ensure safe and successful C.O.W. 4.2.9 Checks Before, During and After Crude Oil Washing The Managers form for this purpose is to be used as a guideline and it must be ensured that the listed items are all answered in the positive. In case of any deficiency the COW programme is to be suspended until the deficiency has been set right.

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 5 of 7

4.2.10 Gas generation During Crude Oil Washing While C.O.W. is being carried out hydrocarbon gas will be generated. This may result in increase in tank pressure and is more evident in areas with high ambient temperature. If washing is concurrent with discharge then this rise in pressure can easily be allowed for by adjusting the pressure controller of the IG plant, if necessary. If crude oil washing without inert gas fan in operation, for example, washing at sea between two ports, there may be a gradual increase in pressure. If allowed to become excessive, this pressure may lift the PV valves. The P.V. valves are usually set to lift off at about 1400mm WG. The increased pressure may be released manually by opening the mast riser bypass valve, but it must be ensured that the pressure does not become negative in the system, as this will result in ingress of air, with serious consequences. 4.2.11 Water Washing after C.O.W. Successful C.O.W. makes water washing unnecessary except for carriage of clean ballast or when tanks have to be entered for repairs. After oil Washing, all surfaces should be clear of sediment, but a small quantity or free oil will accumulate in the suction area of the tank. Some of this will be unpumpables and some from clingage. Before carrying clean ballast these will have to be washed out. Provided that a full wash cycle has been carried out during C.O.W. one or two water washing cycles will usually be sufficient to bring the tank to clean ballast standard. The oxygen content of the tank(s) to be washed are to be checked to ensure that they are fully inerted. If necessary, the tank(s) have to be purged with inert gas. Water washing should be carried out by washing from sea to slop tank or recirculating from slop tank internally. TANKS MUST NOT BE WASHED FROM SEA TO SEA UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. 4.2.12 List of Crudes Unsuitable for C.O.W. As a general guidance to the suitability of an oil for C.O.W. the following criteria should be used when other information is not available : The viscosity of the oil at the discharging temperature should not exceed 600cst. The cargo should be discharged at a temperature which exceeds its pour point by at least 10C.

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 6 of 7

All necessary precautions must be taken to prevent the washing oil from solidfying in the COW piping system.

The following is an informative list of potentially difficult crude oils due to their high pour points or viscosity. This list, however, must not be regarded as exhaustive. Amna Cinta Laguna Shengli Ardjuna Duri Lagunillas Tapis Boscan Bu Attifel Gamba Jatibarang Maya Minas Tia Juana Pesado Cabinda Labuan Sarir Tila

Crude oils that are unsuitable for crude oil washing should not be carried without first consulting the Manager and Vessels Owners.

4.2.13 Suitability of Crude Oil Condensate for C.O.W. Crude oil condensate is a clean natural product which after coming to the surface from the wells with crude oil, is separated out and stored. It has a naphtha base. Problems have been experienced when crude condensate has been shipped with crude oil and has resulted in excessive cargo remaining after discharge. When a cargo of crude condensate is proposed, the following are to be considered: Crude condensate must under no circumstances be shipped in tanks which contain remnants of crude oil. Crude condensate can be loaded if it is mixed with a crude oil cargo and constitutes less than 10% by volume of the total crude/condensate mixture. This arragement can be agreed between Owners/shippers/charterers prior loading. It is assumed that C.O.W. can be satisfactorily performed with this 10/90 mixture. If the portion of crude condensate goes up, C.O.W. may later have to be suspended in the discharge port(s) due to high vapour pressure preventing inerting of cargo tanks.

4.2.14 C.O.W. Request Procedures Vessels will need to obtain permission for carrying out C.O.W. from the terminal prior arrival. Usual procedure is for Master to confirm his intention to crude oil wash to the Agents 7 (Seven) days prior to arrival. This message is to clearly specify that the agent is to inform the terminal of ships intentions. The message must include the following information :-

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Chapter 4 Section 2 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Crude Oil Washing Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 7 of 7

1. I.G.S. tested and fully operational 2. Each tank positively pressurised and checked 3. Each tank will have an oxygen content of <8% on arrival 4. Each tank will be maintained with below 8% oxygen throughout 5. Inert gas output will be maintained below 5% throughout 6. Pressure of IG main is maintained 7. All pipework systems have been pressure tested 8. All tank openings are sealed and tanks provided with a closed gauge system 9. Tanks will be depressurised on arrival for manual ullaging and sampling 10. The name of officer in charge of C.O.W. and cargo transfer operation. 11. Time required for C.O.W. in addition to normal time for dishcarge. 12. Additional ship requirements/comments.

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Chapter 4 Section 3 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning and Gas Freeing Equipment Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

4.3 Tank Cleaning and Gas Freeing Equipment 4.3.1 Tank Cleaning Hoses Bonding wires should be incorporated within all water hoses. Hoses should be tested for electrical continuity before use. The coupling and the coupling arrangement shall be such that there is an effective bonding between the tank washing machines, the hoses and the fixed tank cleaning water supply line. Hoses should be indelibly marked to allow identification and a record maintained of the date and result of testing for continuity. Hoses no longer to be used for tank cleaning due to wear and tear shall be stowed separately and clearly marked to prevent accidental use. After use the hoses should be drained of water and allowed to dry. They should be stowed without kinks or bends to prevent damage to internal bonding. 4.3.2 Portable Tank Cleaning Machines The machines should be of a material that will not give an incendive spark on coming into contact with the internal structure of the tank. Usually these machines are on placed on board under an exchange agreement whereby defective machines can be exchanged at the makers service centre in major ports. Care must be taken to prevent mechanical damage when handling these machines. When suspended within a cargo tank, machines should be supported by means of a rope and not by the supply hose. Adequate spares must be carried on board to carry out on board repairs in an emergency of if exchange facilities are unavailable, although generally repairing machines on board is inadvisable. 4.3.3 Tank Cleaning Heater The heater shall be operated and maintained as per the makers instructions. The maximum pressure and temperature settings should not be exceeded.

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Chapter 4 Section 3 TANK CLEANING SYSTEM Tank Cleaning and Gas Freeing Equipment Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

Pressure and temperature controllers and/or gauges should be maintained in good operating condition for optimum results. The tank cleaning heater shall be isolated from the cargo line by a spectacle or spoon blank, firmly bolted in position before any crude oil washing can be carried out. 4.3.4 Crude Oil Washing Machines These usually are of either of two types of design : Fixed type with the entire nozzle and drive mechanism forming one integral unit. A pneumatically driven portable drive unit type where a limited number of drive units are available on board. These can be transported and fitted to the nozzle assembly of the machine to be used.

COW machines can be either of programmable or non-programmable type. Where it is of the programmable type, care must be taken to ensure that the period and speed of rotation are as set to the correct position required for proper cleanliness. Regular and maintenance of these machines are of extreme importance and manufacturers instructions in this regard shall be strictly followed. Adequate spares should be in hand for carrying out routine maintenance work. As it would be rather difficult to inspect if machines are operating correctly, especially when tanks are in an inert condition for prolonged periods, a careful note of the characteristic tone of a rotating machine during COW will help indicate if the machine is functioning properly. The operation of nozzles must be visually inspected at least once in six months and preferably at the same time when tanks are internally inspected. 4.3.5 Portable Gas Freeing Fans They are a important item for operational safety and adequate number of fans for effective gas freeing should be available on board. Operation, maintenance of these fans should be as per the makers instructions. On board stock of spares should be sufficient to carry out essential repairs. Gas freeing ducts should be kept in clean condition and care must be taken to prevent damage during handling

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Chapter 5 Section 1 CARGO EQUIPMENT Pumps Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 3

5.0 CARGO EQUIPMENT 5.1 Pumps 5.1.1 Operation of Centrifugal Cargo Pumps 5.1.1.1 Starting Since a centrifugal pump will not draw its own suction, the liquid cargo must flow into the pump by gravity. There is normally a printing mechanism which exhausts air or gas out of the pump casing and thus causes the liquid to flow into it. When starting a cargo pump taking suction from a cargo tank, all valves on the suction side should be open and the casing should be primed via the priming mechanism. The pump discharge valve should be closed. The pump should then be started gradually increasing the R.P.M. to the full nominal R.P.M. and simultaneously regulating the back pressure by slowly opening the discharge valve. 5.1.1.2 Running at Full Nominal R.P.M. Centrifugal pumps should be run as close to their full design R.P.M. as possible during bulk discharge. Reductions of R.P.M. leads to a rapid decrease of pumping rate and efficiency. When the tank ullage is nearing stripping level, it is preferable to partially close the discharge valve, rather than reduce the pump revolutions, in order to reduce the flow rate. R.P.M. may be later reduced, as necessary. Cavitation will occur when the pump tries to discharge more cargo than is able to enter the suction, specially with high viscosity cargo. There is a danger of drawing gas or air instead of liquid into the pump, so that the pump will be operating in a partial vacuum instead of liquid. Evidence of cavitation is increased vibration and reduced output which can cause damage to the pump. During the pump operation, an Officer or Pumpman must be on station at all times in the cargo control room to observe the tachometer and discharge pressure and be prepared to partially close (throttle) the pump discharge valve if pressure falls off, or to shut down the pump if it loses suction. 5.1.1.3 Multi-pump Operation It is important that all pumps are run at the same speed, when discharging to a common line. If one pump runs slower than another pump is may cease pumping and heat up, possibly to a dangerous level.

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Chapter 5 Section 1 CARGO EQUIPMENT Pumps Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 3

If there is high shore back pressure it may be better to run lesser number of pumps. The decision on how many pumps are to be run shall be made depending on the situation. Due to high back pressure, a pump running at reduced R.P.M. may not be discharging at all and therefore the energy is converted into heat and could be dangerous. ENSURE ALL PUMPS RUN AT THE SAME SPEED AND ALL ARE CONTRIBUTING TO DISCHARGE. 5.1.1.4 Shutting Down a Pump The pump discharge valve should be closed at the same time as pump r.p.m. is reduced. When the pump has stopped, the suction valve should be closed. PUMPS ARE NOT BE KEPT IDLING ON STANDBY FOR LONG PERIODS. 5.1.1.5 Starting Ballast Pollution can occur when the sea inlet valve is first opened at the commencement of ballasting, if the pump and line to be used for this purpose have been used for handling cargo. To prevent pollution, it is a common practice to start the pump prior to opening the outboard sea valve, for the purpose of creating a vacuum in the sea suction line which permits water to enter and prevents oil from flowing out when the sea valve is opened. An indicator cock or compound gauge is generally fitted between the sea valve and the intermediate valve to indicate if pressure or vacuum is present in this section of pipeline. However centrifugal pumps are suitable for generating vacuum, especially against a closed suction, and if started too quickly under no-load conditions, they are likely to over-speed and trip. Extreme care is to be taken to prevent any pollution during this operation and the operation shall be supervised by the Chief Officer.

5.1.2 Stripping Pumps Stripping pumps of the reciprocating type shall be well lubricated and maintained as per markers instructions.

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Chapter 5 Section 1 CARGO EQUIPMENT Pumps Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 3 of 3

Valves and gauges attached to the stripping pump system should be checked for proper operation and defects rectified. Remote indicating pressure gauges should tally with local gauge.

5.1.3 Eductors Eductor pressure gauges and remote indicators must be in good order. As cavitation around educators can cause rapid and serious erosion of material, the eductor body and surrounding pipelines should be carefully inspected for wastage at regular intervals. 5.1.4 Vacuum Pumps These shall be operated and maintained as per makers instructions. Where it is so designed, there shall be continuous water supply for operation when the pump is in use. Use of this pump with thick, viscous cargoes (specially cargoes which require heating)may result in the lines being clogged. Frequent clearing of the line of the line would be necessary to prevent over loading the pump. The pump and lines should be thoroughly cleaned after carriage of such cargoes.

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Chapter 5 Section 2 CARGO EQUIPMENT Pipelines, Valves and Tank Openings Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 3

5.2 Pipelines, Valves and Tank Openings 5.2.1 Testing Pipelines Cargo discharge pipelines and Crude Oil Washing system pipelines are to be tested to 150% of maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP), when the vessel is in dry dock or lay up yard. Onboard tests shall be carried out to the above pressure or up to the pumps safe capacity, whichever comes first. Cargo pumps or compressed air may be used for testing pipes and valves. Special attention shall be paid to expansion joints on pipelines. Where deterioration is evident, the joints shall be renewed. Pipes and flanges shall be checked for signs of putting and the possibility of turning over pipes shall be considered. Checks must include support pipes, U clamps or similar fittings designed to keep pipeline from movement. Pressure must be maintained for sufficient time to permit proper inspection of all fitting, flanges and expansion joints on the line. Pressure should be increased gradually to avoid pipe or fittings giving way due to sudden surge in pressure. Pipelines must be tested again, if any repairs are carried out. The date of testing and test pressure shall be recorded and also marked on the pipe. 5.2.2 Testing of Valves It is very important that integrity tests on cargo and ballast valves within the vessels cargo pipelines system are carried out on a regular basis. The frequency of the test should be such that every valve in the system is tested at least once every year. The results of the test should be forwarded to the Manager and should include details of any repairs that have been possible. It is appreciated that on large vessels, repair of many valves in the pump room or in the cargo tank will be beyond the resources of ship staff without shore assistance. However, the Master must ensure that every effort is made to repair any leaking valves that are revealed by the tests. If the valve starts to leak so badly that the vessels cargo lifting capabilities become restricted (especially when trading with multi-grades), then the Master must advise the Manager as soon as possible, so that remedial action can be taken. The results of the tests will greatly assist in planning the work to be carried out during dry dock/repair period. When testing bottom line valves ensure that seals/seats are tested from both sides under the pressure of at least a full tank.

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Chapter 5 Section 2 CARGO EQUIPMENT Pipelines, Valves and Tank Openings Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 3

5.2.3 Overboard Valves The only sure way of preventing oil or oily mixture from escaping overside is to install a blank flange between the overboard valves. The overboard valve can be tested for leaks if the line is fitted with valves for testing. If vessel is not fitted with valves for testing overboard lines, the possibility of fitting such valves must be considered during the next repair period. Please refer to ICS/OCIMF publication "Prevention of Oil Spillages Through Cargo Pump room Sea Valves" section 5.3 and 5.6 for the procedure of testing of sea valves and precautions to be taken while opening of sea valves. 5.2.4 Tank Ullage Ports, Tank Access and Tank Cleaning Plates Gaskets on all these fittings must be maintained to the highest possible standard to ensure gas tight (and hence water tight) integrity of the tank. Failure to do so will result in: difficulty in maintaining IG pressure escape of hydrocarbon gas to atmosphere which may give rise to cargo claims due to evaporation during carriage.

Flame screens of the correct size shall always be fitted to ullage port when working cargo. Ullage ports are not to be used for venting as the escaping gas can be hazardous for persons working on deck. Packing of access openings should be inspected for wear and tear, especially after sour crude or products with high acid content are carried in cargo tanks. Neither very hard nor very soft sticky packing will be effective. When renewing the packing the housing channel shall be cleared of rust and coated with appropriate paint. Any pitting should be built up, if possible. 5.2.5 Manifold Flanges The faces of manifold flanges must be kept clean and rust free to ensure no leakage. A sufficient supply of suitable tools, nut/bolts and gaskets must be made available, if necessary, to the terminal staff when connecting hoses/chiksans. Similarly sufficient spares shall be carried onboard consistent with the vessels trade. 5.2.6 Manifold Gauges The manifold gauges must be kept in good condition and replaced if found defective, as they are required for maintaining an accurate record of vessels pumping performance. The gauges must be protected from weather to prevent damage.

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Chapter 5 Section 2 CARGO EQUIPMENT Pipelines, Valves and Tank Openings Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 3

Caps, valves fitted on stub pipes should be lubricated and operating as designed. Where no valves are fitted on stub pipes for connecting gauges, extreme care must be exercised, as oil under considerable pressure will be released if the threaded gauge comes loose. 5.2.7 Manifold and Pipeline Drains/drip trays The Chief Officer must ensure that these are kept clean and dry prior arrival. 5.2.8 Record Keeping The Test results of pipes and valves shall be recorded in the following format :Ships Name Location/Type Valve No. or Pipeline Date Tested Date Report Submitted (e.g. Pump room, Deck, Segregation) Result Comments

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Chapter 5 Section 3 CARGO EQUIPMENT Heating Coils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

5.3 Heating Coils 5.3.1 Heating Coils - Design & Installation Heating coils are usually fabricated from Yorkalbro (Aluminium-Bronze) Stainless steel. Other material such as copper alloys are also used. The design and installation of the heating coils must ensure uniform heating of the cargo and to prevent cold spots. Ideally the coils should extend to the extremities of the tank, into the cargo pump well (if fitted) and must not be too high from the bottom. 5.3.2 Testing Heating Coils
Requirement

On vessels not carrying heated cargoes, the coils shall be tested annually. In vessels carrying heated non-water critical cargoes, heating coils must be tested before arrival at the load port(s) by the ships staff. In vessels carrying heated water critical cargoes the heating coils must be tested before arrival at the load port(s) and also before loading, witnessed by a cargo surveyor. Ensure that a written report is signed by the surveyor to the effect that the heating coils are completely tight and suitable for loading of the specified cargo. If throttling of steam coils is required while carrying heated cargo, it is advisable to throttle the return line valve for the following reason.
With the inlet valve fully open the coil is subject to the full steam pressure. If there is any leak, it is more likely that water or steam or both will enter the cargo rather than the cargo entering the coil. Controlling the return line valve is more efficient as the steam is retained longer in the coil and will in turn give more heat to the cargo. In this way the entire latent heat energy will been transferred to the cargo. Only water should be allowed to return to the engine room. Therefore, proper functioning of the steam traps is to be ensured. It is important to ensure that when shutting off the steam, coils do not develop a vacuum. This could lead to collapsing of the coil and chances of cargo being drawn into the coil if there are any pinholes etc.

5.3.3 Procedure Heating coils are preferably tested with steam rather than compressed air. The use of steam gives a more realistic test and is closer to the actual conditions that the coils will be subjected to, when in use. A careful examination should be carried out on all sections, specially where the coils pass through bulkheads or deck heads.

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Chapter 5 Section 3 CARGO EQUIPMENT Heating Coils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

The heating coil return drains at the deck manifold should be carefully examined for any traces of previous cargo that may have entered the coils. Care should be taken if the previous cargo was hazardous/toxic. Some cargoes are difficult to detect without test equipment. Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide), for example, will require a Litmus Test of the water from the return line. The above tests should obviously be carried out after the tanks have been washed, but even so, the gas freeing fans should be in operation to protect personnel from vapours that may be produced from the heating coils or leaks. 5.3.4 Copper and Copper Alloys Certain cargoes cannot be loaded into tanks containing copper or copper alloy fittings. Certain vegetable oil cargoes (e.g. palm oils) are very critical as regards to copper contamination. The carriage of such cargo in tanks fitted with copper or copper alloy heating coils is therefore prohibited. In addition to the copper and copper alloy heating coils, some vessels have tank cleaning machines made of copper alloys. When engaged in the carriage of vegetable oil these may need to be removed to avoid damage to the cargo. On ships where this is not a regular practice it may take days to remove and stow all the tank cleaning machines. To do this, proper gear, blanking devices, sufficient nuts and bolts and packing material is needed. These need shall be identified and kept ready to avoid any delays.

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Chapter 5 Section 4 CARGO EQUIPMENT Coated Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

5.4 Coated Tanks 5.4.1 Advice from Owners/Managers In case of any doubt regarding the suitability of the tank for the designated cargo, the cargo compatibility, or the availability of suitable chemicals or for any other reason, the Master shall not hesitate to seek advice from the Owners or Managers. 5.4.2 Cargo Compatibility On being advised of a cargo fixture Masters should confirm with the tank coating manufacturers Cargo Resistance List that the particular grade or grades are compatible with the respective tank coating. This is especially important with chemicals and vegetable oil cargoes. 5.4.3 Temperature Compatibility When carrying heated cargo care should be taken that at no time does the cargo temperature exceed the maximum permitted for that particular paint coating. The same criteria applies when washing with hot water, steaming tanks during molasses discharge, or steaming as part of the tank cleaning programme. 5.4.4 Detergent/Chemical Washing Before using chemicals for tank washing reference must be made to the coating manufacturers Cargo Resistance List. Avoid purchasing tank cleaning chemicals that are not approved for your vessels tanks. 5.4.5 Coating Softening The stronger solvent type cargoes can often cause softening of the tank coatings. This problem usually resolves itself in that the coatings will recover

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OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 5 Section 4 CARGO EQUIPMENT Coated Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

fully after a set time. Before loading such cargoes careful consultation with the coating manufacturers resistance list should be made. After carriage of any cargo liable to soften the tank coating, it is normal to ventilate the tank(s) for a period prior to washing to aid coating recovery. 5.4.6 Cargo Contamination from Coatings A careful inspection should be made on completion of tank washing for coating damage or blisters which may contain traces of previous cargo. If unbroken blister are found no amount of washing will remove the contaminant and they should be scrapped off and the coating repaired prior to loading if time permits. Contamination can also be caused by tank coatings absorbing traces of the previous cargo. One of the most common forms of contamination likely to be met is that of lead after the carriage of leaded gasoline. Extra cleaning steps can be used to reduce the level of lead and these include the use of a buffered acetic acid solution or a commercial Lead Cleaning product. Despite the possibility of additional cleaning it is highly unlikely that vegetable, animal, fats or naphtha could be loaded after leaded cargoes.

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Chapter 5 Section 5 CARGO EQUIPMENT Checks And Tests Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

5.5 Checks And Tests 5.5.1 Cargo Pump Item Over speed Trips Emergency Stop Frequency Schedule of Checks/Tests Prior use of cargo and ballast pumps. Every 3 months from all the locations at which the emergency tripping of pumps is possible. Check for lubricating oil moisture content and viscosity before and after use. Lubricating oil shall be replenished during pump operation as required During operation are to be checked at least every hour. If pump bearings are running hot, pump is to be shut down.

Lubricating Systems

Temperatures Sensors

5.5.2 Pipe Lines and Valves - Pressure Test Cargo Lines and Values Valve Timings C.O.W. lines Heating Coils 5.5.3 Measuring Equipment Level Gauges Before use and every 3 months. Alarm Systems (incl. High/Low level, High- Every 3 months. High Level, etc) (Record tests in BD10) Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME) UTI / MMC PV Valve / Flame Screens Before use and every 1 month. Shore based calibration to be carried out annually Test prior each loading & Every 3 months Annually or before every carriage of multi-grade cargoes. At least once every 6 months Prior arrival discharge port and every six months. Annually or/and before carrying heating cargo.

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Chapter 5 Section 5 CARGO EQUIPMENT Checks And Tests Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

5.5.4 Instruments, Gauges, System Checks / Tests Inert Gas System Prior every use. Lamp Test to be carried out and all alarms and indicators to be checked. Gauges to be checked to ensure they are synchronized. Prior every use. Lamp Test to be carried out and all alarms and indicators to be checked. To be calibrated annually. Records to be maintained As per makers instructions. Pipelines to be blown through annually. As per makers instructions and at least every 6 months Prior every cargo operation

Cargo Control Console

All Gauges Gauge transmitters Loadicator Cargo hydraulic system

Checks / tests of above equipments shall also be carried out according to manufacturers instructions, whichever comes first. Such schedules should be included in the ships Planned maintenance System. Instruments and systems should be thoroughly checked and tested during the vessels dry dock period, to ensure correct and proper operation. Proper records of all tests and the results obtained shall be maintained.

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Chapter 6 Section 1 SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 7

6.0 SPECIAL CARGOES 6.1 Vegetable Oils 6.1.1 Properties Vegetable oils, fats and waxes occurs in plants and animals as esters of alcohol and straight chain carboxylic acids. They are insoluble in water and oily or greasy to the touch. Their composition is quite different from mineral oils e.g. petroleum, which are almost completely composed of hydrocarbons. Vegetable oils and fats containing unsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temperature while those containing saturated fatty acids are in solid form. Although there are several hundred varieties of vegetables oils only a dozen or so are commercially significant and they are divided into following types depending on their use :Edible purposes Soya bean, Ground Nut, Corn, Cotton seed, Sunflower, Olive, Rapeseed Oils Edible & industrial purposes Coconut, Palm Oils Industrial purposes Linseed, Castor seed, Tung Oils 6.1.2 Toxicity Vegetables oils are Non-toxic. However, accidents have occurred following entry into tanks which have contained vegetable oils. Investigations indicate that the vapour or mist given off from hot coconut oil either excludes or absorbs oxygen at the bottom of the tank. This can also be the case with other vegetables or animal oil cargoes. Where oils have decomposed in water, Hydrogen Sulphide is likely to be present. Vegetable Oils- especially coconut oil when carried in bulk gives off large amount of CO gas. This is very dangerous and accidents / deaths have occurred due to CO inhalation / poisoning. When entering into compartments which have previously carried coconut oil (or adjacent compartments), atmosphere needs to be checked for CO with dedicated meters or appropriate Drager tubes. Therefore tanks which have carried vegetable oils shall be entered only after complying with Manager's requirements for entry into enclosed spaces. 6.1.3 Cargo Compatibility The regulations concerning a vessels previous cargo history are very restrictive specially in the case of vegetable oils used for edible purposes and the allowable contamination levels are less the ONE part per million (1 ppm).

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Chapter 6 Section 1 SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 7

It is not permitted under any circumstances to load vegetable oils after leaded or in some cases lead critical cargos. Vessels chartered to carry vegetable oil should clarify from the charterers/Owners or Managers that the vessel's previous cargo history will not affect the carriage of the nominated cargo. 6.1.4 Free Fatty Acid (FFA) The tank coating manufacturers Cargo Resistance List should be referred to for the maximum allowable Free Fatty Acid value for the vessels coating in the designated tank(s). In case the FFA is near the manufacturers limit a maximum carriage time may also be specified. The FFA value of many vegetable oil cargoes increases with storage time and the amount of heating required during the voyage. 6.1.5 Heating Coils Heating coils must be fully tested as detailed in the section Heating Coils. Many vegetable oils are not be carried in tanks with heating coils made of copper or copper alloy material. If in doubt about the condition or specification of the material, Masters should seek advice from the Owner or Manager. Surveyors will need to witness the testing of heating coil during tank inspection prior loading. A written report shall be obtained from the surveyor on completion of test. 6.1.6 Tank Cleaning Before Loading Reference Reference shall be made to the Tank Cleaning Guide (Dr.A. Verwey) for cleaning required for carriage of vegetable oils. Guidelines It is recommended that, subject to tank coating manufacturers limitations, the wash water for cleaning tanks is used at the highest possible temperature. Tanks that are designated for carrying vegoils should be fresh water rinsed and/or steamed to remove salts other contaminants found in raw sea water. Master must ensure that sufficient fresh water is available to rinse all the tanks. If additional supplies are required, Master should give adequate notice to Agents etc. so that the necessary arrangements can be made to supply fresh water at the discharge port before the vegoil voyage. Tanks must be completely gas free and sweet smelling. Heating coils must be free of baked-on deposits from previous cargoes, specially undersides.

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Chapter 6 Section 1 SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 7

Ensure that all traces of rust, sludge and water are removed and the tank(s) mopped dry. Pipelines should be well washed and completely drained. It may be required to use detergents or hand scrub areas of persistent staining or extend the tank cleaning programme to achieve the desired results. Pump strainers must be opened up and cleaned and any scale or traces of previous cargo residues must be removed. A thorough check must be made around and under the tank suctions (Elephants Foot) for traces of pervious cargo or sediments that may be lodged there. This also applies to vessels with deep well pumps. Check to ensure that tank openings are fitted with good gaskets and are thoroughly secured to prevent ingress of water. 6.1.7 Loading Multi-port loading and discharging is common in the vegoil trade. Cargo planning and calculations must be carefully assessed prior to arrival at the first load port. Frequent updating of the cargo plan may be required in case of changes in quantities of various parcels to be shipped. When planning stowage care must be taken to ensure that parcels requiring little or no heating or are heat critical are not stowed next to grades that require high carriage and discharges temperatures. If possible, avoid stowing parcels that require high carriage temperatures in wing tanks. Usually cargo from different shippers cannot be co-mingled, even if it is of same grade. However, cargo from the same shipper may be loaded in small parcels and these are frequently co-mingled. Despite the fact that inability to co-mingle cargoes may lead to loss of cargo space, vegetable oil cargoes should NEVER be co-mingled unless a written permission had been obtained from the charterers and shippers. A co-mingling clause will be entered in the charter party in such cases. If in any doubt, the Master must clarify the situation with charterers/shippers or the Manager before permitting the cargo to be co-mingled. Loading is carried out in many ports using flexible hoses Over the Top (Overall) even when the vessel is fully equipped with individual manifold and pipelines to the tanks. This is used to reduce the back pressure of shore lines in ports with poor facilities and also reduces port time in some cases. When loading Over the Top the loading hose should lead to the bottom of the tank, if possible, to prevent excessive aeration: Measures must be taken to prevent the ingress of rain water during such loading.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 6 Section 1 SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 4 of 7

Vessels loading through vessels pipelines system should ensure that all the designated lines are well blown through with steam on completion to prevent cargo retention. This is very important if the vessel is trading to an area with low ambient temperatures. Many vegoil cargoes solidify quickly in cold weather. The importance of draining and steaming the lines through cannot be overstressed and must be done with no delay. If the vessels is trading to areas with high ambient temperatures than blowing the lines through with air may be sufficient, depending on the type of vegoil being loaded. If loading through the pump room lines, these lines must be cleared, preferably with steam. The drains should be checked and any oil remaining is to be drained. Cargo pumps must be checked for vegoil retained in filter. Heating coils must be well covered on completion of loading a parcel. The Master must ensure that cargo samples are drawn for each grade loaded. When a grade has been co-mingled make sure that samples of the co-mingled cargo is also obtained. Sufficient samples must be drawn to ensure that vessel can retain one sample from each tank. For details on marking samples refer to the section Ch 2.9 "Measuring and Sampling in this manual. 6.1.8 Heating Heating instructions are issued for each and every parcel/grade that is to be loaded. Ensure that the instructions are available before departure from the load port and they are clearly marked and signed, preferably by the surveyor. Master must ensure strict compliance with the instructions at all times. Overheating can cause severe damage to vegetable oils. Steam pressure should not exceed 1.5 kgs/cm2 to prevent localised overheating. A cargo tank temperature log must be maintained for each and every grade loaded. Daily check of the temperature shall be made. Temperatures should be logged twice every day when the cargo is being heated. Close attention must be paid to the maximum permitted daily temperature increase. This usually about 5oF (3oC) and must not be exceeded under any circumstances. Receivers will often request a copy of the temperature log. As a general guideline the vegoil cargo must be carried at the bottom end of the carriage temperature (but not below) to reduce steam demand/bunker consumption. While in the tropics heat may not be required at all in certain grades and in most cases it will be possible to maintain cargo temperatures with heat through surplus steam available from exhaust gas boiler. However, certain grades require a slight heat at all times to maintain convection circulation of

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 6 Section 1 SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 5 of 7

the cargo to prevent lower pour point solids being deposited on the tank bottoms. When planning the daily rate of increase in cargo temperature the various factors which may affect heating shall be taken into account. They include anticipated weather conditions such as vessels rolling, seas on deck, rapid drops in sea temperature and even rain. A vessel entering a winter zone and anticipating bad weather should allow at least twice the calculated time to increase the temperature to discharge level. The cargo should be presented to the receivers close to the maximum discharge temperature allowed by the heating instructions. The maximum temperature must NOT be exceeded even by one degree. Maintaining the cargo near the maximum discharge temperature will assist in good pumping performance and minimum R.O.B. after discharge. Clingage will also be much reduced. When discharging to a barge, The Master should ensure that the Barge receives a copy of the heating instructions from the vessel and a receipt obtained. 6.1.9 Discharging Steam should be maintained on the heating coils during discharge and shut off just before the coils start to uncover. If steam is left after this point, the oil residues can bake, which will then be very difficult to remove. The tank will also fill with smoke from the scorching residues which may hamper visual inspection of draining and stripping. Men are usually utilized to sweep the oil towards the pump suctions/deepwells to improve cargo outturn. The presence of acrid smoke in a tank will impede their ability to work. Manual sweeping of oil in a tank is very exhausting especially if the tank is very hot and every effort shall be made to ensure safety of personnel working in the tanks. Managers requirements for entry into enclosed spaces must be fully complied with. Provision of adequate lighting and ventilation is extremely important. The men must be particularly watched for signs of heat exhaustion. Tank draining and sweeping shall be so planned that an adequate rest period is available between each tank to be swept. The deck officers must actively involve themselves to ensure that the men engaged in sweeping make every effort to discharge the maximum cargo. During discharge of a particular grade, it must be ensured that the temperature of the other grades being carried have not increased. With the vessel stopped, the temperature of the cargo tends to rise, sometimes rapidly.

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Chapter 6 Section 1 SPECIAL CARGOES Vegetable Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 6 of 7

As the heating coils are shut down in emptied tanks the steam supply may be reduced. Failure to do so increases the possibility of overheating cargo in other tanks by accident. In cold ambient conditions, clingage of solidified oil is often a problem. This can be reduced by recirculating hot vegetable oil (if possible) by a hand hose and washing down the areas concerned. On final completion of all cargo, every endeavour must be made to ensure that all lines, pumps, strainers etc. are fully drained and steamed clear of all oil residues. On completion of tank discharge it should be inspected by the surveyors and unpumpables calculated (if any). R.O.B. certificate should show details of ROBs for each tank separately 6.1.10 Tank Cleaning After Discharge Reference Reference must be made to Tank Cleaning Guide (Dr. A.Verwey) for cleaning required after discharge of vegetable oils. Guidelines Tanks that have carried vegoils should be washed as soon after discharge as is possible . If a delay becomes apparent then the tank sides should be washed down to prevent drying of the oil. This is very important if the adjacent tanks still contain heated cargo. Prior to any tank washing it must be ascertained whether the vegoil is drying or non- drying. Drying oils must NOT be given a initial hot wash. The hot washwater can cause the oil to varnish on to the tank coating. This can prove difficult to remove even with extensive chemical washing. The tank must be could water washed initially to remove bulk of the residues, followed by hot washing. Non-drying oils can be washed fully with hot water. It is, however, recommended that the initial wash is completed with water at just above the melting point of the oil concerned. It has been found that less white powder residue forms on the bulkheads by using this system. Time permitting, most vegoils can be washed without resorting to chemicals. The wash water should be at the maximum temperature and pressure compatible with the tank manufacturers limitations. If residues still remain or time is limited, then an alkaline cleaner may be used. A check must be made with the coating manufacturers Resistance List. After completion of washing sequence, it may still be necessary to direct the washing machines to the shadow areas. Occasionally it is advantageous to scrape and lift heavy deposits prior to spot washing.

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Cargo lines are to be kept clear. Pumping cold water around is not the solutions. All lines must be steamed or blown through as soon after completion as possible. Before and after tank washing, all lines, pumps and strainers must be washed through with hot water. Vessels with deepwell pumps should not forget to ensure that the stripping lines are completely clear on completion. The tank gas risers should be cleared of any solid residues. Tank Anodes Vegetable oils tend to leave an impenetrable film of oil on the cargo tank anodes after discharge. On subsequent ballasting the anodes fail to act correctly and leave the tank unprotected against electrolytic corrosion. It is essential therefore, that prior to tanks being ballasted the anodes should be high pressure-hosed with hot water to remove the traces of oil. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove tank anodes before loading vegetables oils.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 6 Section 2 SPECIAL CARGOES Tallow Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 3

6.2 Tallow 6.2.1 Introduction Tallow is an animal fat, solid at ambient temperatures. 6.2.2 Free Fatty Acid (FFA) The tank coating manufacturers Cargo Resistance List should be referred to for maximum allowable Free Fatty Acid value for the vessels tank coating. The maximum carriage time may also be specified when the FFA is close to the manufacturers limits. Certain types of Tallow are described hereunder:Grade Bleachable Fancy Extra Fancy Industrial Extra Fancy Industrial Fancy Fancy Choice Prime Special No.1 A No.2 Inedible Yellow Grease Acid Number Max. 3 Max. 3 Max. 3 Max. 4 Max. 5 Max. 6 Max. 10 Max. 15 Max. 20 Max. 35 Approx F.F.A.% 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 17.5 -

The acid number can be taken as approximately equivalent to twice the FFA. 6.2.3 Properties Solidfying Points :20C to 45C 27C to 38C

Horse Fat Beef Tallow

Mutton Tallow 32C to 41C The specific gravity/density varies dependent on grade. Tallow is non-toxic but however can generate toxic gases, namely Hydrogen Sulphide, when decomposed in water. (see Section : Vegetable Oils) Tallow has been known to sustain animal diseases/viruses, so contact with the skin, eyes, etc, should be avoided.

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6.2.4 Preparations Prior to Loading The tanks designated for the carriage of a tallow cargo should have been used for non-toxic and unleaded cargo, during at least the three previous voyages. The tanks must be hot washed, gas freed and if loading edible tallow a final fresh water rinse may be required. Fresh water rinse and/or steam the cargo tank(s) if there is sufficient fresh water on the vessel to do so, if not, seek confirmation from the suppliers to the Manager. All rust and scale should be lifter, care being taken to ensure that any deposits are removed from the heating coils. The tanks must be educated and mopped completely dry. All pipelines, pumps and strainers must be well drained and cleaned. Prior to arrival at the load port the heating coils must be fully tested using steam, repairs made if required, and an entry made in the deck log book to this effect, before loading the surveyor or the shippers representative will witness the test and sign a written report. (See Section Heating Coils) 6.2.5 Loading Although a combustible cargo, tallow is non volatile and therefore may be loaded Overall. However, most ports now use fixed connections. Irrespective of the method used, it must be ensured that no water enters the cargo tank during the loading operation. The heating coils must be completely covered by cargo on completion. To avoid cargo solidifying in the system, upon completion of loading, the pipelines, pumps and strainers must be completely cleared of any cargo by draining, steaming or blowing through. 6.2.6 Heating Heating of tallow will vary with the particular grade being carried. Specific heating instructions will be issued by the charterers which must be carefully complied with. Charterers prefer the cargo to be heated by hot water circulation thorough the coils but if this is not possible, then low pressure steam can be used. Care must be taken to ensure that at no time steam is being returned at the heating coil manifold drains, as this would indicate damage to the tallow through scorching. The charterers heating instructions will also state the passage carriage temperature and maximum discharge temperature. The maximum discharge temperature shall not be exceeded at any time. If the tallow is present at the load port at a temperature higher than the maximum discharge temperature a written protest is to be given to the shippers and surveyors.

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For details on maintaining temperature records to be maintained please refer to the paragraph on Heating in the Section Vegetable Oils 6.2.7 Discharging The discharging is done on similar lines described under Ch. 6.1 Vegetable Oils 6.2.8 Tank Cleaning After Discharge Tallow is a non-drying oil and the guidelines given for tank cleaning after carriage of non-drying oils in Ch. 6.1 Vegetable Oils.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 6 Section 3 SPECIAL CARGOES Molasses Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 5

6.3 Molasses 6.3.1 Introduction The Specific Gravity of Molasses is normally in the range of 1.35 to 1.40. This high S.G. poses very significant restrictions on the carriage of molasses in tanks designed for cargoes with a maximum S.G. of 1.025. Under all conditions of carriage of Molasses, the Stability and Longitudinal strength of the vessel must comply with the approved stability booklet on board. Particular care must be taken in this respect during all stages of loading, carriage and discharging. Information given in the vessels stability book shall be studied and any restrictions noted. If in any doubt the Owners or the Managers shall be contacted. 6.3.2 Maximum Filling Depth If the vessels cargo tanks are restricted to a maximum SG of 1.025 then care must be taken to ensure that the tanks are not overloaded. The stability book may give a formula to calculate the maximum tonnage that may be loaded into a tank with cargoes having SG>1.025. Lloyds Register (LR) have approved a formula which ensures that the tank(s) are not overfilled and the calculation gives the Maximum filling depth of the particular cargo Max. Filling Depth of Cargo Tank = Depth of Tank x 1.025 Relative Density of Molasses 6.3.3 Minimum Filling Depth The vessels stability book shall be the correct guide for this information. However, as a rough indication a minimum filling depth of 43% of a tanks total cubic capacity is used. This percentage or calculation is to be used only if other information is unavailable and are applicable to any vessel that is restricted by the cargos max. S.G. of 1.025. Compliance with Maximum or Minimum Depth requirements To comply with the above filling levels the Master must, prior loading, ensure that sufficient molasses is available to achieve the desired filling levels. If this is not available, efforts shall be made to rearrange the stow to make better use of space. It is often very difficult to determine the actual surface level of a molasses cargo due to frothing caused by aeration during loading. It is important that the filling level is established as accurately as possible to ensure that minimum/maximum filling level requirements are complied with. 6.3.4 Compatibility with Tank Coatings The coating manufacturers Cargo Resistance List must be checked to ensure that the tank coating is compatible with the PH value of the molasses to be loaded.

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6.3.5 Loading and Carrying Molasses The tanks designated for the carriage of a molasses cargo should, for at least three previous cargoes, have been used for nontoxic, unleaded cargo. When arranging a suitable stow for the molasses, care should be taken to ensure that it is not stowed adjacent to hot cargoes, as this could temperature damage. Prior to loading the heating coils must be fully tested using steam. The carriage of molasses is particularly high risk as it is soluble in water. Its presence will not be immediately apparent in the hot well or observation tank. If molasses gets into the boiler, the effect can be same as oil as the boiler internals become coated with a sugary caramel substance and tube failure may result. However molasses can sometimes be detected in the coil or heater drains with careful observation. Sometimes the odour of molasses can be in the condensate drains. Another way of testing if a molasses leak is suspected is to collect a small sample from the drain of the suspected coil. Place the sample in a clean container and boil the water off slowly. If there is a sugary or caramel residue then there is a leak. Due to difficulties in determining the actual SG of molasses and inaccurate ullages due to froth the best system for calculating weight is with a full draft survey. The quantity of molasses, in shore tanks, is usually determined by direct weight readings. Aeration and frothing can make a difference up to 7% between ullaged and actual quantities, assuming a constant SG is used. To reduce aeration and frothing in tanks and the formation of a deep froth layer during loading, as far as possible all molasses cargo must be loaded through the vessels main cargo pipe lines. If this is not possible, then it must be ensured that the hoses used for loading reach well down to the bottom of the tank, so that the molasses is not allowed to free fall. During the carriage of molasses, it is important to monitor the condition of the cargo in the tank and in particular be watchful of the following :6.3.6 Fermentation Occasionally, a quantity of molasses in a tank begins to ferment, the process of which is called fermentation. The visual effects of fermentation in molasses, are an increase in volume, the creation of a layer of foam in and especially on the surface of the molasses. Along with the development of foam, the temperature of the molasses sharply increases ( a few degrees Celsius every 24 Hours) with a strong odor of alcohol and acetic acid. 6.3.7 Aeration The normal coefficient of expansion of molasses is about 0.00022. Experience has shown that cargoes having an coeff. of expansion significantly different from this are extremely difficult to discharge, due to the presence of aeration. The coefficient of expansion shall be obtained from the shippers prior loading. In the event of a significant difference in the loaded cargos coefficient of expansion against the norm. or any undue rise in temperature and or volume the generation of

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alcohol/acetic vapours, the vessels Owners and the Manager should be advised immediately. 6.3.8 Heating The heating of molasses for discharge usually commences seven days prior to discharge. It is essential that the cargo temperature is raised gradually, to prevent localized scalding, frothing or caramelization. The normal discharge temperature of molasses is in the range of 35oC to 40.6oC (95oF-105oF). The normal absolute maximum to which molasses can be heated is 46oC(115oF). Above this temperature the possibility exists of damaging cargo quality. Molasses have sometimes proved very difficult cargoes to heat and occasionally will not heat uniformly and the cargo tank bottom can reach a high temperature before the molasses turns over, to heat the top of the tank. Care should be taken to ensure that temperature are taken at varying levels in the tanks(s). If the cargo is to be discharged at more than one port, it is essential that the Master determines the quantity to be discharged form each tank at each port. Once this is confirmed a firm discharge plan should be drawn up whereby as many tanks are fully discharged at each port as possible. This is because, once heating for discharge has been commenced, it is very difficult to stop the rise in temperature, even with the heating coils completely shut. In all cases, it is very important to strictly adhere to the charterers heating instructions. If the local instructions vary from the charterer's instructions or if the charterers instructions vary substantially with these guidelines, the Managers must be advised immediately. For details on record keeping of cargo tank temperature see paragraph on Heating in the Section Vegetable Oils. 6.3.9 Discharge Unless the vessel is equipped with deepwell pumps with booster pumps on deck or other types of pumps specifically designed for pumping a high viscosity cargo like molasses, the discharge will normally have to be undertaken using portable pumps. Centrifugal pumps carried on most product tankers are totally unsuitable unless the molasses being carried is of unusually low viscosity. If the vessel is nominated to load molasses and if the Master is in doubt about the pumps capacity he should advise the Manager. It is also important that the viscosity of the Molasses is advised to allow a rapid assessment to be made. Maintaining the Cargo at the correct discharge temperature is essential to ensure good pumpability. Any reduction in temperature will result in dramatic rise in viscosity resulting in very serious draining problems E.g. Philippine Molasses Viscosity at 40C at 30C at 20C = 8,950 Cst = 21,400 Cst = 69,900 Cst

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Heating of molasses should therefore be continued throughout the discharge with temperature being continuously monitored to avoid overheating. Steam to the heating coils should be shut off only when the heating coils become visible. Any delay at this stage will result in smoking and further carbonization of molasses on the coils. This carbons is very difficult and time consuming to remove. As the tanks reach draining level live steam should be introduced into the tank(s) to assist in the draining. The amount of steam will be totally dependent on the composition of the molasses and therefore the charterers surveyor must always be consulted. If and when live steam is used, the steaming operation should not last more than one hour. The cargo tank steel temperatures must not be allowed to rise above 75C as tank coating damage can occur. The Charter Party may require that the charterers surveyor is advised prior introduction of live steam into a tank. In any case, the total amount of water introduced into the tank(s) as live steam will have to be calculated and subtracted form the total outturn to ascertain the actual weight of cargo discharged. 6.3.10 Anti-Foaming Agents On rare occasions considerable difficulty can be faced in discharging molasses due to excessive foaming. Special anti-foaming agents are available to help in such cases as a last resort. The anti-foaming agents can however be used, only after a written confirmation and approval has been obtained from the charterer by the Owner/Manager. It is applied by spraying through the tank access or tank cleaning holes. 6.3.11 Tank Cleaning after Discharge During the stripping operation (using live steam), or at the start of tank cleaning operation, the dilute solution of molasses in hot or cold water will increase acidity. This should be removed as quickly as possible to prevent coating damage. During cleaning operations the addition of an alkaline buffer compound or washing with copious amounts of water should reduce this problem. If it is not possible to clean immediately, flushing the tank bottoms with water will further dilute the solution. Molasses is a completely water soluble product, therefore excellent tank cleaning result can be achieved by hot water washing only, but the use of a detergent will assist in removing the strong persistent smell. Often the heating coils are covered in a hard layer of carbon which does not completely wash off. This will have to be removed by hard scrubbing. The remaining carbon sediment on the tank bottoms will have to be swept out. Ensure that the cargo valves seat properly as the bottoms of the valves can become filled with the carbonized sediment which will not wash out.

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6.3.12 Tank Atmosphere Due to the varying composition of the different types of molasses and the fact that there is always a possibility of carbon dioxide or alcohol vapors being present, tank entry should be prohibited until the tank has been well ventilated and tested and Managers procedures for entry into enclosed spaces complied with.

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Chapter 7 Section 1 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Safety Precautions Revision: 2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 6

7.0 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 7.1 Safety Precautions 7.1.1 Objective To outline some of the most important safety precautions which are to be observed on board tankers, in general and when alongside a terminal and to provide practical procedures to be followed on board. 7.1.2 General Principles To eliminate the risk of fire and explosion it is necessary to avoid a source of ignition and a flammable atmosphere being present at the same place at the same time. As it is not always possible to exclude both these factors, precautions must be taken to exclude or control one of them. Good and safe operational practices, followed diligently by all on board can help eliminate the risk of fire, explosion or any accident on board. Different set of precautions may be required for the various areas on board a vessel, depending on the location, the operation carried out in the area and the type of danger. Area Cargo Spaces, Pump room Non-cargo spaces in hazardous zone Galley, Cabins, Accommodation Engine and Boiler rooms Danger Presence of flammable gases Intrusion of flammable gases Electrical fittings, matches, lighters Boiler operation, electrical equipment, and Bunker fuel Positive air pressure should be maintained in the accommodation, to prevent ingress of gasses.

7.1.3 Atmosphere testing The atmosphere in non-cargo spaces in the hazardous zone should be tested frequently for flammable gases. The tests results should be recorded. If there is no fixed system with a recorder fitted, the sampling shall be performed with portable equipment, and recorded in the deck logbook. Sampling should be performed immediately after loading, then at frequent intervals not exceeding one week. 7.1.4 Fire Fighting Equipment Immediately before or on arrival at the terminal for cargo operations, the ships fire hose should be connected to the fire main, one forward and one aft of the ships manifold. In some ports, it is obligatory to maintain pressure on the ships

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fire main during cargo operations. In any case, the fire pump shall be on standby and ready for immediate operation. In cold weather, freezing of fire mains and hydrant should be avoided by continuously bleeding water overboard from hydrants at the extreme end of each fire main. Alternatively, all low points on the fire main may be kept drained. Monitors should be ready for use, Portable fire extinguishers, preferably of the dry powder chemical type, should be placed fore and aft of the manifold in use. A check shall be made to ensure that both ship and shore have an International Shore Connection for water available and ready for use. 7.1.5 Readiness to Move Under Own Power While a tanker is berthed at a terminal, its boilers, main engines, steering machinery and other equipment essential for manoeuvring shall be readily available to permit the vessel to move away from berth at short notice. Repairs and other work which may immobilise the vessel should not be undertaken at a berth without prior written agreement with the terminal. Where required by local laws, permission from local port authority must be obtained prior commencing such work. 7.1.6 Communications The provision of adequate means of communication between ship and shore is extremely important and it is essential that such a system is reliable and safe. Telephone or UHF/VHF transceiver systems are usually used and it must be ensured that they are designed for operation in hazardous areas. Portable UHF/VHF sets must be intrinsically safe. Where language difficulties are likely, agreement shall be made on verbal expressions and language to be used, especially with regard to important aspects of operations. Where there are difficulties in verbal communications, a member of the terminal staff with knowledge of tanker operations may have to be placed on board. The signals/words for the following must be clearly understood: Starting, stopping shut down standby and emergency stop. 7.1.7 Notices The vessel should display notices at the gangway as follows: WARNING NO SMOKING NO NAKED LIGHTS

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NO UNAUTHORISED PERSONS Shore personnel should be advised of other notices put up for the crew on board for safety and shall be asked to comply with them when on board. 7.1.8 Visitors Only persons with valid reason for visiting are to be allowed on board, after obtaining the Masters approval. Persons smoking or apparently intoxicated shall not be allowed to board the vessel. Also refer to SSMM and Security Manual procedures for control of visitors onboard. Casual visitors may be allowed with the permission of the Master and / or the company, and they must sign the Casual Visitor form. Preferably, a note detailing the minimum safety instructions to be followed on board should be given to them. 7.1.9 Smoking Smoking shall be permitted only in designated places, which shall be clearly marked. Unless local laws totally prohibit smoking on board when at berth, smoking may be permitted in designated places to avoid stealthy smoking by habitual smokers. There shall be no smoking on deck under any circumstances. The designated smoking areas on board should be agreed in writing between the Master and the terminal before commencing operations. The Master is responsible for ensuring that all on board are informed of the designated smoking area and for posting suitable notices as required by local rules in addition to the vessels permanent notices. The following criteria may be followed for selecting a designated smoking area : The place(s) should be confined to not more than 3 locations. The area should not have doors or ports, which open directly on to or over the cargo deck or on to decks overlooking cargo spaces or shore connections. Account shall be taken of any danger which may include e.g. unusually high petroleum gas concentrations, particularly in the absence of wind or when operations are being carried out on adjacent tankers or on the berth. All ports in the designated area must be closed and doors into passageways kept closed, except when in use.

7.1.10 Galley Stove and Cooking Appliances Any doors overlooking the tank deck must be closed at all times. Equipment used shall be of approved type and if in any doubt the terminal representative shall be consulted and approval obtained.

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Additional care shall be taken in this regard on tankers using the stern discharge line for cargo operations. Non-immersed elements such as electric hot-plates and toasters shall not be used in such case. Cookers and other equipment heated by steam may be used at all times. 7.1.11 Lighting During darkness, the means of access and the decks of the vessel should be well lit. It is recommended that the walkway on deck from the gangway landing area and the manifolds, up to the accommodation is clearly marked and coated with anti-skid paint, to prevent injury. It is important to ensure that all deck and pump room lights are operational prior arrival, as it is not permitted to change bulbs/tubes when at berth. 7.1.12 Torches and lamps Only approved gas tight self-contained torches or lamps shall be used in hazardous areas. Use of naked lights or portable electric lamps are strictly prohibited. Air driven (pneumatic) lights of the approved type may be used in hazardous areas. To avoid accumulation of static electricity in such appliances the following precautions should be observed: The air supply should fitted with a water trap The supply hose should be of low electric resistance.

7.1.13 Radio, Electronic and Communication Equipment General Unless certified intrinsically safe or of other approved design, the equipment on board ships such as telephone, talk back systems, signaling lamps, search lights and electrical controls for ship's whistle etc. Should neither be used nor connected or disconnected if they are located in hazardous area. Radio Equipment The use of vessels radio equipment during cargo, ballast or tank cleaning operations is potentially dangerous. This does not apply to the use of permanently and correctly installed VHF units, provided the output is reduced to One Watt or less. When a vessel is at berth, its main transmitting aerials should be earthed. If for servicing purposes it is required to operate radio equipment, the written permission of the terminal must be obtained and any equipment may preferably be operated only when no cargo operations are in progress, at low power and

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with the use of a dummy aerial load. VHF sets and AIS should be on low power before starting any cargo, tank cleaning or as freeing operations. Radar Scanners The radiation of radio waves from a properly sited radar scanner presents no ignition hazard. However, the operation of radar will involve running nonapproved electrical equipment, hence it is not permitted to use or repair this equipment in most terminals. Satellite Communication Terminals These normally dont pose any ignition hazard, but local rules may prohibit use of this equipment in some terminals.
Mobile Phones

Use of mobile telephones is restricted to inside the accommodation and at a safe distance from electronic equipment. Mobile telephones should not be used inside or close to the control rooms, to prevent interference with critical equipment. Notices should be posted in areas where use of mobile phones is prohibited. This requirement should be advised to all visitors. 7.1.14 Synthetic Clothing Clothing made of synthetic material does not give rise to any significant increase in electrostatic hazard under normal conditions. However, the tendency of such material to fuse together in high temperatures can lead to a concentrated heat source which cause serve damage to body tissue. Clothing of such material is not recommended for persons who may be exposed to flame or hot surfaces when carrying out their duties. 7.1.15 Use of Tools Before any hammering, chipping or sandblasting is undertaken or any power tool is used in any hazardous area, the responsible officer (Chief Officer or Chief Engineer) must ensure that the area will remain gas free throughout the period during which the tolls are to be used. Hand tools must be used only for the purpose for which they are designed. Nonferrous (also called non-sparking)tools are only marginally less likely to give rise to incendive spark. Particles of concrete, sand or other substances are likely to get embedded in the working face or edge of these tolls and can cause incendive sparks on impact with ferrous or other hard metals. The use of non-ferrous tools is not recommended.

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7.1.16 Aluminium Aluminium equipment shall not be dragged or rubbed across steel since it may leave a smear which, if it on rusty steel and is later struck, can cause an incendive spark. Aluminium gangways or other portable heavy structures should have their undersides protected by hard plastic or wooden strip. 7.1.17 Cathodic Protection Magnesium anodes are prohibited for use on board. Aluminium anodes are permitted in permanent ballast tanks only. Zinc anodes do not have any restrictions. The location, securing and type of anode are subject to approval by appropriatee authorities. Anodes in tanks shall be checked for wastage, securing arrangements and physical damage during tank inspections. 7.1.18 Means of Access It is important that the ship provides a safe mode of access. Very often, it is found that in terminals, the accommodation ladder cannot be used or the MOT gangway cannot be safely placed at the jetty end. At times, the MOT ladder is rigged incorrectly as the terminal does not have enough place for its free movement because of some obstruction. As most tankers have their hose handling crane in the manifold area, this is used to safely place the gangway. Some terminals usually have obstructions in the manifold area which makes placing of MOT ladder difficult and risky. The possibility of alternative arrangement of access at such terminals must be discussed and evaluated with the terminal representatives. It may be safer to us the sea side gangway in such cases. Personal should only use the designated access provided. Gangways or other similar means of access should be provided with a safety net where appropriate, and lifebuoys with lines and light should be readily available in the vicinity of the gangway. Where terminal access facilities are not available and vessels gangway is used, the berth should have a landing sufficient to provide a gangway with a clear run of space so as to maintain safe convenient access to the tanker at all states of tide and changes in the ships freeboard. Particular attention to safe access should be given where the difference in level of the tankers deck and the jetty becomes large. There should be special facilities where the level of tankers deck is below the jetty level. Any temporary arrangements (gang plank or similar) should be well secured and must have safety net and hand-holds.

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OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 7 Section 2 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Electrostatic Hazards Revision:1 Date: 01.07.04 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 7

7.2 Electrostatic Hazards 7.2.1 Introduction The hazards associated with electrostatic phenomena are one of the most likely causes of tanker mishaps and hence extreme care is to be taken to prevent accidents due to generation of static electricity in cargo tanks. The three basic stages leading up to a potential electro-static hazard are:Charge Generation, Charge Accumulation and Electrostatic Discharge. 7.2.2 Reference Reference must be made to the chapter on Static Electricity in the International Safety Guide for Tankers and Terminals (ISGOIT), a copy of which is available in the ships library. 7.2.3 Charge Generation When two dissimilar materials (both liquids or solids or one of each) are in contact with each other there will be an imbalance of charge at the inter-face. If subsequently, the two materials become separated by some mechanical action, one will carry an excess of positive cargo and the other an excess of negative charge. The separate charges attempt to combine by induction. If, however, one of the substances is a poor conductor of electricity, recombination will be limited and a difference in charge (and potential) will exist between the two substances. This mechanism is used to explain how liquids become charged when they are pumped through pipes and how water droplets become charged during tank washing. Pure gases themselves do not get charged. The flow of a gas containing particulates (e.g. soot) however, can generate a high static charge. 7.2.4 Charge Accumulation The degree of charge accumulation on a body is a balance between the rate of charge generation and the rate of charge decay. If a significant accumulation of charge is to occur, the rate of charge decay must be slow, which requires a high resistance to earth.

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Crude oil a relatively high conductivity and does not tend to accumulate a static charge. A water mist, on the other hand, consisting of highly conductive droplets can accumulate a static charge because each particle is electrically isolated, the most common and dangerous being the spray/mist produced during tank washing. 7.2.5 Electrostatic Discharge The accumulated charge establishes an electric field between it and the earthed bodies nearby. If the field strength or voltage gradient at some point exceeds 3000 Kilovolts per metre, an electrostatic discharge will occur due to electrical breakdown of the air or petroleum gas. If the substance has a low conductivity, e.g. a water mist or petroleum product, a brush corona discharge will occur. The characteristic of a Brush corona discharge is that only a part of the stored electrical energy is dissipated in one charge and thus repeated discharges can occur. If the charges substances on the other hand, is a conducting material, a strong incendiary discharges can occur. In this case all the stored electrical energy will dissipate in one single energetic spark. 7.2.6 Electro-Static Hazards When Pumping Low Conductivity Liquids (Static Accumulator Oils) All distillate and most chemical cargoes must be treated as static accumulators unless they contain an anti-static additive. Even it is known that the cargo contains an anti -static additive or the tanks are fully inerted, full precautions must be taken to prevent static generation or accumulation. During the loading operation and for a period after loading the static accumulator cargo can carry sufficient charge to constitute a hazard. These low conductivity cargoes become electrostatically charged when they are pumped through pipelines, filters and valves. If the tanks are likely to contain a flammable atmosphere at any time during the cargo operations it is imperative that the following precautions are taken: Ship/shore loading hoses are fully bonded with internal built in bonding. If a vessel is asked to sign for the condition of the ship/shore hoses by the terminal, it must be ensured that any built in bonding is electrically continuous from end to end.

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All conductors in the tank (pipelines, valves, fixed tank washing machines, ladder and handrails, ullage floats/wires etc.) must be in good electrical contact at all times. Tank anodes shall be checked to ensure that they are firmly secured to prevent them falling. At the start of loading an individual cargo tank the flow rate through the branch line to the tank shall not exceed one meter per second. This low loading rate is required as: A high possibility exists at the commencement of loading of water being present, either in the pipeline or cargo tank. An oil and water mix is the most dangerous source of static electricity. A low loading rate of about 1 metre/second minimizes turbulence and splashing as the oil enters the tank consequently reducing static. Water and sediments lying in the tank are less disturbed and settle out rapidly.

Cargo tanks designated for carry static accumulator cargoes must be free of rust and sediments besides being clean and dry. All efforts shall be made to ensure that the pipelines are completely drained and dry prior commencement of loading such cargoes The presence of water or rust particles suspended in a low conductivity cargo can increase the charging rate 50-fold. After a repair period it is very important that tanks are thoroughly inspected and any loose objects removed. Floating objects such as empty cans become un-insulated conductors and could be the source of an incendiary spark. This also applies to wood which can become a conductor when waterlogged or if covered in dirt/grease oil. During loading and for at least 30 minutes after completion of loading, no dipping, ullaging or sampling equipment should be lowered in to the tank. After the 30 minutes delay, great care must be taken to ensure that the equipment lowered in to the tank is electrically bonded to the vessel. The lines used for dipping, sampling etc. Must be of non-synthetic material i.e. of natural fibre only. Man-made synthetic rope can accumulate a strong electrical charge sliding through PVC gloves when lowering equipment into a tank. 7.2.7 Electrostatic Hazards During Tank Washing

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During tank washing a mist of charged water droplets develops inside the tank. The charge acquired by the droplets is dependent on the amount of oil remaining inside the tank and surface active agents in the wash water. The use of cleaning chemicals or the contamination that results from close cycle washing (re-circulation) can give rise to very high charging levels. The charged mist droplets produce a space potential though out the tank. The potential is zero at the walls and at tank internals and highest in the centre of the tank i.e. furthest away from the structure. Therefore under similar conditions, the space potential in a smaller tank will be less than in a large tank. Space potential increases with tank size, number of machines used and their throughput of wash water, especially re-circulated wash water. This has led to the conclusion that electrostatic discharges were the most probable cause of tanker explosions. The mechanics of such explosions are as follows: During tank cleaning, the water jet from the tank-cleaning gun is frequently broken up into elongated slugs of water. A slug constitutes an isolated conductor and carries an net electrical charge. The charge is induced on the slug by the electrical field while it is still in contact with the cleaning gun. The amount of charge is governed by the local space potential. When the falling slug approaches the bottom of the tank it enters a region where the space potential is lower than in the vicinity of the cleaning gun, a potential difference exists between the charged slug and nearby earthed structures such as tank internal. As a result an incendiary spark can jump from the water slug to the earth due to electrostatic discharge. Alternatively, sparks can also occur between water slugs falling from structures in the top of the tank where the space potential is low and protrusions such as cleaning guns in whose vicinity a high potential exists. In such cases the water slug does not carry a net charge, but is polarized under the influence of the electric charge inside the tank. While slugs of water are frequently produced, sparks are thought to occur only occasionally.

7.2.8 Electrostatic Hazards Associated with Inert Gas Electrostatic charge in Inert Gas (IG) is generated in the ships boilers and is carried to the cargo tank by minute sub-micron soot particles, although 90% of the soot particles up to 10 micros diameter are removed by the scrubbing tower. It follows that any Increase in the generation of soot can increase the charge density significantly, e.g. by increasing he rate of fuel consumption and reducing the air/fuel ratio. Thus the requirement to maintain good clean combustion in the boiler in conjunction with an oxygen level of 8% or less in tanks is very important.

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The charged inert gas entering the cargo tank creates a space potential throughout the tank which could conceivably give rise to an electrostatic discharge. These could either be spark discharges from electrically isolated conductors introduced into the tanks (e.g. between sampling equipment and nearby earthed structures) or brush corona discharges between the charged and earthed protrusions such as tank cleaning machines. Under normal circumstances such discharges will not represent a hazard because the atmosphere will be inerted and therefore non-flammable. If, however, the inert gas system should fail and air is drawn into the tank, a hazardous situation could be created, either as a result of a charge already present in the tank or from a charge introduced during subsequent inerting. The conclusions regarding electrostatic hazards of I.G. are therefore as follows : lue gas used to inert cargo tanks has an electrostatic charges generated in the ships boilers and carried over by sub-micron soot particles, significant numbers of which pass through the scrubbing towers. The magnitude and polarity of the charge are intimately related to the furnace combustion conditions. The space potential developed in a cargo tank during inerting is limited to a value below that required to generated brush discharges but the space potential may be sufficient to produce hazardous spark discharges from isolated conductors. As brush discharges are not a potential source of ignition in inert gas operation there is no need (from an electrostatic point of view) to delay operations which would involve the introduction of air into the tanks, provided strict precautions are taken to ensure that isolated conductors are neither present or introduced in to the tanks. Special precautions must be taken when re-inerting to ensure that no carry over of water from the deck water seals takes place as the water mist could be strongly charged. The rate at which space potential decays once the inert gas is stopped depends on the deposit, under electrostatic forces, of charged soot particles to the tank bulkheads and structures, etc. The potential may take several hours to decay to a value below the threshold required to produced hazardous incendiary sparks from isolated conductors.

7.2.9 Discharging Pressurized Liquid Carbon Dioxide A very strong electrostatic discharge can be generated during the discharge of carbon dioxide due to the rapid expansion of the gas cooling and forming solid particles at the injection nozzles. Carbon Dioxide should, therefore, never be injected into any space containing

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flammable gases, unless a fire is already in progress. 7.2.10 Eliminating Electrostatic Hazards Two accepted methods of eliminating electrostatic hazard during hosed tank washing operations have been evolved : Controlling the tank atmosphere, thus ensuring that it remains in a non-flammable condition throughout the tank washing operation, achieved by either keeping the hydrocarbon concentration outside the flammable range or by reducing the oxygen concentration below that which will support combustion. Controlling the rate of charge generation limits the space potential to a safe level by restricting the number and size of the tank cleaning machines, type of wash water, its temperature and composition. This gives the possibility of washing tanks in an uncontrolled atmosphere where a flammable mixture may or may not exist.

Precautions are taken to limit the degree of charge generation by the following : Restricting the number of washing to four with water output maximum of 35 Cu. M./Hr. or three between 35 and 60 Cu.M./Hr. No washing machine can have a flowrate exceeding 60 Cu.M/Hr. All hose MUST be tested for electrical continuity from connection to connection before starting tank washing. All hoses must have internal bonding wires. If at any time the bonding breaks the hose must be condemned immediately and destroyed. Hose connections must NOT be disconnected before hoses (and machines) are removed from the tank. Recirculated wash water must NOT be used.

Precautions are taken to limit the degree of charge generation (contd..)


Chemical additives must NOT be used. If they are required then the washing must be done under TOO LEAN (with continuous ventilation) or INERT condition. Wash water must NOT exceed 60oC but if higher temperatures are required then it must be in a TOO LEAN or INERT condition. Steam injection is NOT permitted. The tank MUST be kept well drained during the entire washing period to prevent a build up of floating oil. If at any time a build up occurs then washing MUST STOP and the tank stripped out. Use of sounding rods etc. must be through the sounding pipe (if fitted). If a sounding pipe is not fitted, then the equipment introduced into the tank must be securely bonded. NEVER lower a tank cleaning machine into a partially washed tank before the hose has been connected to the hydrant. (e.g. after the running repair of a defective washing machine)

7.2.11 Accumulator and Non Accumulator Oils

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7.2.11.1 Non-Accumulators
Crude Oils, Residual Fuels, Black Diesel Oils, Asphalts (Bitumen)

7.2.11.2 Accumulators
Natural Gasolines, Kerosenes, White Spirits, Motor and Aviation Gasolines Jet Fuels, Naphthas, Heating Oils, Heavy Gas Oils, Clean Diesel Oils Lubricating Oils Most Chemicals.

7.2.12 Injecting Steam into Cargo Tanks Steam should not be injected into spaces containing flammable gases. The mist formed by steam can cause a similar electrostatic charge to the generated during water washing. The time required, however, to reach maximum potential is very much less. 7.2.13 Blowing Lines With Compressed Air A very strong electrostatic charge can be generated when blowing lines to tanks containing a static accumulator cargo. The amount of air used for blowing the cargo lines clear should be restricted to the absolute minimum required. 7.2.14 Volumetric Loading Rate of Static Accumulator Cargoes The following table gives the volumetric loading rate of static accumulator cargoes corresponding to a linear velocity in a cargo tank branch line of 1 metre per second. Pipe sizes shown are nominal. Pipeline Diameter (Nominal) mm 80 100 150 200 250 305 360 inches 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 Approx Flow Rate Cu.m/hr 16 29 65 116 182 262 320 Pipeline Diameter (Nominal) mm 410 460 510 610 710 810 inches 16 18 20 24 28 32 Approx Flow Rate Cu.m/hr 424 542 676 986 1350 1780

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Chapter 7 Section 3 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pyrophoric Material In Cargo Tanks Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

7.3 Pyrophoric Material In Cargo Tanks 7.3.1 Introduction In an oxygen free atmosphere where Hydrogen Sulphide(HS)gas is present, e.g. during the carriage of sour crudes, (or specifically, when the concentration of HS exceeds that of oxygen), iron oxide(rust)is converted to iron sulphide. When the iron sulphide is subsequently exposed to air, it is 1ecogniz back to iron oxide and either free sulphur or sulphur dioxide gas is formed. The oxidation process can be accompanied by the generation of considerable heat so that individual particles may become incandescent. Rapid exothermic oxidation with incandescence is termed Pyrothermic oxidation. Pyrophoric iron sulphide was 1ecognized as a ignition source in shore based units, but it was only with the introduction of I.G. systems to ships that it became 1ecognized at sea. With the reduction of oxygen in the ullage spaces above the cargo compounded by the operation of I.G. systems,it has been found by research that there is a significant risk of pyrophoric deposits forming in inerted tanks carrying sour crude oil. Pyrophoric deposits can also form with crude oils containing a low sulphur content and no minimum safe level of hydrogen sulphide content can be identified. Pyrophors which have formed during a loaded passage can persist during the subsequent ballast voyage. Thus while lack of rust in tanks may inhibit pyrophor formation,proper operation of Inert Gas systems at all times is extremely important. 7.3.2 Formation of Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide The three elements in the formation of pyrophoric iron sulphide are: The presence of iron oxide(rust, specially in powder form) A crude oil which emits hydrogen sulphide into the cargo space Lack of oxygen in the ullage space.

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7.3.3 Effects of Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide Pyrophoric Iron sulphide can heat to incandescence when it comes into contact with air and is capable of igniting hydrocarbon/air mixture. In the normal operation of inerted tankers the cargo tank atmosphere is not allowed to become inflammable at any time. Thus the presence of pyrophoric deposits would not result in an ignition. However, if the I.G. system were to fail, cargo or ballast discharge would cause air to enter the cargo tanks and result in an inflammable atmosphere which could be ignited by pyrophoric deposits in the tank. 7.3.4 Action to Prevent Pyrophoric Ignition Crude oil with I.G.systems must ensure that: DILIGENT MAINTAINANCE OF INERT GAS PLANT IS CARRIED OUT. CRITICAL SPARES ARE IN STOCK TO MAINTAIN OPERATION. IN THE EVENT OF INERT GAS FAILURE, DEBALLASTING OR DISCHARGE MUST NOT BE STARTED OR CONTINUED UNTIL PLANT OPERATION HAS BEEN RESTORED.

A careful check must be kept on the level of I.G. spares to ensure that those parts which require a long delivery time(e.g blower spares),are available on board.

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Chapter 7 Section 4 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Effect of Gas & Lack Of Oxygen Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 5

7.4 Effect of Gas & Lack Of Oxygen 7.4.1 Introduction The toxic hazards to which personnel are exposed in tanker operations arise almost entirely from contact with toxic or asphyxiating gases or vapours. A moderately accurate guide to toxicities of gases in air are provided by their relative Threshold Limit Value(TLV). TLVs do not, however, take into account individual variations in sensitivity. A standard just below TLV does NOT mean that the standard precautions for exposure to such conditions(protective clothing , breathing apparatus etc.) are unnecessary. 7.4.2 Liquid Petroleum 7.4.2.1 Ingestion The risk of swallowing significant quantities of liquid petroleum during normal tanker operations are slight. Ingestion of liquid petroleum causes acute discomfort ,nausea and vomiting. During vomiting liquid petroleum may be drawn into the lungs and this can have serious consequences, especially with higher volatility products such as gasolines and kerosines. These products have a low viscosity and surface tension - a very small quantity, when aspirated, spreads over a large surface area of the lungs. 7.4.2.2 Skin Contact Many petroleum products cause skin irritation and remove the protective oils from the skin, possible leading to dermatitis. Skin disorders mat result from repeated or prolonged exposure. Petroleum products are also very irritating to the eyes. Direct contact with any petroleum or chemical products should be avoided at all times by wearing appropriate protective equipment, especially, PVC/Rubber gloves and face shields.

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Chapter 7 Section 4 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Effect of Gas & Lack Of Oxygen Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 5

7.4.3 Hydrocarbon Gases The main effect of hydrocarbon gas mixtures is to produce narcosis. The symptoms include headache, eye irritation, diminished alertness and judgement and symptoms similar to drunkness. At high concentrations paralysis, insensibility and death ultimately ensue. A TLV of about 250 ppm, corresponding to about 2.5% LFL applies to the mixture encountered usually on tankers, though considerable variations may exist. The typical effects at higher concentrations are set out in the International Safety Guide for Tankers and Terminals(ISGOTT). Awareness of smell of hydrocarbon gas mixtures also varies widely between individuals and in some cases the particular gases may dull the sense of smell completely. The impairment of sense of smell is especially serious if the mixture contains hydrogen sulphide. The absence of smell should therefore never be taken to indicate absence of gas. The TLV concentration is considerably below the lower flammable limit and a combustible gas indicator DOES NOT and CANNOT measure concentration of TLV.

The TLV of petroleum vapours with no aromatic hydrocarbons is 300ppm, which corresponds to about 2% LFL. The following list gives the typical effects experienced at higher concentrations:1000 ppm 2000 ppm 7000 ppm. Irritation of the eyes within one hour. Irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, dizziness and unsteadiness within half an hour. Symptoms of drunkenness within fifteen minutes.

10000 ppm Rapid onset of drunkenness which may lead to unconsciousness and death on continued exposure. 20000 ppm Paralysis and death occur very rapidly.

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7.4.4 Benzene and Other Aromatics The chemical term Benzene (C6H6) must not be confused with the generic term Benzine used in some countries to describe gasolines (Petrol/gas) in general. The aromatic group of hydrocarbons include, Benzene, Toulene and Xylene. The are transported in a pure form but they are also a component of many cargoes such as gasolines, jetfuels and blendstocks. The Benzene content of many cargoes is relatively low, but some gasoline blendstocks can have higher levels. (e.g. steam cracked spirit) The vapour from aromatics is, in general, more harmful than that from nonaromatic hydrocarbons (petroleum distillates). Benzene in particular with a TLV of 10 ppm. Presents a health hazard both after heavy short term exposure and minor repeated minor long term exposure. Vigourous safeguards to avoid inhalation of vented gases, specially during loading, must always be taken. Entry into spaces where the presence of Aromatics is suspected should not be attempted until all the Managers requirements for safe entry are complied with. Gas measurements must be taken with instruments designed to detect the presence of Aromatic at low levels. Note:Combustible Gas Indicators are totally ineffective for this purpose and MUST NOT be used. Draeger tubes are usually used for this purpose.

7.4.5 Hydrogen Sulphide Hydrogen Sulphide has a disagreeable smell of rotten eggs. The presence of dangerous concentrations rapidly deadens the sense of smell, often making it impossible to detect the smell at all after only short exposure. Absence of smell does not indicate absence of gas or that it has dissipated. Hydrogen Sulphide paralyses the respiratory system and in case of high concentrations the effect of hydrogen sulphide on the human body is dramatic. The TLV of Hydrogen sulphide is 10 ppm in air. The effects of the gas at higher concentrations are as follows:-

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50 - 100 ppm. 200 - 300 ppm. 500 - 700 ppm.

Eye and respiratory tract irritation after one hour. Marked eye and respiratory tract irritation after one hour. Nausea, headaches and dizziness within fifteen minutes, loss of consciousness and possible death after half an hours exposure. Rapid unconsciousness, death occurring a few minutes later. Instantaneous collapse and cessation of breathing.

700 - 900 ppm. 1000 - 2000 ppm. 7.4.6 Inert Gas

The main hazard associated with inert gas is its low oxgen content. (See Chapter Inert Gas System) However, inert gas produced by combustion either in steam raising boiler or in a separate I.G. generator contains trace elements of various toxic gases which increase the hazards of exposure. 7.4.6.1 Toxic constituents of Inert Gas Nitrogen Oxide Flue gas has about 200 ppm of mixed Nitrogen Oxide, most of it being Nitric Oxide (NO), which is not removed by scrubbing. TLV of Nitric Oxide is 25 ppm. It is highly toxic by inhalation and a strong irritant to the skin and mucous membranes. Nitric Oxide reacts slowly with oxygen to form Nitrogen Dioxide. TLV 3 ppm. This is highly toxic and inhalation may be fatal. Sulphur Dioxide The flue gases produced by burning high sulphur fuel oils can contain typically 2000 ppm of sulphur dioxide. Most of the sulphur dioxide is removed by the inert gas scrubbers, which depending on design, reduce the gas to between 2 & 50 ppm.

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The TLV of Sulphur Dioxide is 2 ppm. It is toxic by inhalation and a strong irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. Carbon Monoxide It is usually only present in flue gases in very low quantities. However, poor combustion can produce levels of Carbon Monoxide in excess of 200 ppm. Carbon Monoxide is practically a odourless gas with a TLV of 50 ppm. It is highly toxic by inhalation. Carbon Monoxide has an affinity for blood haemoglobin over 200 times that of oxygen and consequently starves the body of oxygen, causing chemically induced asphyxiation. 7.4.7 Oxygen Deficiency The oxygen content of the atmosphere in an enclosed space may be low for several reasons. Among others, it could be because: The space is inerted, with the oxygen displaced by nitrogen or carbon dioxide Of rusting steel work or hardening paint, absorbing available oxygen. Of oxygen absorption by animal/vegetable oils and the fermentation of molasses.

The normal atmospheric content of oxygen is 21%. As the level falls below 21%, breathing becomes faster and deeper. Symptoms of an atmosphere which is deficient in oxygen is not recognisable by the person at risk. The individual will fail to be aware that the danger exists until he is too weak to be able to escape without help. This is especially serious when escape involves and exertion such as climbing ladders. All individuals will suffer obvious impairment if the oxygen level falls to 16% by volume and some at even higher levels. Brain functions and alertness are affected well before oxygen concentrations fall to this percentage. Exposure to an atmosphere containing less than 16% oxygen content by volume inevitably causes unconsciousness. The rapidly of the onset of unconsciousness increases as the availability of oxygen diminishes and death will result unless the victim is removed to open air and resuscitation with oxygen is applied quickly. It cannot be too strongly stressed that the rescuers themselves will also become casualties is rescue is attempted without complying with safely precautions for safe entry

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Chapter 7 Section 5 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Cargo Hose Handling Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 3

7.5 Cargo Hose Handling 7.5.1 Objective To set operational guidelines for proper handling of cargo hoses/metal cargo arms to avoid injury to personnel, damage to hoses and to prevent any possibility of pollution. 7.5.2 Guidelines 7.5.2.1 Cargo Hoses A responsible officer should check both the ships gear or shore gear to be used paying special attention to the topping lifts. If the shore rigging seems unsafe in any respect it should be brought to the attention of the terminal authorities, preferably in writing. Derricks/cranes are to be well positioned to avoid the hose swinging when released. Guy lines should have a good spread and be tight. No lines should be left made fast to a winch. The hose is to be carefully inspected for cuts and breaks. After rigging, inspect for sweating, pin hole leakage, leakage around nipples, bends on the hose and chafing. Whether ships gear or dock crane is used for lifting hoses, ensure all men not actively engaged are well clear of the area, but have enough men readily available to do the job properly. Keep them clear of bends and bights in hose. Do not use fingers to line up bolt holes. A spike or wrench is stronger and safer. Do not wet a gasket for a tight fit in cold weather, it will blow when warm oil thaws it. During cargo operation ensure additional strain does not come on the hoses and subsequently the flanges, when tending to mooring. The hoses will need to be tended to during cargo operation to ensure that the bight or bend does not exceed permissible radius.

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When disconnecting hoses, rig preventer tackles or lines on either side to ensure that the hose does not whip when the last bolt is removed. Make sure the flange end of hose is capped and bolted before lowering to the shore. Hoses belonging to vessel must be well drained before being stowed away. They should not be stowed near steam lines. Never exceed permitted flow rates for a particular diameter of hose to prevent internal damage to the hose. 7.5.2.2 Submarine and Floating Hose Strings Before attempting to lift this type of hose, the Chief Officer should check that the total weight involved does not exceed the safe working load of the ships derrick/crane. It must be remembered that the hose may have to be lifted very high above the deck before being brought into position for connection. The total weight may increase to as much as 1.5 times the static weight if weather conditions impose dynamic loads on the hose, while being lifted. On disconnection, the hose should be lowered down slowly and as per the terminals instructions. Any visible damage to the hose shall be brought to the attention of the terminal and if it is possible that pollution leakage may be caused, the hose should be replaced. 7.5.2.3 Metal Cargo Arms (Chiksans) The chiksans are designed to operate in an limited area, which takes into account various possible movements that can occur during the operation and the size of vessels docking at that berth. It is essential to ensure that this limits are not exceeded, as it can cause severe damage to ship and dock facilities. As the weight of the arms and its liquid contents can be considerable, the strain of the downward forces acting on the ships manifold should be relieved by a suitable jack or support placed near the ships manifold. Such support/jack shall be placed on block of wood or similar base to distribute the load to a wider area on the deck or manifold grating. Failure to do so may cause the grating to collapse. Occasionally, upward forces may also occur at the manifold and these should be the guarded against.

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To avoid any strain on the loading arm, the flange face of the loading arm and the ships manifold should be parallel. The flange face should be smooth and free of scale or rust. When more than one arm is to be connected, care must be taken to ensure that they do not foul each other or come into contact during the operation. Excessive vibration shall be avoided.

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Chapter 7 Section 6 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pump Room Revision:2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 3

7.6 Pump Room 7.6.1 Introduction Due to their location, design and operation, pump rooms constitute a special hazard and require special precautions. Pump rooms bilges should be kept clean and dry. This will include ensuring that pump seals, glands, drain cocks and mud boxes are maintained in good condition. Precautions should be taken to prevent the escape of petroleum gases and/or hydrocarbon vapours into the pump room. Relevant staff should be familiar with the precautions described in ISGOTT Ch 2.17 and adhered to. 7.6.2 Ventilation Pump room ventilation must be on at least 15 minutes before any person enters the space. The ventilation should be maintained until the access to pump room is no longer required. In some cases the pump room fan may have to be run continuously if presence of gas is suspected. The ventilation system should be in extraction mode to ensure that air and/or gas from the bottom of the pump room is effectively extracted to enable fresh air to be drawn in. Special care is to be taken when working in bottom areas and pockets where ventilation may be inadequate. Bottom suction for pump room ventilation trunking shall be kept open instead of the high suction to ensure an effective change of atmosphere from the bottom of the pump room. Vent flaps should be regularly maintained to ensure they freely operate. The dampers fitted on vents should be well lubricated and operation tested at weekly intervals. The flame screens should be of approved size should not have any holes and should be well secured to the frame. Maintenance for the fans, vents flaps, etc should be carried out regularly as per the ships Planned maintenance System. Spares required for the fan should be identified and carried onboard. For ships fitted with only one fan, it is recommended to carry additional spares, including spare motor. The fan capacity and the time taken for a full change of air should be known and displayed in the CCR. A spare vent blower motor should be maintained onboard ships fitted with only one blower.

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Chapter 7 Section 6 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pump Room Revision:2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 3

7.6.3 Pump Room Entry A notice (preferably permanently marked) shall be displayed at the pump room entrance prohibiting entry without permission. No one should enter the pump room without obtaining permission from a responsible officer, who must ensure the following prior giving his permission: Adequate ventilation is in operation. The pump room ventilation shall be kept on through out the operation. The lower most vent flap on the vent trunk should be open and other vent flaps closed, so as to maximise the extraction of gases from the pump room The atmosphere with in the space is suitable for entry. Adequate communication procedures are established and maintained. Assistance is readily available in case of an emergency and equipment for rescue (harness, lifeline and breathing apparatus) are in position and ready for use. Enclosed space entry permit is completed and posted at pump room entrance. A board shall be posted at the pump room entrance, where each person entering would write his name indicating that someone is inside the pump room, and then erases the name when he exits. Personnel entering pump rooms shall carry personal gas monitoring equipment. This shall preferably be a multi-gas detector measuring hydrocarbon, oxygen and H2S.

Persons entering the pump room shall: Inform the Chief Officer or OOW and obtain permission and shall be in close contact with the person on deck or cargo control room Ensure that the pump room ventilation is on through out

If only one person is working inside the pump room, he shall make voice contact with the deck / CCR at least once every 30 minutes, failing which the staff on deck/CCR would make every effort to contact the person inside the pump room. The pump room gas detection and alarm system shall be kept on at all times . It shall be tested as per makers manual and shall be maintained in operational condition at all times. (ALSO PLEASE REFER TO Ch 2.3.3) 7.6.4 Opening of Pumps, Valves or Equipments These shall be carried out only under supervision of a responsible officer who, before and during the period of work shall ensure that: -

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 7 Section 6 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pump Room Revision:2 Date: 01/07/04 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 3

The atmosphere is tested for hydrocarbon and toxic gas. The atmosphere should be tested before restarting work after any break. The working conditions are safe. A cold/hot permit is issued as per the Managers guidelines. The cargo pipeline system is flushed through to remove any petroleum residue.

7.6.5 Pump Room Lighting The gas tight integrity of the pump room lighting should be maintained. Replacement of electrical fittings should be done only after the atmosphere has been tested and found free of presence of hydrocarbon gas and relevant electrical circuit isolated. Only approved equipment should be used. In case of any doubt, the pump room should be thoroughly ventilated before the lights are switched on, although interlocks with ventilation may be provided. The interlock should be tested regularly (at least once a month) and recorded, preferably in the PMS. 7.6.6 Pump Room Fixed Gas Detection System Pump room fixed gas detection system shall be calibrated as per makers instruction. Alarm should also be sounded within the pump room. 7.6.7 Pump Room Bilge Alarm Pump room bilge alarm shall be tested weekly.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 7 Section 7 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pollution Prevention Revision: 2 Date: 01.07.04 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 2

7.7 Pollution Prevention 7.7.1 Reference Please refer to the manuals listed below for more details on the various procedures of pollution prevention, reporting and action to be taken in case of pollution: Ship Board Management Manual(Chapter I : Environmental Protection) Vessel Response Plan Pollution

7.7.2 Accidental Spillage and Leakage General Ships personnel should maintain a close watch for the escape of oil, especially at the commencement of ballasting / deballasting, towards completion of deballasting and during load or discharge operations. Cargo tanks which have been topped up should be checked frequently during remaining loading operations to avoid overflow. During discharge, change of trim or excessive trim may result in oil over flowing from the aft tanks. Extreme caution is necessary specially when only one grade of a multi-grade cargo is being discharged to ensure that full tanks with other grades dont over flow. Absorbent equipment should be readily available for prompt removal of any spill on deck. Minimum equipment required for the vessel is described in SOPEP / SMPEP. All staff in the operation must be familiar with the procedure to collect the over flow oil from deck, including the system to dump this oil in the Slop Tanks. 7.7.3 Sea and Overboard Discharge Valves When not in use these valves must be securely closed and lashed and preferably sealed. In-line blanks, where provided, should be in place. When lashing is not practical(e.g. hydraulic valves),suitable means of marking should be used to indicate that the valves are to remain closed. 7.7.4 Scupper Plugs Before cargo handling commences, all deck scuppers must be effectively plugged and where oil / watertight sealing is not provided, the plugs shall be cemented in place. Accumulations of water should be periodically drained, after obtaining permission from the Chief Officer whom shall ensure that no oil or oily traces are present. In case of any doubt or if the water is oily, it should be transferred to the slop tank or a suitable receptacle.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 7 Section 7 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pollution Prevention Revision: 2 Date: 01.07.04 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 2

7.7.5 Manifold Drip Trays and Portable Drip Pans These shall be kept clean and dry before arrival port and any residues transferred to the slop tank or suitable receptacle. Periodic draining may be necessary in case of rain. The precautions outlined in the previous paragraph shall also apply to drip trays. 7.7.6 Ship Cargo Pipelines and Valves Not in Use All cargo pipelines and valves not in use must be securely closed or isolated as required. The stern cargo pipeline (if any) should be isolated from the tankers main pipeline system forward of the accommodation by blanking or removal of spool piece. 7.7.7 Oil Absorbent Material A complete set of Oil Spill Equipment is provided by the Manager on board each tanker. This material is delivered in a container which should be stowed on deck, well protected from weather. The container shall be clearly marked Oil Absorbent Material. Use of the contents of this equipment should be demonstrated to all ships staff during pollution prevention drills. Replenishment should be ordered as required. 7.7.8 Portable Pumps These pumps are provided on board for use in an emergency. These pumps should be rigged and ready for use in areas where they are most likely to be useful in preventing an oil overflow overside into water. Portable pumps ( eg Wilden pump for pollution prevention ) have a risk of accumulating static electricity. These pumps need be earthed and should always be kept earthed when placed on location and ready for use. The pumps must be tested and reported to the Manager in the monthly maintenance report.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 7 Section 8 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pressure Surge Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

7.8 Pressure Surge 7.8.1 Introduction A pressure surge is created in a pipeline system when there is an abrupt change in the rate of flow liquid in the line. In a tanker operation it is most likely to occur as a result of one of the following: Closure of a automatic shut down valve Slamming shut of a shore non-return valve or a butterfly type valve. Rapid closure of a power operated valve. During change over of tanks while loading. When only one or two tank valves are open during the final stages of loading and the loading rate has not been reduced. Inadequate provision for thermal expansion of pipes. Sudden increase in pump speed.

If the pressure surge in the pipeline results in pressure stresses or displacement stresses in excess of the strength of the piping or its components there may be a rupture leading to an extensive spill of oil. The cargo hose is most vulnerable to failure in case of a pressure surge. 7.8.2 Generation of Pressure Surge Rapid closure of a valve in a system with oil flowing through it results in the sudden conversion of the kinetic energy of the moving liquid into strain energy by compression of the fluid and expansion of the pipe wall. The pressure upstream of a valve which is suddenly closed increases rapidly resulting in the pressure surge. Unless effective measures are available to dissipate the increase in pressure , serious damage may result. 7.8.3 Reduction of pressure Surge Hazard Good operating practices should avoid pressure surge problems, specially with manually operated valves. It is important that: all valve settings are made slowly. a valve at the end of a long pipeline is not closed suddenly. the linear flow rate of the cargo is reduced well in time. valve closures are made slowly, at least of 30 seconds duration, preferably more. when flow is directed from one tank to another, the valves on the tank about to receive cargo should be fully opened before the valves on the tank being isolated are fully shut.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 7 Section 8 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Pressure Surge Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

during discharge, cargo flow should be controlled by pumps discharge valves to minimise pressure effects. Pump discharge valves must be shut before ships manifold and shore valves are closed. Manual valves in the system may be lashed, but never locked, in case they are required to be used in an emergency.

7.8.4 Thermal Expansion of Pipes Change in ambient temperature as well as presence of heated cargo in tank can cause expansion of pipelines. Inadequate provision within the pipeline system for release of such pressure may result in warping of the pipeline and/or leaks from the pipeline system. A sudden expansion or contraction of a material when subjected to a large temperature change too quickly is known as Thermal shock. This can introduce stresses in the material being shocked and may cause it to fail. To eliminate the effects of thermal expansion in pipes it is necessary to ensure that expansion joints and/or vents provided in the pipe line system are in good working order. Sufficient spare expansion joints and bolts of correct dimensions corresponding to the various sizes of pipelines on board should be carried to carry out repairs if any leaks are developed in the pipeline system.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT


OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 7 Section 9 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Product Information Sheet Revision: 1 Date: 01/07/2004 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 1

7.9 Product Information Sheet / MSDS 7.9.1 Objective To highlight the hazards by a particular cargo being carried. 7.9.2 Guidelines Every effort should be made to obtain relevant information on characteristics of the cargo being carried and its associated hazards, from the Shipper / loading terminal. Such information is usually available as PRODUCT INFORMATION SHEETS OR MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET. These should prominently displayed. During Safety Committee meetings the hazard prevention measures should be discussed using these product information sheets.

If for any reason the loading terminal / shippers are unable to provide the vessel with the MSDS, Master should note protest with the terminal and advise the shore management office.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT


OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 8 Section 1 INSPECTIONS Port State Control /U.S.C.G./ Oil Companies Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 1 of 2

8.0 INSPECTIONS 8.1 Port State Control /U.S.C.G./ Oil Companies 8.1.1 Introduction To meet international concerns for environment protection, inspections of ships have increased in recent years. These inspections may be carried out by one or more of the following: Port State Control authorities or Coast Guard. Charterers Vetting Inspectors Terminal Safety Inspectors

These inspections cover the entire range of ship operations and if a ship is found deficient in meeting the standards, the vessel : may be detained in that port until the deficiencies are rectified. will not be chartered by the oil company carrying out the inspection. may be asked to vacate the berth. may be inspected at more frequent intervals.

Tankers, due to the nature of their cargo and its impact on the environment are subjected to stricter controls and inspections. 8.1.2 Guidelines The manuals, operating guidelines and forms supplied by the Manager are, in addition to setting correct operational standards, designed to meet the requirements of these inspections. If proper operational and maintenance procedures are followed the inspections can be passed without any difficulty. In evaluating a vessel the inspectors of a vessel would normally look for : Safety of operation and level of safety awareness among ships staff. Compliance with rules and regulations, including maintenance of records. Posting of notices and operation instructions at appropriate locations.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT


OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS
Chapter 8 Section 1 INSPECTIONS Port State Control /U.S.C.G./ Oil Companies Revision: 0 Date: 31.10.94 Appr.by: OHW Page 2 of 2

State of readiness of fire fighting, life saving and pollution prevention equipment.

8.1.3 Check Lists / Questionaire The inspectors rely on a check list or questionaire to evaluate the vessel.The vessel would be better prepared for the inspection if they have the questionaire filled in and ready prior to the arrival of the inspector.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 1 of 10

9.0 CARGO INFORMATION 9.1 Crude Oils 9.1.1 High Hydrogen Sulphide Crudes Crude oils with high hydrogen sulphide have to be handled with great care and caution. The action to be taken in case of over exposure to H 2S is to remove the affected person immediately to an area with fresh air and supply artificial respiration if necessary. The effect of H2S is detailed in the Chapter Safety and Environmental Protection of this manual.
Cargoes with High Sulphur or H2S Content (Acid or Sour Crudes)

The following crude oils are said to contain high levels of sulphur or H2S :Arabian Es Sider Agha Jari Canadian Crude Jambur / Bai Hassan Elwood Crude Kirkuk Four corners Crude Gach Saran Santa Maria Crude Isthmus Montalvo Crude Brega Some Coker Feedstock Qatar Richmond Beach Charge Stock Mexican Maya Willbridge Charge Stock West Texan Most Arabian crudes are sour, but when treated (stabilised) much of the H2S is removed. Because some H2S is still likely to remain, it should be treated as sour crude. 9.1.2 Procedure for Handling Sour Crudes
Advance Planning

When orders are received to load or it appears likely that sour crudes may be loaded, the Master must ensure that the following action is taken :Vapour Control System

A complete inspection of the vapour control system shall be made to ensure that all fittings and equipment are tight and in good condition. Particular attention must be paid to automatic and vent lines.
H2S Detectors

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 2 of 10

The detectors must be checked to ensure proper operation. Sufficient tubes must be available on board. Personnel must be trained in the proper use of the equipment. Preference may be given to the use of portable instruments capable of providing continuous reading.
Information to Personnel

The Master must alert all staff to the toxic hazards of H 2S and advise them on the precautions to be followed to avoid inhalation. Warning signs must be displayed in conspicuous locations and at the pump room entrance.
During Loading, Gauging, on Passage and Discharging

Transfer operation may be interrupted when the main deck area atmosphere exceeds H2S concentration of 50 ppm (by volume). Masters should notify the terminal clearly of the reasons for the temporary stoppage. Testing for H2S must be carried out during cargo operations by a deck officer assigned by the Master. Areas to be checked must include open decks, pumproom spaces, living area and work/storage areas where the presence of gas is likely. When testing pump room the hose must be lowered from the deck. When large volume of gas is discharged in to the atmosphere through the vents, the frequency of the tests shall be increased. Gas should be vented only through the PV valves and / or mast risers, during loading. On ships with reliable remote ullage reading indicators, as far as possible, topping off should be done with the closed loading method. Ullage ports should be open for at least 2 minutes before manual sampling or ullaging is carried out, to enable gas to dissipate. During such period the flame screens are to be in place and no more than two ullage ports shall be open at any time. Loading through pump room piping should be avoided. The pump room bilges must be dry of hydrocarbons. Loading rate should be reduced during topping off. Sufficient personnel must be available on stand by to assist any person affected by H2S Resuscitators and SCBAs must be readily available for use.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Appr. by: OHW Page 3 of 10

Manual Gauging

The personnel involved should stand at right angles to the direction of wind. Intakes of air-conditioning or vents may have to adjusted to prevent escaping gas from entering the living spaces or engine room.
Increased emission of H2S

Studies have shown that highest emissions of H 2S takes place at the discharge port, mostly during cargo ullaging activities before discharging and when cargo tanks are ballasted after Crude Oil Washing. The emissions can be reduced by allowing the IG pressure to drop to minimum before completion of discharge enabling the pressure created while ballasting to repressurise the system with minimum activation of the PV valves.
During passage

When underway on the loaded passage the H2S hazard is less . However any leaks in the pipeline or pumproom can be dangerous. The pump room blower must be in continuous operation. Periodic tests must be made in any compartment where the gas is likely to present. During ballast passage after discharging, pumps or lines must not be opened until they are thoroughly washed. Frequent tests must be made for presence of H2S gas. Overhaul of automatic tape housings should be carried out with the PV valve in open position to prevent release of gas from the tape housing.

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1
NAME

CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils


Synonym Origin API 60F

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02


SUL Pour PTF

Appr. by: OHW Page 4 of 10


DENS.15C BBLS/TON

Algerian Condensate HR-720 Saharan BlendHassi Cabinda Palanca Soyo Takula Canadon Seco Escalante Hydra Tierra Del Fuego Barrow Island Gippsland Jabiru Jackson Blend NWS Condensate RGN Mistura Sergipano Terra Sergipano Marr Champion Export Seria Light Kole (Marine Blend) Lokele Moudi Bow River Heavy Cold Lake Federated Light Gulf Alberta Lloydminster Mixed Blend Rainbow Light Rangeland South Wainwright Lanshui Shengli Taishing Yizheng Cano Limon Orito Djeno Emeraude Dan Gorm Oriente Orienter Amal Belayim Mix East Zeit Geisum

Algeria Algeria Angola Angola Angola Angola Sta Cruz Argentina Chubut Argentina Argentina San Sebastian Argentina Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Brazil Brazil Brazil Brunei Brunei Cameroon Cameroon Cameroon Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada China China Daqing China China Columbia Columbia Congo Congo Denmark Denmark Orelt Ecuador Orihvy Ecuador Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Messaou

65.0 44.0 32.9 38.7 34.5 31.5 25.9 24.9 38.7 43.5 38.2 46.0 42.0 41.9 52.9 29.2 25.1 21.8 22.0 39.6 34.9 20.5 40.0 26.7 25.2 39.7 35.1 22.0 30.0 40.7 39.5 23.1 22.4 24.2 33.0 28.3 29.4 30.5 26.8 23.6 30.4 33.9 28.8 17.8 36.5 26.0 38.5 18.5

0.00 0.10 0.17 0.11 0.13 0.20 0.18 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.01

<32 -20 64 21 64 64 21 43 -4 -22 <32 5 <32 <32

0.12 0.07 0.30 0.50 2.10 2.91 0.20 0.98 2.20 0.40 0.50 0.75 1.58 0.20 1.00 0.08 N/A 0.50 0.70 0.33 2.60 0.34 0.23 0.98 5.45 1.45 2.25 0.85 4.00

-33 55 10 -35 -58 -76 14 -17 -26 <32 36 -40 -38 0 70 94 86 -6 19 37 -33 -45 -35 20 5 37 34 34 55

0.7199 0.8059 0.8602 0.8310 0.8520 0.8676 0.8985 0.9024 0.8310 0.8082 0.8334 0.7968 0.8152 0.8156 0.7671 0.8801 0.9033 0.9232 0.9213 0.8266 0.8500 0.9304 0.8247 0.8939 0.9025 0.8261 0.8489 0.9213 0.8757 0.82113 0.8271 0.9148 0.9189 0.9083 0.8597 0.8850 0.8789 0.8730 0.8934 0.9118 0.8735 0.8551 0.8822 0.9473 0.8419 0.8979 0.8320 0.9460

8.897 7.945 7.442 7.705 7.514 7.378 7.124 7.079 7.705 7.922 7.682 8.036 7.854 7.850 8.349 6.459 6.329 6.195 6.948 7.745 7.532 6.880 7.764 7.161 7.093 7.750 7.541 6.948 7.310 7.795 7.741 6.998 6.966 7.047 7.446 7.233 7.283 7.333 7.165 7.020 7.328 7.487 7.256 6.757 7.605 7.129 7.696 6.766

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Egypt
Synonym Origin

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 24.0


API 60F

Appr. by: OHW Page 5 of 10 0.9095


Pour PTF DENS.15C

Gharib Blend
NAME

3.00
SUL

7.038
BBLS/TON

Gulf Suez Mix Ras Budran Ras El Behar Ras Gharib Zeit Bay Anguille Gamba Lucina Marine Mandji Mbya Oguendjo Rabi Salt Pond Prinos Coban Blend Bombay High Ardjuna Arimbi Arun Condensate Attaka Badak Bekapaj Bima Bunyu Cinta Duri Handil Jatibarang Kakap Katapa Lalang Minas Ramba Salwati Sanga Sanga Sepinggan Udang Walio Aboonzar Bajirgansar Dorrood Foroozan Iranian Heavy Iranian Light Lavan Blend Sassan Rostam Salmon Sirri

Bunju

Sumatran It

Ardeshir Darius

Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Ghana Greece Guatemala India Indonesia 37.7 Indonesia 31.8 Indonesia 54.0 Indonesia 43.2 Indonesia 41.3 Indonesia 41.1 Indonesia 21.3 Indonesia 31.7 Indonesia 32.0 Indonesia 20.6 Indonesia 30.8 Indonesia 29.0 Indonesia 46.5 Indonesia 49.6 Indonesia 40.4 Indonesia 36.0 Indonesia 37.0 Indonesia 38.0 Indonesia 25.7 Indonesia 31.7 Indonesia 38.5 Indonesia 35.6 Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran

31.0 24.8 32.5 25.0 34.5 32.0 31.8 39.5 30.5 35.8 34.2 34.2 37.4 31.0 25.5 39.2 0.12 0.20 0.00 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.20 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.49 0.17 0.11 0.05 26.9 27.1 33.6 31.3 31.0 33.8 34.0 35.9 33.9 30.9

1.30 2.40 1.60 3.00 1.45 0.74 0.11 0.05 1.10

36 25 30 34 30 3 73 59 54 82

1.10 0.15 81 80 100

-30 -15 4 30 61 <100 95 -17 109 70 90 94 90 -15 5 19 100 2.48 2.45 2.35 2.50 1.65 1.35 1.80 1.55 1.91 2.5 -29 -27 -4 -35 -6 -20 10 -8 -5 16

0.8703 0.9048 0.8623 0.9037 0.8520 0.8649 0.8660 0.8271 0.8730 0.8454 0.8536 0.8536 0.8374 0.8703 0.9008 0.8285 0.8359 0.8660 0.7625 0.8096 0.8185 0.8194 0.9255 0.8665 0.8649 0.9298 0.8713 0.8811 0.7945 0.7810 0.8228 0.8444 0.8394 0.8344 0.8996 0.8665 0.8320 0.8464 0.8928 0.8917 0.8567 0.8687 0.8703 0.8556 0.8546 0.8449 0.8551 0.8708

7.356 7.075 7.424 7.084 7.514 7.401 7.392 7.741 7.333 7.573 7.501 7.501 7.646 7.356 7.106 7.727 7.659 7.392 8.398 7.909 7.823 7.813 6.916 7.387 7.401 6.884 7.347 7.265 8.058 8.199 7.782 7.582 7.628 7.673 7.115 7.387 7.696 7.564 7.170 7.179 7.437 7.369 7.356 7.483 7.492 7.578 7.487 7.351

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Cyrus
Synonym

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 Iran Iraq


Origin

Appr. by: OHW Page 6 of 10 0.9454 0.8541


DENS.15C

Soroosh Bal Hassan jambur


NAME

18.1 34.1
API 60F

3.30 2.40
SUL

10 -18
Pour PTF

6.771 7.496
BBLS/TON

Basrah Heavy Basrah Light Basrah Medium Kirkuk Blend North Rumalia Burgan Eocene Hout Kiafji Kuwait Export Ratawi Amna Bouri Brega Bu Attifel Es Sider Sarir Sirtica Zueitina Bekok Bintula Labuan Miri Light Pulaj Tapis Tembungo Istimus Maya Olmeca Panuco Reconstitucion Santa Ana Tampico Antan Bonny Light Bonny Medium Brass River Escravos Forcados Blend Pennington Qua Iboe Ekofisk Ekofisk Gullfaks Murchison Oseberg Statfjord

Iraq Iraq Iraq Iraq FAO Iraq Wafra Kuwait Kuwait Neutral Zone Kuwait Neutral Zone Kuwait Kuwait Neutral Zone Kuwait Libya Libya Bu Attifel Libya Libya Libya Libya Libya Libya Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Reforma Mexico Campeche Mix Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Tabasco Mexico Constructiones Mexico Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway

24.7 35.0 31.1 37.0 34.3 23.3 18.6 33.0 28.3 31.0 24.5 36.1 26.0 40.4 43.6 36.7 38.3 43.3 42.0 49.1 36.0 33.0 38.0 42.5 44.3 37.4 33.0 22.0 39.0 12.8 13.2 29.5 17.8 34.7 37.6 25.2 42.0 37.0 29.7 36.6 37.4 35.8 43.3 28.60 38.00 33.8 38.4

3.50 2.10 2.58 1.97 1.98 3.37 4.55 1.90 2.80 2.50 4.30 0.15 1.76 0.21 0.04 0.60 0.30 0.43 0.28 0.02 0.05 0.13 0.07 0.02 0.10 0.04 1.51 3.32 0.75 5.39 4.52 1.18 5.45 0.12 0.23 0.09 0.14 0.29 0.07 0.11 0.18 0.14 0.44 0.27 0.27

-22 15 -22 -8 2 -5 -15 -4 -22 5 -4 73 59 30 90 45 75 27 45 27 27 54 32 23 39 25 5 -36 35 25 10 5 36 -5 -5 43 12 32 50 15 10 -49 45 39

0.9054 0.8494 0.8697 0.8394 0.8530 0.9136 0.9422 0.8597 0.8850 0.8703 0.9066 0.8439 0.8979 0.8228 0.8077 0.8409 0.8329 0.8091 0.8152 0.7832 0.8444 0.8597 0.8344 0.8128 0.8045 0.8374 0.8597 0.9213 0.8295 0.9800 0.9773 0.8784 0.9473 0.8510 0.8364 0.9025 0.8152 0.8394 0.8773 0.8414 0.8374 0.8454 0.8091 0.8833 0.8344 0.8556 0.8324

7.070 7.537 7.360 7.628 7.505 7.007 6.794 7.446 7.233 7.356 7.064 7.587 7.129 7.782 7.927 7.614 7.687 7.913 7.854 8.176 7.582 7.446 7.673 7.877 7.959 7.646 7.446 6.948 7.718 6.531 6.549 7.288 6.757 7.523 7.655 7.093 7.854 7.628 7.297 7.609 7.646 7.573 7.913 7.247 7.673 7.483 7.691

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Oman Pakistan Peru
Synonym Origin

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 34.0 45.0 36.3


API 60F

Appr. by: OHW Page 7 of 10 0.8546 0.8013 0.8429


DENS.15C

Oman Export Badin Blend High Cold Test


NAME

0.79 0.05 0.07


SUL

-15 64 25
Pour PTF

7.492 7.990 7.596


BBLS/TON

Loreto Peru Los Organos HCT Peru Low Cold West Peru Dukhan Qatar Qatarland Dukhan Qatar Qatar Marine Qatar Arabian Extra Light Berri Saudia Arabian Heavy Saudia Arabian Light Saudia Arabian Medium Zuluf Saudia Burgan Saudia Amposta Marino Spain Castellon Spain Souedie Syria Souedie Spain Syria Syria Erawan Thailand Geleki Thailand Lakwab Thailand Morn Thailand Nahor Katia Mae Soon Thailand Nang Nang Thailand Phet Thailand Rudra Sagar Thailand Galeota Blend Amoco Mix Trinidad Galeota Mix Trinidad Ashtart Tunisia El Hajeb Tunisia El Hajeb / Gremda Blend Tunisia Zarzitine Tunisia Abu Al Bu Khoosh U.A.E. Dubai U.A.E. El Bunduq Abu Dhabi U.A.E. Lower Zakum U.A.E. Mubarak U.A.E. Murban Abu Dhabi MixU.A.E. Umm Shaif Abu Dhabi MarU.A.E. Upper Zakum U.A.E. Argyll U. K. AUK U. K. Beatrice U. K. Beryl U. K. Brae U. K. Brent U. K. Brent Blend U. K. Buchan U. K.

34.0 28.5 34.0 42.7 40.9 37.0 39.0 27.0 33.6 31.0 23.3 16.8 35.2 24.8 24.9 38.0 55.0 27.5 26.5 34.9 31.3 29.0 39.0 22.1 30.3 32.8 29.0 29.9 35.3 43.0 31.6 32.0 38.5 40.0 37.0 39.0 37.4 34.0 37.9 37.1 38.7 36.5 33.6 38.1 38.0 33.7

0.29 0.10 0.09 1.10 1.29 1.57 1.10 2.80 1.70 2.40 3.37 3.71 3.84 0.45 0.10

0.18 0.10 0.10 0.32 0.27 1.00 1.00 0.07 2.00 1.70 1.12 1.05 0.62 0.80 1.40 1.70 0.18 0.45 0.05 0.42 0.42 0.40 0.38 0.84

34 25 85 -2 -5 25 -30 5 -2 -40 0 64 10 40 -22 19 73 97 81 86 95 86 86 43 55 -4 48 28 10 10 16 8 -6 10 10 -22 43 48 55 21 27 5 43

0.8546 0.8839 0.8546 0.8119 0.8204 0.8394 0.8295 0.8922 0.8567 0.8703 0.9136 0.9535 0.8484 0.9048 0.9042 0.8344 0.7584 0.8894 0.8951 0.8500 0.8687 0.8811 0.8295 0.9206 0.8740 0.8607 0.8811 0.8762 0.8479 0.8105 0.8671 0.8649 0.8320 0.8247 0.8394 0.8295 0.8374 0.8546 0.8349 0.8389 0.8310 0.8419 0.8567 0.8339 0.8344 0.8561

7.492 7.242 7.492 7.886 7.804 7.628 7.718 7.174 7.473 7.356 7.007 6.712 7.546 7.075 7.079 7.673 8.444 7.197 7.152 7.532 7.369 7.265 7.718 6.952 7.324 7.437 7.265 7.306 7.551 7.900 7.383 7.401 7.696 7.764 7.628 7.718 7.646 7.492 7.668 7.632 7.705 7.605 7.473 7.677 7.673 7.478

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K.
Synonym Origin

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 34.9 35.7 32.6 34.9


API 60F

Appr. by: OHW Page 8 of 10 0.8500 0.8459 0.8618 0.8500


DENS.15C

Cormorant Cormorant South Crawford Dunlin


NAME

0.71 0.56 32.6 0.39


SUL

54 21 43
Pour PTF

7.532 7.569 7.428 7.532


BBLS/TON

Flotta Forties Fulmar Magnus Maureen Montrose Murchison Ninian Blend Statfjord Tartan Thistle Cherokee Stream Coastal B-2 Mix Conroe Denver basin Dover-Hennessey East Miss Mix East Texas Mix Gohlke Mix Gulf Coast Light Hawkins Mix Kuparuk La It Sweet Mallalieu Mississippi Hey Mix Mustang Island North Texas Oklahoma Sour Oklahoma Sweet Panotex Stream Prudhoe Bay Rangeleand South Refugio HVY Refugio Lt Rocky MNT Sweet Seebreeze Mix Warren Nat Gas West Sak West Tx Intermed West Tx Sour Wilmington Wyo Intermed Sour Wyoming Gen Wyoming Sour Wyoming Sweet

OKC Texas Texas Col OKD Miss Texas Texas Texas Texas LA Miss Texas Texas OKO OKW OKP Ala Texas Texas Col Texas Texas Texas Texas Del Gen Sour WYO WYO

U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U. K. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A.

35.7 36.6 39.3 39.3 35.5 40.1 38.0 35.6 38.4 41.7 37.0 36.7 35.8 37.4 37.2 39.4 38.8 38.5 40.1 40.6 27.1 23.0 38.0 38.7 22.9 44.7 38.5 33.7 40.1 43.8 27.8 39.5 21.5 34.3 34.5 37.4 80.8 23.0 39.7 33.0 17.0 39.7 30.3 23.7 40.8

0.40 0.30 0.26 0.28 0.55 0.23 0.27 1.10 0.27 0.56 0.31 0.75 0.11 0.06 0.30 0.16 0.89 0.28 0.08 0.11 2.22 1.76 0.40 0.07 3.70 0.11 0.40 0.69 0.49 0.16 0.94 0.75 0.25 0.12 0.53 0.14 0.03 1.82 0.49 1.90 1.50 1.90 1.73 2.90 0.34

19 27 10 45 16 45 36 39 16 54 10 25 5 55 0 45 35 35 15 55 -54 <60 55 10 20 0 30 50 5 15 -40 80 69 0 5 0 -49 75 0 45 0 15

0.8459 0.8414 0.8281 0.8281 0.8469 0.8242 0.8344 0.8464 0.8324 0.8166 0.8394 0.8409 0.8454 0.8374 0.8384 0.8276 0.8305 0.8320 0.8242 0.8218 0.8917 0.9154 0.8344 0.8310 0.9160 0.8027 0.8320 0.8561 0.8242 0.8068 0.8878 0.8721 0.9243 0.8530 0.8520 0.8374 0.6664 0.9154 0.8261 0.8597 0.9524 0.8261 0.8740 0.9112 0.8208

7.569 7.609 7.732 7.732 7.560 7.768 7.673 7.564 7.691 7.841 7.628 7.614 7.573 7.646 7.637 7.736 7.709 7.696 7.768 7.791 7.179 6.993 7.673 7.705 6.988 7.977 7.696 7.478 7.768 7.936 7.211 7.741 6.925 7.505 7.514 7.646 9.614 6.993 7.750 7.446 6.721 7.750 7.324 7.025 7.800

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Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Miss Gotchah LA
Synonym

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A.


Origin

Appr. by: OHW Page 9 of 10 0.8359 0.9994 0.8922 0.8541 0.8266


DENS.15C

Yellow Creek Zulu Warrior Alaskan North Slope Ship Shoal So La Sweet HLS
NAME

37.7 10.0 27.0 34.1 39.6


API 60F

1.09 100.00 1.06 0.34 0.12


SUL

75 0 1 5 0
Pour PTF

7.659 6.404 7.174 7.496 7.745


BBLS/TON

South Line Summerland Mix Sunset West Mix Weeks Island Mix West Central West Delta 30/41 West Tx Lt West Tx Sour Ekhabinskaya Soviet Export Blend Tyumen Urals Anaco Wax Bachacero BCF-17 BCF-24 Boscan Cabimus Ceuta Colon Cretaceo Lago 5 Lago Medio Lagomar Lagotreco Laguna Lagunillas Lagunillas Hvy Larosa Medio Leona Mara Heavy Mara Light Menegrande Merey Mesa Morichal Oveja Pilon Santa Ana Santa Rosa Condensate Stream Tamare Tiajuana 102 Tiajuana Doce

LA Miss LA LA Texas LA Texas Texas Sakhalin

Shell

Tiajuana 24

U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel

34.1 32.2 38.6 34.1 37.1 26.0 44.4 33.3 30.7 32.5 34.0 33.5 40.0 12.8 16.8 24.2 10.2 22.2 30.0 34.9 42.0 35.0 32.0 31.2 32.4 11.1 15.0 17.0 24.5 21.0 16.7 29.6 18.5 16.0 30.0 12.0 14.5 13.1 39.4 49.4 35.1 18.2 25.8 12.3

0.27 1.59 0.10 0.19 0.42 0.41 0.25 2.10 0.37 1.70 0.97 1.40 1.15 2.45 2.40 1.70 5.40 1.75 1.40 1.00 0.38 1.10 1.17 1.30 1.32 2.80 2.30 2.19 1.79 1.50 5.00 1.60 1.70 2.20 3.50 2.38 2.50 0.15 0.04 0.66 1.70 1.63 2.59

15 25 25 10 15 30 70 40 -17.5 -9 9 0 -9 60 79 45 -35 -44 -15 25 6 -29 -54 -44

-9 36 15 80 50 61 55 30

0.8541 0.8639 0.8315 0.8541 0.8389 0.8979 0.8040 0.8582 0.8719 0.8623 0.8546 0.8572 0.8247 0.9800 0.9535 0.9083 0.9980 0.9201 0.8757 0.8500 0.8152 0.8494 0.8649 0.8692 0.8628 0.9917 0.9653 0.9524 0.9066 0.9274 0.9542 0.8778 0.9428 0.9587 0.8757 0.9855 0.9686 0.9780 0.8276 0.7819 0.8489 0.9447 0.8991 0.9834

7.496 7.410 7.700 7.496 7.632 7.129 7.963 7.460 7.342 7.424 7.492 7.469 7.764 6.531 6.712 7.047 6.413 6.957 7.310 7.532 7.854 7.537 7.401 7.365 7.419 6.454 6.630 6.721 7.061 6.902 6.708 7.292 6.789 6.676 7.310 6.495 6.608 6.544 7.736 8.190 7.541 6.775 7.120 6.508

INTERNATIONAL TANKER MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANUAL-TANKERS


Chapter 9 Section 1 CARGO INFORMATION Crude Oils Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel Venezuel
Origin

Revision: 1 Date: 31.12.02 18.2 31.4 31.6 31.4 26.9 24.2


API 60F

Appr. by: OHW Page 10 of 10 0.9944 0.8681 0.8671 0.8681 0.8928 0.9083
DENS.15C

Tiajuana Heavy Tiajuana Light Tiajuana Light 2 Tiajuana Lt Tiajuana MD-26 Tiajuana Med Sour
NAME

TH T12

2.24 1.18 1.08 1.90 1.54 1.70


SUL

40 45 5 -44 50 60
Pour PTF

6.775 7.374 7.383 7.374 7.170 7.047


BBLS/TON

Synonym

Tiajuana Pesado Tiajuana Treee Viet Export Marib Masila Zaire

Venezuel Venezuel Vietnam Yemen Yemen Zaire

12.1 13.0 38.0 40.8 31.1 31.7

2.60 2.65 0.02 0.15 0.13

20 91 25 79

0.9848 0.9786 0.8344 0.8208 0.8665

6.499 6.540 7.673 7.800 7.387

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9.2 Product Cargoes 9.2.1 Introduction The petroleum products carried in bulk by sea can be considered to fall within one or two general categories - they are either white oils or black oils, and are shipping in clean tankers or dirty tankers respectively. In general, clean oils are the distilled lighter fractions derived from the refinery process and black oils are the heavier residues, but there is a large middle ground covered by gas oils. In addition there is a wide variety in the types of lubricating oil, from very light and thin transformer and spindle oils to heavier and dark cylinder and gear oils. Although lubricating oils generally have high specific gravities in line with most of the black oils, the need to carry these refined cargoes in as pure a state as possible has led them to be classed among the clean oils. Problems arise when itemizing the cargoes within each of the above general categories Since there no standard nomenclature in the oil industry, a .large number of designations are used throughout the world to identify the various product/feedstocks transported by sea. Some of the commonly listed names are listed hereunder. PETROLEUM PRODUCT CARGOES WHITE OILS Intermediate products Light Distillate Feedstocks Light distillate feedstocks (LDF) gasoline) Gas works feedstock Chemical feedstock Straight run gasoline (SRG) Naphtha (full range/light/heavy) Gas oil components (light/heavy) Natural gasoline (casinghead

Catalytic reformer feedstock Platformate Straight run benzine (SRB) Alkylate (iso-octane) lso-pentane

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Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reformate Steam cracked gasoline Cat cracked gasoline (full range/light/heavy)

Intermediate products Light Distillate Feedstocks Refined products Motor Gasoline (MOGAS) Super motor gasoline JP4) Premium motor gasoline ATK) Regular motor gasoline Clear motor gasoline Aviation Turbine Fuels Aviation turbine gasoline (Avtag, Aviation turbine Kerosine (Avtur, Avcat JP5 Dual purpose Kerosine Kerosine Regular Kerosine Premium Kerosine Superior Kerosine Lighting Kerosine Stove oil Tractor vaporizing oil

Aviation Gasoline Premium aviation gasoline Aviation gasoline Lower aviation gasoline Priming Fuel Rocket Fuel

Gas oil (SPPS) Automotive gas oil Industrial gas oil Distillate marine diesel High speed diesel oil

Special

Boiling

Point

Solvents

SBP Rubber solvent Unleaded cleaning spirit (pale)

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Inferior Kerosine Navy distillate Heavy blended diesel DERV

White Spirit White Spirit Low automatic white spirit High automatic white spirit Mineral turpentine BLACK OILS lntermediate Products

Carbon black feedstocks Fuel oil component Long residue Bitumen Heavy fuel oil Refined Products Light fuel oil (no.4) Low -sulphur fuel oil Distillate marine diesel (black)

Road oil Paraffin waxy distillate Bright stocks slack wax Heavy spindle oil slack wax

Medium fuel oil (341-1500) Fuel oil ( more than 1500) Marine diesel

LUBRICATING OIL Intermediate Products Waxy lub. Oil distillate (WLD) Neutralised naphthenic distillate (NND) Un-neutralised naphthenic distilliate (UND) 44 Naphthenic SO raffinate (NSR) Naphthenic Spindle oil distillate Naphthenic cylinder oil distillate High Viscosity Index (HVI) Medium Viscosity Index (MVI) Low viscosity index (LVI)

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9.2.2 White oil White or clean oils are the lighter distilled fraction of the crude oil barrel and include such grades as motor gasoline , aviation spirit, benzene , white spirit , aviation turbine fuel and majority of the gas oils including high speed diesel. The most important consideration during bulk transport by sea is that any contamination of white oils by residue of the heavier oils is avoided. For this reason it is normal practice to have a vessel trading in either one grade or the other for an extended period because of the difficulty of cleaning for white oils after the carriage of black oils. However, in recent years many ships have been designed as flexible clean/dirty traders. 9.2.2.1 AVIATION FUEL This fuel is high-octane aviation spirit and is commonly known as aviation gasoline (Avgas). The higher performance grades, have to be almost tailor-made from three or four selected components using formulation that can vary little from batch from batch. Typical components in such a blend would be iso-pentane, alkylate and catalytic. 9.2.2.2 AVIATION TURBINE FUELS These grades, sometimes known as ATF, can roughly be divided into two classes: Turbine gasoline (Avtag-JP4)This product has a gasoline base and hence a flash point below 23C (73F) Turbine kerosine (Avtur - JP1A, dual prupose kerosine and Avcat - JP5) These products have a kerosine base and have flash points around 38 0C (1000F) and upwards.

The presence of water in petroleum cargoes is all times undesirable but, where aviation turbine fuels are concerned, this is particularly so and it is very important that tanks, pumps and pipelines be thoroughly drained of water and tanks mopped dry before loading commences. Water haze in aviation turbine kerosine, which can lead to filter blockage by ice particles, will eventually settle out if left standing but this is impossible at most shore installations. Care must also be taken, therefore, to ensure that ships lines and pumps be free from water before discharge is commenced.

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Frequently, both before and after completing discharge ATF parcels, the shore installation may expressly ask the ship to pump water to clear the shore pipelines. If this is done, the Master must not assume that any ATF remaining on board is no longer water critical, since the installations usually divert the water contaminated portion to motor spirit storage in the case of (a) an illuminating kerosine storage be drained black to an empty tank before further discharge of ATF is undertaken. Anti-icing additives are sometimes added to ATF cargoes and any water present will leech out the additive. Hence, it is important that any residual water after draining must be reduced to a minimum. This may be achieved by the use of eductor equipment or, if such equipment is unavailable and pools of water are evident, by hand mopping. 9.2.2.3 GASOLINE (ALSO KNOWN AS MOTOR SPRIT OR PETROL) The most important characteristic of the gasoline, is its anti-knock value or octane number. The boiling range of a motor spirit is generally from 300 to about 2000C. Necessary attributes of a motor gasoline include an acceptable odour and a freedom from any tendency to leave gummy deposits in the manifold system. 9.2.2.4 VAPORIZING OIL This product, also known as power kerosine is, as the latter name implies, a kerosine fraction as is specially manufactured for use as a fuel in certain sparkignition engines. 9.2.2.5 KEROSINE Kerosine, also known as paraffin in the U.K., is manufactured as a straight-run fraction from crude oil, generally in the boiling range 150 0 - 2500C. As such, it covers the same range as aviation turbine kerosine and ordinary kerosine (also known as lamp kerosine) as a common grade. Kerosine is widely used in central heating installations, domestic heating stoves, incubators, blow-lamps and camping stoves. Tests for evaluation of kerosine are, therefore, primarily concerned with buring qualities, e.g. a standard wick-fed lamp is used to measure the height of the flame which can be attained before smoking commences (the smoke-point). An essential difference between premium and regular grades of kerosine is that the former has a high smoke-point. To achieve a high smoke-point it is necessary to

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remove the aromatic compounds since these, because of their relatively high carbon/hydrogen ratio (compared with paraffinic by hydrocarbons), tend to burn with a smoky flame. This is done by a solvent extraction process using liquid sulphur dioxide as the solvent. 9.2.2.6 GAS OILS By nature of their properties and usages, gas oils are shipped to less critical tolerances than those of kerosine. Although lead-free, gas oils can tolerate small amounts of lead. Contamination into other gas oil grades is acceptable providing its sulphur content and pour/cloud point is not lower and the flash point is not a limiting factor. Water contamination is as critical a problem for gas oil as it is for kerosines and other product grades. Water haze produced by pumping fuel containing free water, can redeposit a water layer in the tanks. When such water contains salt it present a potential corrosion hazard if allowed to accumulate. Whilst water haze in gas oil supplied as fuel for gas turbines is not in itself harmful to the operation of the engine, its presence nevertheless indicates that sodium, which can cause severe pitting of the turbine blades, may be present in unacceptably high concentrations. Great care should therefore be taken to ensure the absence of water throughout the ships cargo handling system, particularly in lines and pumps. If the oil is hazy on loading, water will tend to settle out during voyage. If water dips are found prior to discharge, after consultation with the receiving installation, efforts should be made to strip out the settled water before discharge of the bulk of the cargo. This will minimize any rehazing of the gas oil by the mixing of the ships pumps. If it is not possible to strip to a shore line it will be necessary to transfer on board to a suitable empty tank, if available. 9.2.3 High Vapour Pressure Cargoes Cargoes having high vapour pressure (HVP) characteristics are particularly liable to evaporation losses and to difficulty in draining. These difficulties occur in some gasolines (but not usually those shipped as finished products) such as casinghead gasoline and in certain crude oils, particularly where they are overheated or discharged in tropical climates after being loaded in the winter months in the Persian Gulf, A high vapour pressure cargo is considered as being one having a true vapour pressure in excess of 10ld/sq. in at the temperature at which it is handled. Cargoes with a RVP of over 16lb/sq. in, or with a true vapour pressure

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expected to exceed 14.7lb/sq. in, at any time, are not usually carried in ordinary cargo tanks. Before loading HVP cargoes, care should be taken that the pressure/vacuum valves on the venting system are working efficiently and that the gland packings and tank lid are properly fitted to minimise cargo loss through evaporation. Pumps, pipelines and valves must be in top class condition to ensure efficient draining. Where the tanker is passing through an area where the temperatures are greatly in excess of the temperatures of the cargo on loading, consideration should be given to cooling the main deck by means of sprinklers or hoses. 9.2.4 Black Oils In the past specifications for residual fuel oils were based on Redwood viscosities and in Europe on Engler viscosities but today most oil companies determine the viscosity of residual fuels by the kinematic method at a temperature of 50 degree C in line with the international engineering industrys move towards S. I. Units. In most cases the changeover means only a small change in the viscosity of the fuel oil supplied and will not affect the fuel-burning plants operations. 9.2.4.1 FUEL OILS The general description fuel oils includes a variety of products from the low viscosity light fuel oils used in domestic furnaces to heavy bunker fuel. In addition, increasing environmental concern has meant that a number of these grades are now manufactured as low sulphur fuel oils. Wax has been known to cause serious problems with some of the low viscosity light fuel oil grades and, for this reason, fairly stringent tank preparations are needed to avoid the possibility of contamination by wax from previous cargoes of fuel oil and crude oil. Low sulphur fuel oils have sulphur contents of one per cent or less and are frequently manufactured with sulphur contents very close to the specification limit. As a result only very minimum contaminations with other grades of fuel oil can be tolerated. Medium fuel oils of viscosity 350 to 1500 secs. Redwood 1 (15-40 centistokes at 80 degree C (175 degree F) generally have much lower pour points than low sulphur fuel oils. In consequence, ships loading such products after the carriage of LSFO should be stringently cleaned. Pour point should be checked at load port.

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Although tank cleaning routines for ships engaged solely in the heavy fuel oil trades are probably the least critical of any product tanker, stringent cleaning must normally be carried out when loading these grades after crude oil. 9.2.5 Light Distillate Feedstocks These cargoes which include naphtha, reformer feedstocks and natural gasoline are unleaded products and have flash point within or below the ambient temperature range. They are very sensitive to lead and special precautions are necessary when loading into tanks which have previously carried leaded spirits such as motors spirits and aviation gasolines. Lead is absorbed by rust and scale and can be retained in the scale during the carriage of other products such as gas oil, if thorough tank cleaning is not carried out between cargoes. It will then leech out to an unacceptable level in the distillate feedstocks. To ensure freedom from lead, hot washing must always be used in the preparation of uncoated tanks and all loose scale removed from the tank bottoms. When loading catalytic reformer feedstock cargo samples are usually taken just before the liquid level in the tank reaches 0.5 metres and subsequently checked for lead. Sampling of these cargoes should only be necessary, however, when they are carried as part-cargo with other leaded products. Heavier distillate grades can tolerate small quantities of ATF, white spirit, SBPS, kerosene or lighter distillate grades. However since these cargoes tend to be unrefined they may put others off specification as regards odour, colour, corrosion tests etc. 9.2.6 Lead Critical Cargoes Before any lead critical cargo can be loaded into a vessel the tanks (s) concerned and associated pumps and pipelines must be completely free from lead. Lead critical cargoes include edible, animal and vegetable oils, molasses and naphthas. To reach a lead free condition after the carriage of a leaded grade of product, it is required that at least three lead free cargoes be carried. Water ballast cannot be counted as an unleaded cargo.

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Depending on vessels trading pattern, it may take considerable amount of time to achieve the required status, particularly if advantage is not taken of every unleaded load. On all occasions when unleaded, non-lead critical cargo is loaded, if possible, this cargo must be loaded in all spaces which previously carried leaded cargo. This may well mean that the cargo may have to be loaded into tanks which otherwise would have been left empty. This will however, ensure that the vessel is brought to a lead free condition as quickly as possible. When loading Unleaded MOGAS it is important to ensure that the cargo is in fact unleaded and not low-lead. Some terminals classify low-lead as unleaded. 9.2.7 Aromatic Solvents (SBPs, White Spirits) These products are made to a strict specification and a high degree of purity is essential; no contamination by other types of products can be tolerated. Occasionally, product tankers are required to load parcels of these products which contain a very high percentage of aromatics of a type that gives a good solvent of asphaltic matter and, consequently, they may be readily down-graded if tanks, and especially pipelines, contain any trace of black oil products. If the ship concerned has always been in the cpp trades, there is no equivalent risk. However, if the clean oil ship has carried black oils, the internal surfaces of the cargo pipelines become impregnated with oil, oxidised oil and asphaltic matter. On conversion back to the white oil trades, these residues are removed to a degree dependent on the solvent action of the normal white oil products. Although the ship may have made a successful return to the cpp trades after the carriage of black oils, these solvents, of which Super Benzex is the most significant, are much more powerful and still able to extract residue, which in fact is insoluble in, and therefore does not contaminate, normal clean grade. Even after periods of thirty and forty days in clean cargoes following a change over from black oil trading, aromatic solvents may suffer colour deterioration and, consequently, ever effort is made not to commit them to recent black oil traders before these have carried an appreciable number of cargoes like gasoline. Whenever aromatic solvents are first carried after black oil trading, the tank(s) and pipeline(s) (especially dead ends) to be used should be thoroughly washed and, additionally, the system flushed with, say, 30-40 tons of the solvent to be

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loaded. This product will be subsequently discharged ashore for down-grading if laboratory tests prove it to be necessary. As an additional precaution the tank should be loaded to a level of approximately two-thirds of a metre and the product tested for quality before normal loading commences.

9.2.8 High Pour Point (Waxy) Cargoes Of particular interest here are brightstock and distillate slack waxes and waxy lub. oil distillates and residues. The essential requirement for successful carriage and discharge for these cargoes is that temperatures be strictly maintained at least 6 0C . (100F) higher than their pour points to facilitate pumping and draining. Heat should be maintained on the cargo during discharge and, once the heating coils become uncovered, draining should be completed without delay. If the cargo is under-heated at this point, or if draining is delayed, the waxy products will quickly solidify and a poor discharge with dirty tanks will result. The slack wax should be loaded overall, whenever possible, to minimise the risk of lines becoming solid on passage. When the balance of the cargo consists of one of the naphthalenic lub. oil distillates, great care must be taken to ensure that these feedstocks are not contaminated by wax. This is best achieved by arriving at the loading terminal with all tanks gas-free and loading the slack wax overall and the balance of the cargo through the ships lines, ensuring, whenever possible, that it is discharged before the slack wax. Unless the centre tanks used have indpendent suctions, the adjacent wing tanks should, whenever possible, be left empty. If the procedure described above is not possible, the slack wax should be loaded first, and before loading the balance of cargo, the whole pipeline system should be thoroughly washed round with a quantity of another grade, slopping this into the ship or shore tankage. Similarly, if it is necessary to discharge the slack wax first, the ships lines should be cleared by slopping into a suitable shore tank before commencing to discharge the balance of the cargo. Brightstock slack wax, or crude petrolatum, has a very high congealing point, necessitating exceptionally high carriage temperatures and special precautions during handling and carriage. Middle East product can be carried in product tankers with grid coils capable of heating to 750C (1700F) but Caribbean brightstock which congeals at that temperature, must be carried in ships equipped

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with more than the normal heating capabilities. Whatever the heating potential, the coils must be well tested before loading commences. To ensure against heating coil breakdown and to reduce wax deposits on tank walls to a minimum. Adjacent wing tanks should be loaded with a grade of oil that can be heated as high as possible. On completing the discharge of the higher pour point grades, Lines/ pumps should immediately be cleared, preferably with hot water which has previously been introduced into and heated in an empty tank, or, alternatively, f circumstances render this impossible, other prior arrangements should be made with the shore installation to clear the lines, such s bowing back into the tanks with compressed air from the shore. Cleaning after waxy cargoes, when this is necessary for quality purposes or other reasons, is invariably more difficult than after other cargoes but, if the foregoing procedures are compiled with, this should be reduced to a minimum. Machine washing as the maximum permissible temperature and pressure should be undertaken and, in vessels fitted with bottom grid coils, it is a good idea to flood the tank bottoms with about half a metre of water and heat this to the maximum temperature possible so that the wax washed off by the machines falls on to a hot base instead of a cold tank bottom. This procedure will enable the bulk of the wax to be removed by pumping, leaving only a small amount to be removed manually.

9.2.9 Lubricating Oils This terms covers a diverse ranges of products specially blended to meet the requirements of every conceivable type of machinery, be it large or small, and under a variety of conditions of temperature, loading, operating speed and construction materials. The products thus vary from light, thin oils of very low viscosity such as required for delicate instruments (transformer and spindle oils) to heavier, darker and highly viscous lubricants used on open gears or wire ropes. Typical classifications of lubircating oils, gear and transmission lubricants, metalworking lubricants, i.e. cutting oils, rolling oils (for metal working) and compressor oils. Other types include the so called high-temperature synthetic lubricants (for aero-turbine engines) and lubricating greases. For lubricating oils used in internal combustion engines, the starting point is a series of waxy distillates obtained by distilling, under vacuum, the residue left over from the crude oil after gasoline, kerosine and gas oil have been removed.

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These basic lubricating oil cuts are purified, in stages, by solvent processes to remvoe wax, aromatics and unstable materials which under service conditions could lead to corrosion. A lubricating oil is normally classified in terms of its viscosity at some standard temperature, but equally important is its viscosity index (VI). The VI is an empirical number giving a measure of the extent to which an oil thins out, i.e. decreases in viscosity, as the temperature is raised. A crankcase oil, for example, must have a viscosity low enough to permit ready starting on a cold morning but then not become so thin when the engine gets hot that it loses its lubricating ability. An oil which meets the above requirements is said to have a high VI. This property can be controlled to some extent by refining, but the modern trend towards multi-grade oils of extremely high VI relies on the assistance of certain polymer compounds which function as VI improvers. Lubricating oils are transported in large quantities by sea, usually as base-oil stocks which still have to be blended and/or mixed with additives. The base-oil stocks can be divided into two main groups (a) light neutral stocks and (b) bright stocks. The light neutral stocks, which are the lighter fractions obtain after distillation, and bright stocks, the heavier lub. oil fractions, together form the basic components for the manufacture of lubricating oils of various viscosities. At the blending unit, additives of either chemical or vegetable origin are included to give the lubricating oil the specific characteristics required. Additives are also regularly carried in bulk by sea and are often tough, strongly-adhesive, syrupy liquids. A certain number of general purpose type product tankers are engaged permanently or for prolonged periods in the carriage of lubricating oils. This practice allows contamination risks to be minimized and tank cleaning requirements to be reduced. No special equipment is necessary for vessels engaged in this trade although certain minor modifications are usually made to facilitate the draining of pipelines and pumps. Again, water is a serious contamination of this petroleum product; large quanitities of lub. oil can be seriously degraded by admixture with a small quantity of water. Prior to loading all pipelines should be cleared of water by trimming the ship and draining from the lowest points, after which the drain plugs in pipelines, valves, expansion joints, etc. should be removed to allow any water to drain out. All valves of the gas venting system should be opened fully to allow any condensed vapour or moisture that may have collected in the pipes to be drained off into the tanks. The tanks must then be thoroughly mopped up and all traces of water removed. The pumproom pipelines and valves should be given

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similar attention, whilst water in the discharge side of the cargo pumps should not be overlooked. Lub. oils are often carried on multi-point discharge voyages and, increasingly parcels are on-carried over what would normally be a ballast voyages and, occasionally it is necessary, to clean tanks, with cargo still on board. In such circumstances, every precaution, even at the expense of some delay, must be taken to ensure that lub. oil are not contaminated by water. Procedures such as reserving one pump and line exclusively for water or balasting overall via the tank cleaning system should be resorted to whenever possible. Pumps and lines used for ballasting should be dealt with as described above before subsequent use with lub. oils. Since some of the more viscous lub. oils are required to be heated to ensure a satisfactory pump rate during discharge, heating coils in the tanker must be in thoroughly efficient condition prior to loading as leakages with lub. oil cargoes are particularly undesirable. Lub oils should always be heated slowly and never abvoe the maximum permissible temperature as local overheating may result in a grade being damaged. Lub. oil cargoes comprise many different grades, 10 to 20 on a single voyage are not uncommon. Bulkheads separating the grades should therefore be liquid-tight whiel the pipeline valves should be in good order. Since the characteristics of lub. oil are such that they can be loaded overall, this procedure should be adopted whenever possible. This allows the loading of several grades simultaneously without risk of admixture while the piping system remains empty, thus facilitating, when the time comes to discharge, the decision regarding the most suitable sequence to adopt with a view to avoiding admixture in the pipeline. When practicable, it is advisable to load grades of similar characteristics in similar line grouping so that, if required, it will be possible to follow up one grade with the one adjoining without serious admixture when discharging. On occasions lub. oil parcels are shipped with white oils and, less frequently, black oils. This practice is avoided whenever possible since the many and costly refining processes required to produce suitable lubricants makes contamination between these different grades during transit a particularly serious matter. Care must be taken if these cargoes are shipped together to reserve a pump and pipeline for either the lub. oils or other grades, whichever are in minority. When other petroleum products are to be loaded after the carriage of lub. oils, cleaning procedures must be just as stringent as those required for the loading of

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lub. oils. This is due to the fact that greasy residues which remain adhering to the tank structure following the discharge of lubricating oils have a deleterious effect on some other products. For coated tanks which have carried lighter lub. oils, the standard tank washing procedure is adequate provided careful attention to the washing machine drops is maintained. For the heavier grades and for all lub. oil grades carried in uncoated tanks, hot washing water together with additional care in the procedure is essential. 9.2.9.1 Wax-Free Lubricating Oil Feedstocks These cargoes, neutralised and un-neutralised naphthenic distillate (NND and UND) are partly refined feedstocks used exclusively for lub. oil manufacture. Since even the slightest contamination by wax will render them unsuitable and result in heavy claims, it is essential that they be loaded into wax-free tanks. They are also highly susceptible to salt contamination and therefore, on completion of discharge of ballast and before loading, particular attention should be paid to the efficient draining of tanks, pipelines, etc. to ensure that the salt content remaining is reduced to a minimum. Unless the tank previously contained the identical grade to be loaded, efficient machine washing should be carried out, followed by the lifting of any loose scale or sediment. When preparing tanks for subsequent cargoes after discharging these grades, the same cleaning as required after blending diesels should be applied. 9.2.10 Carbon Black Feedstock Carbon Black Feedstock (Aromatic Concentrate or Aromatic Tar) is carried at a temperature of about 1350F (570C) and is similar in consistency to a very heavy fuel oil. It is a very dirty cargo. It is water critical with a specific gravity slightly above 1,000 and is therefore liable to emulsification. With Carbon Black being very sensitive to water contamination, especially salt water, full precautions must be taken to ensure that tanks, strainers, pumps, etc. are completely dry prior to loading. To remove traces of salt in the cargo tank the tank should be fresh water rinsed. Heating coils should be thoroughly tested before arrival at the load port and any deficiencies rectified.

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Should a coil leakage be detected during carriage then the Mangers should be advised immediately. Ballast taken immediately after discharge should if possible only be loaded into tanks which have not contained Carbon Black Feedstock. If ballasting to tanks having contained Carbon Black is unavoidable then the dirty ballast should be discharged as soon as possible and the tank cleaned. Carbon Black Feedstock should be regarded as a Marpol Annex 1 cargo. 9.2.11 Waxes Wax, although regarded as an undesirable material when manufacturing lubricating oils, is nevertheless of intrinsic value as a separate product. The wax which is removed from the lighter lubricating oil stocks has relatively large crystals and is known as paraffin was; that from the heavier fractions has much smaller crystals and is usually referred to as micro-crystalline wax. Paraffin waxes are normally marketed on the basis of a melting point test. Control of this characteristic is necessary in connection with the products primary uses, i.e. the manufacture of candles and tapers, the impregnation of paper (for food cartons), in polishes, for electrical insulation and as water-proofing agent. This latter use also provides a major outlet for micro-crystalline wax. 9.2.12 Properties of Petroleum Products 9.2.12.1 Specific Gravity Of fundamental importance to ship design is the cargos specific gravity (S.G._ S.G.s for a range of petroleum products are given in Table 8. The Table also gives an idea of the number of grades of each type of cargo a product tanker is called upon to handle. Black oils tend to be heavier than clean oils and hence dirty products tankers are considered to be deadweight carriers whereas clean products tankers are capacity or volume vessels. Since crude oils contain both clean and dirty products, the S. G.s of crude oils usually fall somewhere within the S. G. range of the various dirty products. The S. G.s of clean oils usually fall somewhere between 0.63 and 0.90 while those of black oils fall between 0.78 and 1.00.

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SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Products Motor Gasoline Aviation Fuels : Gasoline Kerosine Kerosines Vapourising oils White Spirits Feedstocks Gas Oils Diesel Oils Lubricating Oils No. of Grades 33 8 6 23 4 36 18 44 11 18 Specific Gravity 0.713 - 0.741 0.699 - 0.712 0.744 - 0.790 0.791 - 0.808 0.774 - 0.790 0.630 - 0.900 0.640 - 0.785 0.827 - 0.845 0.828 - 0.845 0.870 - 0.930

9.2.12.2 Volatility The volatility of various petroleum products presents hazards requiring careful consideration in the ship design process as well as during cargo handling and cleaning operations. A property particular interest in this respect is the cargos flammability, an assessment of which can be made by means of its flash point and vapour pressure together. Static electricity is a problem of considerable consequence on board tankers. Generally, cargoes containing some residual material such as black oils and crude oils are non-static accumulators, while the opposite is true to clean petroleum cargoes. Ships carrying cpp must exercise care with fluid exit velocities, single point contacts and bonding. Related properties such as toxicity and gas density are also a major consideration in developing and products hazard analysis profile. 9.2.12.3 Pumpability This term is used to describe the ease with which a cargo may be pumped and is dependent mainly on its viscosity and pour point, both of which are related to temperature. In general, dirty cargoes require some form of heating to facilitate pumping in the ambient conditions of N. W. Europe, whereas clean products do not. The exception to this general rule are lubricating oils which due to their high viscosity, do require some form of heating.

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9.3 Vegetable Oils 9.3.1 Temperatures during Discharging Solid and semi-solid vegetable oil products in cargo tanks should be heated slowly so that they are liquid and completely homogeneous before transfer. For optimum results the various products may be heated up to the temperature as shown hereunder. These are as a guidance only and vessels shall be guided by the Shippers / charterers specific instructions when loading these cargoes. UNLOADING TEMPERATURE Products Palm Oil (processed or crude) Palm Stearin* (processed or crude) Palm Olein (processed or crude) Palm Oil Mid Fraction Palm Kernel and Coconut Oil Palm Kernel Olein Palm kernel Stearin Tallow Groundnut and Cottonseed Oil Other Liquid Oils Palm Acid Oil and Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Specified Fatty Acids Minimum degrees C 50 55 60* 30 40 30 30 40 55 20 Ambient 55 5 100C above Titre point Maximum degrees C 55 65 70* 35 45 35 35 45 60 25 25 70

The lower temperatures apply to soft grades, while the higher temperatures apply to both crude and processed oils in each grade.

9.3.2 Temperatures During Storage and Transport To prevent excessive crystallisation during carriage, oil in tanks are usually maintained within the temperature ranges given below. TEMPERATURE DURING STORAGE AND TRANSIT Products Palm Oil Palm Olein Palm Stearin Palm Mid Fraction Minimum 0 C 32 25 40 35 Maximum 0 C 40 30 45 40

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Tallow Palm Kernel/Coconut Oil Liquid Vegetable Oils Palm Acid Oil and Palm Fatty Acids Distillate

44 27 Ambient 52

49 32 55

The temperatures are chosen to minimise damage to the oil. Some crystallisation will occur, but not so much as to require excessively long heating before delivery. Thus palm oil stored at 320 - 400C will require about three days heating at 5 0C / day to bring it to discharge temperatures. 9.3.3 Loading and Unloading Sequence Where a number of products are unloaded through a common pipeline system the system must be cleared between different products or grades. The order of loading or discharge must be carefully chosen to minimise the consequence of contamination. The following principles should be observed : Fully refined oils before partly refined. Partly refined oils before crude oils. Edible oils before technical grades. Fatty acids or acid oils should be pumped last. Special care should be taken to prevent contamination between lauric and non lauric oils.

If possible the first 3 - 5 tonnes of each grade should be collected in separate tanks for quality checks. When empty, tanks, pipelines and pumps should be drained and all heating tuned off. 9.3.4 Deterioration of Cargo 9.3.4.1 General Three types of deterioration can occur in oils and fats during the operations dealt with here. Oxidation Oxidation of oils results in chemical changes leading to rancidity. While the oil refinery can put right some of the effects of oxidation, processing of oxidised oils is more expensive, and rectification may be incomplete. Oxidation requires the presence of oxygen which is a universal component of the atmosphere. While it would be possible to protect oils totally from contact with air, it would be uneconomical. Much can be gained by reducing contract and this principle is the basis of several of the recommendations. Oxidation proceeds more rapidly at high temperature. Oxidation is speeded up by contact with copper or copper

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containing alloys, and these must be excluded from the systems. Other metals such as iron also have a catalytic effect though it is less than that of copper. There is therefore an advantage in providing storage tanks with an inert coating, and ensuring the absence of rust. Hydrolysis The breakdown of fats to fatty acids is promoted by the presence of water and higher temperatures. Hydrolysis is also promoted by the growth of microorganisms in the presence of water. Tanks should always be clean and dry before use. Free fatty acids also promote hydrolysis and therefore crude oils in particular will increase in acidity during transport. In the case of fully refined palm oil it has been found that oils shipped with an initial acidity of 0.05% (as oleic acid) or less change very little, whereas oils shipped with acidity above 0.05% show increases. Contamination Contamination may be from residues of a previous material handled in the equipment from dirt, rain or sea water, or through the accidental addition of a different product. In storage installations and ships, particular difficulty may be experienced ensuring cleanliness of valves and pipelines, particularly, where they are common for different tanks. Contamination is avoided by good pipeline / tank design, adequate cleaning routines and effective inspection. 9.3.5 Palm Acid Oils (PAO)
Palm Fatty Acid Distillates (PFAD)

PAO and PFAD are both very aggressive towards tank coating due to the high percentage of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) that they contain. Reference must be made to the tank coating manufacturers Tank Coating Resistance List before loading these cargoes. PFAD has a wide range of cargo specifications an hence care has to be taken to determine the actual FFA of the grade to be carried. The general condition to be observed when carrying PFAD, are as follows: Tanks used for PFAD should be completely dry and the Master should ensure that the original water content of the cargo is not increased during carriage by any outside additions, e.g. leakings heating coils, ingress of water through tank openings etc. Representative load and discharge samples must be taken and retained on board. Cargo heating is to be carried out fully in line with the Charterers instructions and due caution taken to prevent overheating during carriage. Normal carriage temperature : 400C - 500C Normal discharge temperature : 650C - 700C Maximum water content of PFAD should not exceed 0.5% Mineral acid content (Sulphuric and/or Phosphoric acids) should always be nil. Tank coating may be seriously affected if these acids are present.

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GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR PALM OIL PRODUCTS 1. Neutralised Palm Oil *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc 3-25) Colour *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc 3-25) Lovibond Colour (5 cell) *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) Colour (5 cell) Taste *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) C. Pt. (AOCS Cc 6 - 25) Colour *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) C. Pt. (AOCS Cc 6 - 25) Colour *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) C. Pt. (AOCS Cc 6 - 25) Lovibond Colour (5 cell) *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) 0,25% max. 0,1% max. 51 - 56 33 - 39 Natural Palm Oil 0,25% max. 0,1% max. 51 - 56 33 - 39 Red = 20 max. 0,25% max. 0,1% max. 51 - 56 33 - 39 3 R. 30 Y max. Bland 5,0% max. 0,25%max. 55 min. 24 max. 10 max. Natural Palm Oil 0,25% max. 0,1% max. 55 min. 24 max. 10 max. Natural Palm Oil 0,25% max. 0,1% max. 55 min. 24 max. 10 max. 20 Red max. 5,0% max. 0,25%max. 55 min.

2.

Neutralised Bleached Palm Oil

3.

Neutralised, Bleached * Deodorised Palm Oil or Physical (Steam) Refined Palm Oil

4.

Crude Palm Oil

5.

Neutralised Palm Olein

6.

Neutralised

7.

Neutralised, Bleached & Deodorised Palm Olein or Physical (Steam) Refined

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Palm Olein

S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) C. Pt. (AOCS Cc 6-25) Colour (5 cell) Taste *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) Lovibond Colour (5 cell) *FFA (As Palmitic) M&I I.V. (Wijs) S.Pt. C (AOCS Cc3-25) Lovibond Colour (5 cell) Total Fatty Matter M&I *FFA (As Palmitic) Saponifiable Matter M&I *FFA (As Palmitic) Acid Value Sap. Value I.V. (Wijs) Titer C Colour (5 cell)

24 max. 10 max. 3R. 30Y. max. Bland. 5,0% max. 0,25% max. 48 min. 42 min. 5,0% max. 0,25% max. 48 min. 42 min. 0,25% max. 0,15% max. 48 min. 42 min. 0,25% max. 0,15% max. 48 min. 42 min. 20 Red max. 0,2% max. 0,15% max. 48 min. 42 min. 3 Red max. 95% min. (basis 97%) 3% max. 50% min. 95% min. 0,5% max. 80% min. 200 - 208 202 - 210 8 max. 53 min. 4R. 30Y max.

8.

Crude Palm Stearin

9.

Degummed Palm Stearin

10.

Neutralised Palm Stearin

11.

Neutralised, Bleached Palm Stearin

12.

Neutralised, Bleached & Deodorised Palm Stearin or Physical (Steam) Refined Palm Stearin

13.

Palm Acid Oil

14.

Crude Fatty Acids

15.

Flaked Stearic Acid

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U.S.M. Neutral Fat (Rubber Grade) Palm Stearin COCONUT OILS 1. Crude Coconut Oil FFA (as lauric) Colours (5 - lovibond cell) Iodine Value Saponification Moisture & Volatility Unsaponifiable Matter FFA Colours (5 - lovibond Iodine Value Saponification Value Moisture & Volatile FFA Colours (5 - lovibond Iodine Value Saponification Value Moisture and Volatile Matter Peroxide Value Melting Point Iodine Value Colour (5 - Lovibond) FFA Peroxide Value Solid Fat Index 500F - 69 800F - 17 1000F - 4 Total Saponifiables Moisture & Impurities Iodine Value Saponification Value

3% max. 3% max.

4.0% max. 9.14R 50 - 75 Y 7.5 - 10.5 250 - 264 1% max. 1% max. IR/10R 7.5 - 10.5 250 - 264 0.1% max. 0.05% max. IR/10Y 7.5 - 10.5 250 - 264 Nil Nil 96 - 1000F 4.0 max. IR/10Y .05% max. 0.5 max. 700F - 44 920F - 8 98% 2% max. 17 max. 250 min.

2.

Refined & Bleached Coconut Oil (Cochin)

3.

Refined, Bleached & Deodorized Coconut Oil

4.

Refined, Bleached Deodorized Hydrogenated Coconut Oil 920

5.

Coconut Acid Oil

*As traded in the local and foreign markets.

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10.0 COMBINATION CARRIERS 10.1 Description 10.1.1 Introduction Combination Carriers are usually of two types :Ore/oil (O/O) type or the Ore/Bulk/oil (BO) type. Additional precautions are necessary when these types of vessels are changing trade from ore/bulk to oil and vice versa and also when carrying cargoes other than oil. Constructionally these ships differ from a conventional tanker. Some of the features are given below : They have large openings in way of centre hold capable of carrying ore/bulk or ore only depending on type. These holds usually extend to greater part of the breadth in OBOs and about half the total breadth case of O/Os. Typically, these vessels have a double bottom, with hopper tanks at the top and bottom and wing tanks being used for the carriage of oil. The centre holds are free of internal structures, facilitating cleaning after oil cargo. Hatch covers have a special sealing arrangement for effective gas tightness. The ballast and in some cases the cargo lines are installed inpipe tunnel(s).

10.1.2 Reference The guidelines given hereunder are of a general nature only as specific operational procedure will differ depending on the type of vassal and trade. Ship specific manuals are usually available on board detailing such procedures must be consulted. Information given in ISGOTT will be of considerable use to vessels not provided with detailed on board information on cargo headling.

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10.2 Operation 10.2.1 Guidelines The following will require special attention on these types of vessels: Stability Venting and Inert Gas systems Hatch Opening and hatch covers Tank cleaning Carriage of slops Void spaces, duct keels tunnels, ballast spaces Changing of cargo from oil to dry and vice versa

10.2.1.1 Stability Due to the broad beam and size of centre of cargo holds, a very large free surface effect is built up if holds are not filled to within the coaming. This can result in both loss of stability and sloshing. If extreme care is not taken to ensure that total free surface limits are not kept within safe limits during cargo and/or ballast operations, a sudden and violent change of list can occur. On all vessels of this type, specific information on the maximum number of tanks that may be slack at any given time will be given in the stability booklet. This should be known to personnel handing cargo/ballast. Free surface of double bottom tanks can also contribute to loss in stability. Loading or discharging rate may have to be adjusted to ensure that free surface doesnt increase beyond safe limit. If loss of stability is becoming increasingly evident, all operations should stop immediately until corrective steps are taken. In general the following principles will apply : The virtual centre of gravity must be lowered in the most effective way. Slack DB tanks (if any), should be filled, starting with those on the low side. Filling empty DB tanks will initially result in loss of stability but of will soon be set right when mass is added below the vessels original centre of gravity. DO NOT ATTEMPT to fill tanks on the high side as this likely to result in a violent change of list to the opposite side.

Sloshing- the movement of liquid within a hold due to vessels motion, can result in the structural damage to the ship and create an electrostatically charged mist in the

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ulage space above the cargo/ballast. Slack hold should be avoided wherever possible to eliminate sloshing. The distribution of weight with in the vessel must not result in longitudinal stress exceeding safe limts. 10.2.1.2 Venting Vent lines from a cargo hold may lead to either individual vent pipe or to a common gas vent line or to IG pipeline system. On these vessels, the movement of cargo in a hold may result in oil entering the vent line, thereby blocking the vent system. This should be checked when the vessel has experienced rough weather. Expansion of cargo to high ambient temperature may also cause cargo to enter the vent line. Drains fitted on vent line should be checked for blockage and cleared by blowing though. During carriage of dry bulk cargoes, the vent line from the holds should be sealed from the main gas venting system and alternate ventilating systems are to be used. Unused cargo spaces (e.g. wing/slop tanks) are to be maintained in gas free or inert condition.
Inert Gas System

Due to the large size of hatch openings the possibility of gas leakage is increased to a great extent on these vessels. Frequent topping up may be necessary to maintain IG pressure if leakages develop. During passage, hourly recording of IG pressure in tanks will be required to ensure that a vacuum does not develop in the tank, especially in cold weather conditions or at night. 10.2.1.3 Hatch Openings and Hatch covers As oil cargo loaded well above the deck level and up into the hatch coaming space, the seals and gaskets of tanks cleaning covers, access hatches and other deck opening in way of cargo oil holds will come under considerable pressure. The seals must be gastight and oil tight. All bolts should be securely fastened before loading oil cargo. To ensure full gas tight and oil tight integrity frequent inspection and even adjustment

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of securing bolts of hatch covers is very essential. Securing of hatch covers must be done in correct sequence in accordance with makers instructions. Hatch covers must be in pressure tested for gastightness at intervals not exceeding six months. Defects noted during carriage of oil cargo should be noted down for repairs to be carried out in sequence voyage. Additional sealing by means of tape may be necessary as a temporary measure. The gas tightness of hatch will dictate the frequency of topping up IG during the passage. The hatch covers move in a seaway and may cause rubbing between steel hatch cover and steel coaming. To ensure that this rubbing does not result in ignition, the joints between the hatch cover and coaming should be throughly cleaned before closing the hatch. Use of compressed air hose is recommended. It is useful to have some spare lengths of hatch packing material, specially corner and end pieces to enable emergency repairs to be carried out at sea. 10.2.1.4 Carriage of slops A OBO or OO, if possible, should discharge any oil in slop tanks ashore,and clean/gas free the slop tank,before loading bulk cargo.If,however,the slops are not discharged the following precautions should be taken: All slops must be collected in the slop tanks specially designed for this purpose. The contents and atmosphere of the slop tanks must be isolated by blank plates or other approved means of closure on all pipe lines and vents leading from or to the slop tank. The slop tank should be purged with IG and a positive IG pressure maintained within the tank at all times. Build up of electrostatic charge within the tank should be reduced by avoiding free fall of slops into the tank.

Oil slops are to be discharged if vessel is to be on dry cargo trade for more than one voyage,unless shore facilities are unavailable. 10.2.1.5 Tank Cleaning When cargoes other than oil are carried,all holds and tanks other than slop tanks are to be emptied of oil and oil residues, cleaned, ventilated and gas freed. All tanks, pump room, cargo pumps, pipelines, and void spaces should be checked to confirm that they are gas free. Most dry bulk ports will require a gas free certificate to be presented before loading.

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10.2.1.6 Void Spaces, Tunnels and Duct Keel Because of their constructional features, he ventilation in these spaces is likely to be inadequate and therefore deficient in oxygen. As they are close to cargo tanks, petroleum or inert gas is also likely to leak into these spaces. Entry into these spaces shall be made only with extreme care after complying fully with Managers procedures for entry into enclosed spaces. 10.2.1.7 Ballast Tanks Leakage of cargo gas into ballast tanks is likely, if cracks occur in weld seams of structural members within a tank. This is also possible if small holes caused by grabs used for discharging are left unnoticed prior loading of oil cargo. Careful inspection of weld seams of hoppers, longitudinal and stringer connections interlinking cargo and ballast tanks should be carried out at intervals not exceeding six months. 10.2.1.8 Cargo Change Over Check Lists Ship specific check lists are usually provided by the builders or developed by staff on board these vessels for ready reference when changing from oil to dry cargo and vice versa. As these check lists are made at the time the vessel was delivered, it is possible that operational or structural changes have taken place at a later date which requires additions to the check list. The Master and officers are to ensure that the check list reflects the actual situation and should add practical guidelines necessary for ensuring compliance with all updated safety procedures.

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11.0 APPENDIX 11.1 Definitions AERATION Presence of gases in a liquid cargo caused by fermentation, air entertainment during loading or compressed air blown to tanks to clear lines. ADDITIVES Any materials incorporated in finished products for the purpose of improving the performance in existing applications or broadening the areas of utility. Also referred to as addition agents or improvers.

. ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS Organic hydrocarbons compounds in which the carbon atoms are joined in open chains, as opposed to ring structures of aromatic or naphthenic compounds. Example : Ethane, propane, butane. Many of them are building blocks for petrochemicals. ALKYLATION A refinery process for chemically combining isoparaffin with olefin hydrocarbons. The product, alkylate, has octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the anti-knock value of the fuel. AMBENT TEMPERATURE The surrounding air and sea temperature at a place. ANTI-KNOCK COMPOUND Common parlance for the chemical mixture containing tetra-ethyl or tetramethyl lead as the knock inhibiting and ethylene dichloride and/or ethylene dibromide as scavengers of the lead products formed in combustion. Used as a knock suppressant in gasoline. ANTI-FOAM A special chemical anti-foam agent used to reduce foam (froth) in molasses caused by fermentation. Aids in draining and tripping tanks. A.P.I. American Petroleum Institute

A.P.I. GRAVITY An arbitrary scale adopted by the American Petroleum Institute for expressing the specific gravity as follows :API = 141.5 -131.5 Specific Gravity at 60F

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AROMATICS

A group of hydrocarbons, of which benzene is the parent. They are called aromatics because many of their derivatives have sweet aromatic odours. These hydrocarbons are of relatively high specific gravity and process good solvent properties. Certain aromatics have valuable antiknock characteristics. Typical aromatics are: benzene, toluene, xylene.

AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE The lowest temperature to which a solid, liquid or gas requires to be raised to cause self-sustained combustion without initiation by a spark or flame. AVIATION FUELS (AVGAS, AVTUR) Special blended grades of spirit suitable for use in aircraft engines. These fuels have high anti-knock ratings, high stability, high overall volatility and low freezing points. BARREL BLACK OILS A common unit of measurements of liquids in the petroleum industry; it equals 42 U.S. standard gallons or 35 Imperial gallons. A general term applied to the heavier and darker coloured petroleum products such as heavy diesel fuel, fuel oil and some cylinder stocks. It is used mainly in connection with shipping storage; a black oil tanker is one used for carrying black oils and which requires stringent cleaning before being used for white oils. The process of mixing two or more oil having different properties to obtain a products of intermediate properties. Lubricating oil stocks are blended to meet distillation and octane requirements. The temperature at which oil starts to boil or be converted into vapours by bubbles forming within its mass. Boiling point varies with atmospheric pressure. High-viscosity, fully refined, and dewaxed lubrication oil produced by the treatment of residual or cylinder stocks and used to compound motor oils.

BLENDING

BOILING POINT

BRIGHTSTOCKS

B.T.U. (BRITISH THERMAL UNITS) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water on degree Fahrenheit. Used in expressing the thermal value of heating oils. BUNKER C FUEL OIL

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A heavy residual fuel used by ships and industry and for large scale heating installations, similar in requirements to No 6 grade fuel oil. CALORIFIC VALUE The amount of heat obtainable by the complete combustion of a unit weight of fuel. It is normally expressed as Kilojoules per Kilogram, calories per gram or B.T.Us per pond. The higher or gross calorific value represents the total amount of heat of combustion. This total includes the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour produced by the combustion. CARAMELIZATION In the Molasses trade, means the conversion of sugars in the molasses to caramel due excessive or too rapid heating. CETANE NUMBER A means of expressing the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. It is the percentage by volume of cetane in a mixture of cetane and methyle naphtalene which has the same ignition quality when used in an engine as the fuel under test. CLEAN BALLAST TANKS (CBT) Certain of the ships cargo tanks that may be set aside temporarily for the carriage of water ballast with the aim of reducing marine pollution. According to MARPOLY clean ballast is the ballast in a tank which since oil was last carried therein, has been so cleaned that effluent from it, if discharged from a stationary ship into a calm sea on a clear day, would not produce traces of oil on the water surface or adjacent shorelines, or cause a sludge or emulsion to be similarly deposited. Ballast discharged through an oil discharged monitoring and control system whose oil content did not exceed 15 parts per million (ppm) would be classed as a clean, not withstanding the presence of visible traces. CLEAN OIL TANKERS Sometimes referred to as White Oil Tankers. This term is applied to ships employed in carrying refined products, namely aviation spirit, motor spirit, kerosines and some grades of gas oil. CO-MINGLE Ability to mix cargo grades/parcels. CONTAMINATION Oil cargo being put off specification by mixing with residues of previous cargo, or accidental mixing in pipelines or tanks with other grades.

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CRACKING

Process carried out in a refinery reactor in which large molecules in the charge stock are broken up into smaller, lower, boiling, stable hydro carbon molecules, which leave the vessel overhead as unfinished cracked gasoline, kerosines, and gas oil. At the same time, certain of the unstable or reactive molecules in the charge stock combine to form tar or coke bottoms. The cracking reaction may be carried out with heat and pressure (thermal cracking) or in the presence of a catalyst (catalytic cracking)

CRUDE OIL A naturally occurring mixture, consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons and sulphur, nitrogen, and/or oxygen derivatives of hydrocarbons, which is capable of being removed from the earth in a liquid state. Basic types of crude are asphaltic, napthenic, or paraffinic, depending on the relative proportion of these types of hydrocarbons present. CUTBACK Bitumen which has been rendered liquid by the addition of a suitable dilutant such as white spirit, kerosine or creosote. It is used as a means of incorporating bitumen with road-metal.

CYLINDER STOCK Dark colored residual lubrication oil of high viscosity used as the basis of steam cylinder oil. DENSITY Weight per unit volumes, expressed as grams per cubic centimetre for solids and liquids and usually as grams per litre of gases. A general term covering oils used as fuel in diesel and other compression engines. This term usually applies to fuels suitable for those engines of the industrial and marine type which have a low or medium rotational speed, and which are not so critical of fuel quality as are high speed engines. Fuels for the latter need special description e.g. High Speed Diesel Fuel, Automotive Gas Oil or DERV Fuel. DIRTY OIL TANKERS Sometimes referred to as Black Oil Tankers. This term is applied to ships employed in carrying crude oils, fuel and diesel oil and some grades or gas oil. ENTICHED CRUDE OIL Enriched crude oil (sometimes referred to as tailored, fortified or spiked crude) is crude oil to which petroleum gases or other hydrocarbon components have been added.

DIESEL FUEL

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FERMENTATION Process by which the cargo starts to ferment. Visual effect is an increase in cargo volume, sometimes dramatically. FLAMMABLE RANGE The limits of flammable (explosive) range, that is, the range between the minimum and maximum concentrations of hydrocarbon vapour in air which forms flammable (explosive) mixtures. Usually abbreviated to L.F.L.(Lower Flammable Limit) and U.F.L. (Upper Flammable Limit). These are synonymous with Lower explosive Limit (L.E.L.) and Upper Explosive Limit (U.E.L). FLASH POINT The lowest temperature at which vapours from an oil will ignite momentarily on application of a flame under standard test conditions. In the range of 32C to 66C, flash point is significant in determining safety conditions for the storage, handling and use of petroleum products. In general practice, the flash point of kerosine, solvents, and similar products flashing below 85C. is determined by the tap closed-cup method; fuel oils cutbacks asphalts by the Penksy-Martens closed cup method; lubrication oil and other oils flashing above 76.6C by the Cleveland open-cup method. FOAM A froth used for fire fighting.

FRACTIONATION A distillation process in which the distillate is collected as a number of separate fractions each having a different boiling range. FRACTIONS Refiners term for the products of oils containing a number of hydrocarbon compounds but within boiling ranges, separated from other portions in fractional distillation. They are distinguished from pure compounds which have specified boiling temperatures, not a range. FATTY ACID An organic acid derived from or contained in an animal or vegetable fat or oil FREE FATTY ACID A numerical value stating amount of fatty acid in an oil usually expressed as a percentage. FUEL OIL under blends of A general term applied to an oil used for the production of power or heat. In a more restricted sense it is applied to any petroleum product that is burnt boilers or in industrial furnaces. These oils are normally residues, but distillates and residues are also used as fuel oil.

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GAS FREE the test,

Gas means that a tank, compartment or container has been tested using an appropriate gas indicator and found to be sufficiently free, at the time of of toxic or explosive gases for a specified purpose.

GASOLINE the just many range GAS OIL in the denote

A refined petroleum distillate, with a distillate range between 30-200C. and suitable for use as fuel in a spark-ignite internal combustion engines. It is normal term used in the U.S.A. to denote motor spirit (motor gasoline or gas) and aviation spirit (aviation gasoline or Avgas) In the U.K. and other areas gasoline normally denotes a petroleum spirits of distillation between 30 - 100C. A fraction derived in refining petroleum with a boiling range between kerosine and lubricating oil. It derives its name from having originally been used manufacture of illuminating gas. The term gas oil is now used to distillate-type oil and diesel fuel. Gas oil can also be cracked to produce gasoline.

GAS VENT LINES The piping system fitted in a tanker to relieve the pressure or vacuum in cargo tanks. HYDROCARBONS Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. They form the principal constituents of petroleum. The simplest hydrocarbons are gases at ordinary temperatures, but with increasing molecular weight, they change to a liquid and, finally, solid fuel. HYDROCRACKING A process combining cracking, or pyrolysis, with hydrogenation. Feedstock can include crude oil, residues, petroleum tars, and asphalts. HYDROGENATION A refinery process in which hydrogen is added to the molecules of unsaturated (hydro-deficient) hydrocarbon factions. It plays an important part in the manufacture of high-octane blending stocks for aviation gasoline, also in the quality improvement of various petroleum products. HYDROLYSIS Decomposition by chemical reaction with water (vegetable and animal oils are very prone).

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INCENDIARY SPARK A spark of sufficient temperature and energy to ignite a flammable gas. INHIBITOR A substance the addition of which in a small amount in petroleum product, prevents or retards undesirable changes taking place in the quality of the product, or in the condition of the equipment in which the product in used. In general the essential function of inhibitors is to prevent or retard oxidation, corrosion, or polymerisation.

INTRINSICALLY SAFE A circuit or a part is intrinsically sage if any spark or thermal effect produced normally (that is, by breaking or closing the circuit) or accidentally (for example, by short circuit or earth fault) is incapable under prescribed test conditions of causing ignition of a proscribed gas or vapour. In practice, intrinsically safe apparatus is constructed so that, under normal operating conditions, any electrical sparking in the equipment or its associated circuit will be incapable of igniting flammable petroleum vapour. JET FUEL KEROSINE Kerosine-type fuels or blends of gasoline, distillate and residual oils which are used as fuels for gas turbine-powered aircraft. A refined petroleum distillate intermediate in volatility between gasoline and gas oil. Its distillation range generally falls within the limits of 150-300 C. Its main uses are as an illuminant, for heating purposes and as a fuel for certain types of internal combustion engines.

LEADED GASOLINE The leading of gasoline involves the addition of a volatile lead compound known as tetra-ethyl lead or, in a more modern form, tetra-methyl lead. The lead compound is added in the form of ethyl or methyl fluid is small proportions; this results in the improvement of then anti-knock quality or octane number of the gasoline. Ethyl fluid is composed of the tetra-ethyl lead, a dye (to indicate its poisonous nature) and compounds of bromide and chlorine. The blending of this poisonous lead compound with gasoline requires the greatest care as well as the use of special equipment. The regulation governing lead content of gasoline are becoming increasingly stringent in an effort to reduce environmental pollution. LOADING OVERALL Loading through hatches or other deck openings by means of portable open ended pipes or hoses. LIGHT DISTILLATE

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A term lacking precise meaning but commonly applied to distillates whose final boiling point not exceed 300C. LUBRICATING OILS A lubricating oil is any oil which is employed for lubricating purposes. It may consist of either petroleum or fatty oils, or a mixture of these two, possibly with some additives. A motor oil is a refined lubricating oil, with or without additives, suitable as a lubricant in internal combustion engines. It may be a petroleum distillate oil blended with a well-refined lubricating oil of high viscosity, this latter oil being known as Brightstock. MANIFOLD VALVES Valves in the tankers piping systems immediately adjacent to the ship/shore connecting flanges. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS (M.A.C.)- see Threshold Limit value. MIDDLE DISTILLATE One of the distillates obtained between kerosine and lubricating oil fractions in the refining processes. These include light fuel oils and diesel fuel (see Gas Oil). MOTOR SPIRIT A British term used to indicate a fuel for spark-ignited internal combustion engines, having an approximate distillate range of 30 C to 200 C. Equivalent terms are gasoline, petrol and motor fuel NAPHTHA A cut covering the end of the motor spirit and beginning of the kerosine range and frequently used as a feedstock for reforming processes. It is also-known as heavy benzene or heavy gasoline.

NATURAL GASOLINE A low-boiling liquid petroleum product extracted from natural gas. In its wild or unstabilised condition it contains fairly high proportions of propane and butane. The propane and part of the butane are removed by certain process, yielding a stabilized gasoline suitable for blending with other gasoline. Natural gasoline is sometimes referred to as Casinghead gasoline. NON-VOLATILE PETROLEUM Petroleum having a flash point of 60 C or above, as determined by the closed cup method of test. This is considered equal to a flash point of 66C or above, as determined by the open cup method of test.

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OLEFINS Some

A class of unsaturated (hydrogen deficient) paraffin hydrocarbons recovered from petroleum, of which butane ethylene and propylene are examples. are primary petrochemicals.

OXIDATION This originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance. The usage has now been broadened to include any reaction in which there is a transfer of electrons. PARAFFIN-BASE CRUDE A type of crude oil containing predominantly paraffin hydrocarbon as distinguished from asphaltic and naphtenic-base crudes. It is a source of high quality lubricating oils. PETROLEUM Crude oil and its products. PETROLEUM GAS A gas evolved form petroleum, mainly hydrocarbons, but may contain hydrogen sulphide or lead alkyl. POLYMERISATION A chemical reaction, usually carried out with a catalyst (heat, light) and often under high pressure, in which a large number of relatively simple molecules combine to form a chain-like macromolecule. POUR POINT The lowest temperature at which an oil will pour or flow when chilled, without disturbance, under prescribed conditions. POWER KEROSINE A volatile kerosine with distillation limits essentially between 150C and 260C and of good anti-knock value. It is used as a fuel for some spark-ignited engines, e.g. Tractors, and is alternatively known as vaporising oil. PREASURE/VACUUM VALVE Sometimes referred to as p/v valve or breather valve. A dual purpose valve commonly incorporated in the cargo tank venting system of tankers,. the operation of which, when appropriately set, automatically prevents excessive pressure or vacuum in the tanks concerned. On a tanker such a valve may be either manually jacked open or by-passed when the vent system much handle large gas flows during loading or gas freeing. PYROPHORIC OXIDATION The formation of iron sulphide from iron oxide (rust) in a Hydrogen Sulphide

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rich atmosphere. Formed only in a low oxygen atmosphere (for example, an Inerted Tank.) When the iron sulphide is subsequently exposed to air it is oxidized back to iron oxide producing either free sulphur or sulphur dioxide gas. This process can be accompanied by considerable heat and individual particles can become incandescent. This can ignite a flammable atmosphere. RANCIDITY Chemical change in animal/vegetable oils due to presence of oxygen. REFINING catalytic REFORMING The mild thermal cracking of naphtha to obtain more volatile products, such as olefins, of higher octane values; or catalytic conversion of naphtha components to produce high octane aromatic compounds. REID VAPOUR PRESSURE (R.V.P.) The vapour pressure of a liquid determined by laboratory testing in a standard manner in the Reid Apparatus at a standard temperature of 100F. (37.8C), expressed in ponds per square inch absolute and commonly written R.V.P.......Ibs. RESIDUAL FUEL OILS Topped crude petroleum or viscous residues obtained in refinery operations Commercial grade of burning fuel oil Nos.5 and 6 are residual oils as are bunker fuels. SAPONIFICATION (Saponify) The conversion of fats in vegetable and animal oils to soap through heating. SCALE SEDIMENT Deposit or encrustation which may form on metal as a result of electrolytic chemical action. Solid matter that settle from such liquids as water, petroleum and animals/vegetable oils in cargo/storage tanks. The separation of crude petroleum into its component parts and the subsequent manufacture of finished commercial products by distillation, thermal or cracking processes using chemicals, and treating.

SEGREGATION Cargo separation required when loading multi-grades, to utilize to maximum extent the vessels pipeline and valve system allowing simultaneous loading/discharge of two or more grades.

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SEGREATED BALLAST TANKS Various tanks within the ships cargo-carrying space permanently set aside for the carriage of water ballast. Piping and valve systems are segregated from those of the cargo tanks to avoid contamination and to reduce the threat of marine pollution. S.B.Ts may be defensively placed amongst the cargo tanks to reduce the possibility of cargo spillage in the event of collision or grounding. Double bottoms are extensively used as segregated ballast tanks in dedicated chemical tankers. Double hull tankers are increasingly replacing single hull tankers. SOLVENT SLOPS SLUDGE A substance, usually a liquid, capable of absorbing another liquid, gas or solid to form a homogenous mixture. A mixture of petroleum, water and sediment. A slop tank is a tank designated for the collection of tank draining, tank washing and other oily mixtures. Deposits in cargo tanks, which may contain petroleum and wax, also sand, scale and other foreign matter.

SOLVENT REFINING The process of mixing a petroleum stock with selected solvent, which preferentially dissolves undesired constituents, separating the resulting two layers, and recovering the solvent from the raffinate(the purified fraction) and from the extract by distillation. SOLIDIFICATION POINT The temperature at which an oil becomes solid. SPECIAL BOILING POINT SPIRIT A petroleum solvent fractionally distilled to specially selected distillation characteristics. Such distillates are normally manufactured from well-refined straight run naphtha. The various volatilities are designed to enable a suitable grade to be chosen for any particular industrial purpose. SPECIFIC GRAVITY The ratio of the weight of a given volume of a body to the weight of an equal volume of some standard substance. In the case of oil, the standard is distilled water. The specific gravity of oils can be determined with a hydrometer. SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION The ignition of material brought about by heat producing chemical reaction within the material itself without exposure to an external source of ignition.

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STATIC ELECTRICITY The electrification of dissimilar materials through physical contact and separation. STRAIGHT-RUN PRODUCTS Gasolines, naptha, or other products obtained directly from the distillation of crude or other straight-run charge stocks without cracking. STRIPPING The final operation in pumping bulk liquids from tank or pipeline.

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE The highest concentration of a harmful substance in air to which it is believed a person may be exposed for eight hours per day for an indefinite period without danger to health. TOPPING OFF The operation of completing the loading of a tank to a required ullage. TOPPING PLANT An oil refinery designed to remove and finish only the lighter constituents of the crude oil, such as gasoline and kerosene. In such a plant the oil remaining after these products are taken off is usually sold as crude oil. TOXIC/TOXICITY Poisonous. The ability of a substance to cause damage to living tissue, damage to the central nervous system, severe illness, or in extreme cases death. ULLAGE The depth of free space left in a tank above the liquid.

VACCUM DISTILLATION Distillation under reduced pressure, which reduces the boiling temperatures of the material being distilled sufficiently to prevent decomposition or cracking. See Distillation. VAPOUR PRESSURE The pressure exerted by the vapour escaping from a liquid. As the temperature of a liquid rises its vapour pressure rises, eventually it exceeds the pressure of the confining atmosphere and the liquid boils. In the petroleum industry vapour pressures are usually reported as Reid Vapour Pressure. VAPORISATION Process in which a liquid changes to a vapour. Greatly affected by temperature.

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VISCOSITY

The measure of the internal friction or resistance of an oil to flow. As the temperature of a fluid is increased its viscosity decreases and it therefore flows more readily.

VISCOSITY INDEX An arbitrary number used to characterize the rate at which the viscosity of lubricating oil changes with changing temperature. Oils of high V.I. exhibit relatively small change of viscosity with changing temperature and vice versa. VOLATILE PETROLEUM Petroleum having a flash point below 60C (140F) as determined by the closed cup method of test. This is considered equal to a flash point below 60C(150F) as determined by the open method of test. VOLATILITY The ease with which a produce begins to vaporize. Volatile substances have relatively high vapour pressures and therefore boil at relatively low temperatures. WATER FOG Very fine droplets of water generally delivered at a high pressure through a fine nozzle. WATER SPRAY Water divided into drops by delivery through a special nozzle. WAX A term used loosely for any group of substances resembling bees wax in appearance and character and, in general, distinguished by their composition of esters of the higher alcohols and by their freedom from fatty acids. Mineral waxes include ozocerite and paraffin and microcrystalline wax, the latter two being petroleum waxes. WHITE SPIRIT A refine distillate intermediate in the distillation range between gasoline and kerosene, i.e with a distillation range of about 150 - 200C. It is used as a paint thinner and for dry cleaning etc. The term mineral turpentine or turpentine substitute is sometimes used for white spirit, but is not recommended, owing to possible confusion with gum turpentine. In the U.S the term petroleum spirits is used for white spirit.