You are on page 1of 15

PII: SOO45-7949(96)00264-7

Compurrrs c4 Strucrures Vol. 62. No. 4. PP. 699-713. 1997 Copyright 8 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Bruin. All rights reserved 0045-7949/97 $17.00 + 0.00

ON THE USE OF CHARACTERISTIC ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS IN THE FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF RECTANGULAR ANISOTROPIC PLATES WITH MIXED BOUNDARIES AND CONCENTRATED MASSES
T.-P. Changt and M.-H. Wu
Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China (Received 17 May 1995) this paper, the free vibration analysis of mass-loaded rectangular composite laminates plate with mixed boundaries was performed by using the orthogonal polynomial functions and Ritz method. We developed the subdomain method to derive the governing eigenvalue equation. In the solution process, we used the subdomain weighted residual to satisfy the compatibility at the interconnect boundaries for two adjacent subdomain and carry out continuity matrices, then we adopted the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process to find the orthogonal functions set which satisfy the simply subdomain boundary condition. Finally, we used the continuous matrices to develop the global energy functional and applied the Ritz method to obtain the governing eigenvalue equation. By solving the governing eigenvalue equation, we can obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the composite laminates. Furthermore, we also investigated the effects of mixed edge ratio, ply orientation and concentrated masses on the free vibration of the rectangular symmetric composite laminates. Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Abstract-In

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, orthogonal polynomials have been widely used in solving the problem of the free vibration of plates. The following researchers have already contributed to the development of this field: in 198 1, Narita (11applied a series-type method to the free vibration of an orthotropic rectangular plate with mixed boundary conditions; in 1983, Fan and Cheung [2] used the spline finite strip method to study the flexural free vi bration response of thin rectangular plates with complex support condition. Moreover, some researchers [3-l 11 used characteristic polynomials and applied Rayleighs method to solve the natural frequencies and mode shapes of elliptical, circular, trapezoidal cantilever, rectangular plates, etc. More recently, the method of orthogonal polynomials and the Ritz method were extended to anisotropic plates and composite laminates. In 1989, Liew et al. [l2] used the orthogonal polynomial function, whch was developed by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process, and adopted the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure to solve flexural vibration of triangular composite plates. In 1992, Chow et al. [I31
t To whom correspondence should be addressed.

used the Rayleigh-Ritz method with the twodimensional orthogonal polynomials to derive the transverse vibration of symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates. In 1993, Liew et al. [ 141 used the method which decomposed a plate with mixed edges into a subdomain of simple boundary conditions to solve the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the anisotropic plates. In the present study, we used the above methods to solve the free vibration of the composite laminate with mixed boundaries and concentrated masses. We investigated the effects of the fiber orientation, mixed edge ratio and the concentrated masses on the free vibration of these symmetric composite laminates.
2. EQUATION OF

MOTION

In most practical applications of thin plates the magnitude of the stresses acting on surface parallel to the middle plane is small compared to the bending and membrane stresses. Since the plate is thin, this implies that the tractions on any surface parallel to the midplane are relative small. In particular, an approximate state of plane stress exists. A standard x, y, z coordinate system, as shown in Fig. I, is used to derive the equation of motion of the anisotropic laminate plate. The displacements in the _v,y, z

699

T.-P. Chang and M.-H. Wu


Q66 = (Q,, - 2Q12 +

Qu - 2Qdc2s2
(3) and

+ Q& + c4),
in which s=sinO, c=cosO
Qu =

QII=&,

___ 1 - VIZV21
v,2E, = v12E2. (4)

v12E2

Fig. 1. Coordinate system of anisotropic laminates.

Q22 =

&

Qtic= G,2,

directions are denoted by u, u, w respectively. For the composite laminates, the following relations are defined between the stress and moment resultants and the stains and curvatures. A,,
.421

Using the equation of equilibrium and eqn (I), and considering the symmetrical composite laminates, the following equation can be derived:

Au
A22

,416 BI,
A2a BZI

B,2

BM

adw
DI 1G

+ 4016 d4W dx,dy + 2(D,2 + 20%) $&

822 B26 Be.2 B, 012 Dm D2a

Au ----B,, &I

&I ----B12 BL6 D,, A.52 AM B22 Bx

$-4&h $$

+ D22$

= q(x, y).

(5)

D21 022

861 Be2 866 D*,

Db2 De,

Including the dynamic effect and considering the plate without the applied normal loading, the free transverse vibration of a symmetrical anisotropic plate with several concentrated masses is governed by the following equation:

(1)

D 3

1ax4

4D

,6

a410

Wi2 + 2&d

a4w ax*ay2

where

(At,, Bu, D;i) =

s
b,2

ph +

c m,6(x
,=I

[
i,j= 1,2,6.
(2)

a,Fv_Y - BJ 1

Q$(1,t,z2)dz - /I,2

x at=0

ah

(6)

Qti = (Q,, - Q,2 - 2Q&s


+ (Q12 01, = Q,d Q22 + 2Q&*c,

+ 2(Q,2 + 2Qds2c2 + Q22s4,

where p is the density of the plate, m denotes the concentration mass, (a, /I) is the location of the concentrated mass and NM is the total number of the concentrated masses. The undamped natural free vibration is harmonic and thus the displacement is of the following form:

@12= (QII + Q22- 4Q&*c2 + Q,2(s + c), t722 = Qus + 2(Qi2 + 2Qds2c2 + Q22c4, 0~ = (Qll Q,2 - 2~4~3~ Q22 + 2Qds3c, 2Qds3c

+ (Q12 026= (Q,, -

Q,2 -

+ (Q12 -

Q22 + 2Q&3s,

Fig. 2. Geometry of ply laminates with boundaries and concentrated masses.

Characteristic orthogonal polynomials

701

Fig. 3. Interconnected subdomain of anisotropic laminates.

Fig. 4. A laminate plate with mixed (simply supported and clamped) boundaries (S-SC-SCS).

w(x, y, t) = W(x, y)sin(wf)

(7)

W = 0 $y

= 0

(for a clamped

boundary)

where o denotes the free vibrational natural frequency of the plate. Therefore, the equilibrium condition for the symmetrical anisotropic composite laminated plate can be written as: cy

W = 0 $$

= 0

(for a simply-supported

edge)

= 0 $7

= 0

(for a free edge)

(10)

where s is the outward

normal

along the boundary.

3. ORTHOGONAL

POLYNOMIALS

+4D

cwa2w+4D

26ay2 axay

In this paper, the beam characteristic shapes 4.,(x) and $.(y) in eqn (9), are sets of orthogonal polynomials which are selected to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions of the plate. Some basic properties of these orthogonal polynomials are described briefly as follows. Given a polynomial &(x), an orthogonal set polynomials in the interval a < x < b can be generated by using Gram-Schmidt process as follows:

x 6(y - B,) W

=:

I>

dx dy

#I(.~) = (x - BlM4X),
(p(X) = (x - B,)#b- I(X) - C,#i- z(x)

(11)

stationary

value.

(8)
B, =

To set up the governing eigenvalue equation for eqn (8), we assume the solution as the form of a series of products of bea.m characteristic shapes

h xg(x)q%;_ ,(x) dx
xg(xM

g(x)+;-

0)

dx,

c, =

s
h

- I(X)+, - Ax)

dx

g(x)$;_ z(x) dx, (12)

,I

where 4.,(x) and v.(y) are the characteristic shapes of free vibration satisfying a set of the following boundary conditions on each end:

where g(x) is the weighting function and the polynomials 4,(x) satisfy the following orthogonality condition,

Table I. Layer material properties for composite laminate plates Materials E-glass-epoxy
E,/Ez Gl?lEZ VI2 P (kg m-7 h (ml

2.45

0.48

0.23

72.0

0.05

702

T.-P. Chang and M.-H. Wu

Fig. 5. A laminate plate with mixed (simply supported and clamped) boundaries (C-G-C-SC).

Fig. 7. A laminate plate with mixed (simply supported and clamped) boundaries (C-CSC-C-CSC). -

s
h

and applying the boundary conditions (15) gives the deflection shape as dx = i,, if; f ; (13) X(x) = A4[(3a%2 - a3 - br) + (a + b3 - 3a26 the weight function is - 3&)x + 6&x2 - 2(a + b)x + x]. (17) Let a = 0 and b = 1, then eqn (17) becomes:

g(x)&(x)+/(x)

In the present application, chosen as unity, that is,

s
0

c/$(x) dx = 1.

(14)

X(x) = J&(X - 2x3 + x4), where Aq is an arbitrary constant. mode function is obtained as

(18)

The normalized

Construction of the first member &(x) is carried out so as to satisfy all the boundary conditions of the beam problems accompanying the plate problem. In the present paper, laminates having a variety of boundary conditions are considered. The complicated composite laminates domain is to be cut into several small subdomains with same edges for simple boundary conditions as described in eqn (10). We used fourth or fifth order polynomials as starting terms, the coefficients of the polynomial being chosen to satisfy the equivalent beam end conditions. The first polynomial in the orthogonal set of polynomials is constructed so as to satisfy at least the boundary conditions of the subdomain, both geometric and natural. The method is described below. 3.1. Plate with opposite edges simply supported (S-S) Both of the beam problems boundary conditions, namely
X(a) = x(a)

9.(x)=(x-2x3+x4)~(~x(x)dx)1.2.

(19)

3.2.

Plate with opposite edges clamped (C-C)

Both of accompanying beam problems have the same boundary conditions, namely
X(a) = r(a) = X(b) = x(6) = 0.

(20)

Assuming the beam deflection as


X(x) = Ao + A,x + A*X2 + A3x3 + /44X4

(21)

and applying the boundary conditions (21) gives the deflection shape as
X(x) = AJaW - 2ab(a + b)x + (a + 4ab + b2)X2- 2(n + b)x + x4]. (22)

have the same

= X(b) = X(b) = 0.

(15)

Let a = 0 and b = 1, then eqn (22) becomes: Assuming the beam deflection as X(x) =
X(x) = Ao + A,x + AIX + A3x3 + A4x4 (16)
A4(X2 -

2x + x4),

(23)

where A4 is an arbitrary constant. mode function is obtained as

The normalized

S I I I I I j s I I e&(x) = (x2 -2x+ x4)/(d X(x)dx)112. (24)

Fig. 6. A laminate plate with mixed (simply supported and clamped) boundaries (S-SCS-S-SCS).

It might be convenient, at this point, to introduce the terminology to be used throughout the remainder of the paper for describing the boundary conditions of the laminates considered. The types of laminates

Characteristic orthogonal polynomials Table 2. Frequency parameter i, = (~~wW/D#~ of four-layer laminates (0/-0/-13/f?) with S-S-S-S boundary conditions Al,gorithm
Liew et al. [14] Leissa el nl. [22] Chow et 01. [13] Present method Leissa et uf. [22] Chow et al. [I31 Present method

703

1
15.19 15.19 15.19 15.19 16.29 16.29 16.28

Number of mode 3 4

5
64.53 64.53 64.55 64.54 77.56 77.56 77.52

6
90.30 90.21 90.31 90.26 79.60 79.60 79.56

e = 0
33.30 33.30 33.31 33.29 37.71 37.71 37.68 44.42 44.42 44.52 44.44 60.78 60.77 60.78 60.76 63.29 63.29 63.23

e = 450
41.63 41.63 41.60

considered in the present work are S-S and C-C. The starting functions used in this study are as follows: S-S c-c X(x) = C,(x - 2x3 + x4) X(x) = &(x2 - 2x + x);

C, is an arbitrary constant. 4. METHODOF ANALYSIS The Gram-Schmid method which generated orthogonal polynomials in conjunction with Rayleigh-Ritz method had been used for the study of free vibration of isotopic rectangular plates. This technique will be adopted to perform the free vibration of rectangular composite laminates with several concentrated masses. It is assumed that the plate lies in the x - y plate, is bounded by x = 0, a and y = 0, b, is of uniform thickness, rectangularly composite laminates material. For the free vibration of the laminates, the deflection w may be represented
by the expression w(x, y, t) = W(x, y)sin wt

conditions of the laminates, w is the radian natural frequency by vibration and t is the time. In the present study, the technique developed by Liew et al. [14] was adopted to establish the governing eigenvalue equation for composite Iaminates wth partial mixed discontinuous edges. The complex composite laminates domain to be cut into small subdomains with same edges for simple boundary conditions, as shown in Fig. 3. The displacement W of each subdomain is chosen to satisfy the boundary conditions of the subdomain

FW(x, v) = 1 ~4$#$(x)lj/i(y) i n and Wi(X, y) = 1 c A;#$;:: (x)$i: (y), n, n

(26)

(27)

where t = 2,3, . . . , h4, and M, is the total number of subdomains. Consider the two connected subdomains, the displacement function Wmust have the same 4(x) or $b) corresponding the same boundary condition in the s- or y-direction, i.e. &:(.u) = $,;:-l(x); or m = 1,2, 3.. ,M (28)

= C C A,,,,&,(x)+,(v) sin it ,I$ ,I

(25)

where 4,,,(x), Ii/,,(v) are appropriate polynomial functions satisfying at least the geometric boundary

r,@(y) = I&-~(v);

n = 1,2,3..
with C-C-C-C

, N.

(29)

Table 3. Frequency parameter /1 = (phwW/Do)~of four-layer laminates (t?/-fl-e/e) boundary conditions Algorithm Liew ef ai. 1141 Chow et al. [13] Present method Chow et aI. [13] Present method

1
29.10 29.13 29.12 28.53 28.53

Number of mode 3
8=0

4 85.68 85.67 85.69 85.25 85.29

5 87.14 87.14 87.17 102.6 102.6

6 118.6 118.6 118.6 105.2 105.2

50.83 50.82 50.84 55.56 55.58

67.29 67.29 67.34

0 = 45
60.22 60.24

704

T.-P. Chang and M.-H. Wu


Table 4. Frequency parameter I = (pho*a4/D#* of four-layer S-SC-SCS boundary condrtions 2
d=O

laminates

(O/~/O/O) with

Algorithm Liew et al. [14] Present method Ltew et al. [14] Present method Liew et al. [14] Present method

1 20.43 20.43 18.74 18.67 15.19 15.19

Number of mode 3 4 47.03 47.05


d= 0.5

5 83.71 83.74 74.22 74.00 64.53 64.54

6 95.28 95.36 94.45 94.51 90.30 90.26

45.68 45.68 40.66 40.55 33.30 33.29

69.52 69.50 65.52 65.51 60.78 60.76

45.64 45.66
d= 1.0

44.42 44.44

Because the interconnecting boundary is continuous, the deflection, slope and higher derivatives of the WI and WI - If must be equal to the exact solution. Therefore, the following expression is defined by using the weighted residual method. R = L[ WI: _ WC - I (30) where i=l,2,3 ,..., Ie; t=2,3,4 ,..., M,; r=l, 2,3, . , N - 1 and s = x or s = y depending on the direction of connecting boundary. The deflections W of each subdomain have been defined by eqns (26) and (27). A set of continuity matrices for the eigenvectors A, of the adjacent subdomains can be obtained from the above method of subdomain weighted residual. The derivation process is described here with for subdomains 1 and 2. These two subdomains have the same &(x) for the same boundary condition in the x-direction, i.e. @I = &f(x); form = 1,2, 3,. . . , M. (35)

where L is a linear differential operator which denotes the nth partial derivative of the function inside the bracket with respect to x or y. Now, we will divide the interconnecting boundary into I subdomains then we use the method of subdomain weighted residual to integrate the residual R over each subdomain.

s
0 therefore
0

Rds=O;

i=

1,2,3 ,...,

I,

(31)

Also we know
,gJf#l~(x)$~(y)

WI<: _

w:-

1:)

ds = 0,

(32)

Wll(x,

y)

11

n, n

(36)

as SC
>,_,
Table

dwl:

--

awl--II

ds=O

as>
parameter

(33) (37)

5. Frequency

,I = (phc~*a~/D~)~of four-layer SSCS-SSCS boundary conditions 2


d=O

laminates

(0/00/00/00) with

Algorithm Liew et al. [14] Present method Liew et al. [14] Present method Liew et al. [14] Present method

1 15.19 15.19 20.11 20.12 20.43 20.43

Number of mode 3 4 44.42 44.44


d = 0.5

5 64.53 64.54 81.67 81.79 83.71 83.74

6 90.30 90.26 94.65 94.75 95.28 95.36

33.30 33.29 44.72 44.79


d=

60.78 60.76 67.02 67.17 69.52 69.50

46.36 46.41
1.0

45.68 45.68

47.03 47.05

Characteristic orthogonal polynomials Table 6. Freqeuncy parameters I = (uAr4/D~)~* of four-layer laminates for case 4 (C-CSC-C-CSC) Number of mode
M/phab 0.0 0 (0/00/00/00) (lS/ -45/ -45/45) (0/90/90/00) (~/OO/OO/oy (4s0/- 45/ - 45/45) (0/90/90/00) (oO/oO/o~/oq (45=/-45/-45/45) (0/90/90/00) (0/00/00/00) (45/-45/-45/45) (0/90/90/00) (~/0/0/00) (uO/-45/ -45/45) (0/90/90/00) (W/OO/OO/OO) (45O/ - 45/ - 45/45) (0/90/90/00) 1 13.91 12.90 13.67 7.662 7.420 7.663 5.671 5.481 5.627 4.639 4.537 4.650 4.040 3.956 4.051 3.626 3.552 3.636 2 22.24 24.32 22.86 15.97 15.89 15.88 15.72 15.47 15.59 15.65 15.35 15.51 15.61 15.29 15.47 15.59 15.25 15.45 3 35.04 30.22 34.00 25.73 25.17 26.04 25.53 25.14 25.87 25.47 25.13 25.82 25.44 25.12 25.79 25.42 25.12 25.77 4 37.96 40.89 40.10 36.49 35.76 36.21 36.47 35.62 36.16 36.46 35.57 36.14 36.46 35.55 36.14 36.46 35.53 36.13 5 43.41 46.37 43.14 39.26 42.40 40.63 39.24 42.36 40.62 39.23 42.35 40.62 39.22 42.35 40.62 39.22 42.34 40.62 6 58.71 54.70 59.93 52.13 49.54 52.28 52.01 49.50 52.15 51.98 49.48 52.11 51.96 49.48 52.09 51.95 49.47 52.08

705 with concentrated mass

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Substituting eqns (36) (37) into eqns (32), (33) and (34), we can obtain the following equations:

From eqns (38)-(41), derived readily:

the following

equations

can be

+ H&k;

= 0,

(42)

agli __+&!!@+...+@! + . . + H !?i!k= 0 Max t

(43)

(39)

_
Now if we define

Azi

w:;(x)

t,+;(y) 3

dy = 0.

(40)

Fig. 8. Frequency parameter A of case 1 (S-SC-S-CS) without concentrated mass for various simply supported
mixed ratio.
CAS 6214-D

706

T.-P. Chang

and M.-H.

Wu

Fig. 9. Frequency parameter 1 of case 2 (C-CS-C-SC) without concentrated mass for vartous clamped mtxed ratio.

Fig. Il. without

Frequency parameter I of case 4 (C-CSC-C-CSC) concentrated mass for various stmply supported mixed ratio.

In order to satisfy eqns (42)<44) simultaneously, all the terms H,,, must be equal to zero. Therefore H, = HZ = Now if we denote

[p] =
Therefore, form:

[@;I-[Gl].

(49) has the following

. = HM = 0.

(45)

the continuity

matrix

If; gm -

s
1,

tii (Y) dy
a matrix of

(46)

[pl:] =

I/- I

where t = 1, 2 we following form:

can

obtain

the

. I
[PI [PI [PI
{,$21} = [pl2l]{,$I}.

(50)

[PI

Eventually we can obtain the continuity subdomains 1 and 2 as follows:

matrix

of

(51)

The elements of the matrix [G], 4,:; can be calculated from the following integration: From eqn (45), we know

or and define the submatrix [PI,

Fig. 10. Frequency parameter I of case 3 (S-SCS-S-SCS) without concentrated mass for various clamped mixed ratio.

Fig. 12. Frequency parameter 1 of case I (S-SC-SCS) concentrated mass for various simply supported ratio.

with mixed

Characteristic orthogonal polynomials

707

Fig 13. Frequency parameter i of case 2 (C-CS-CSC) with concentrated mass for various clamped mixed ratio.

g,.

I(

? , s
?I -I

Fig. 15. Frequency parameter /I of case 4 (C-CSC-C-CSC) with concentrated mass for various simply supported mixed ratio.
!a2

$i(y) dy.

(53)

T:)

ph + y
,=I

mJ(x -

51)

From the above process, the derivation of the continuity matrix can be easily generalized to three or more subdomains for two interconnecting boundaries. Now we are ready to derive the eigenvalue equation by using the continuity matrix. Let the strain energy W and the kinetic energy TiCi for a rectangular subdomain be expressed as follows:

x SOJ - ni) Wdx >

dy.

(55)

Substituting eqns (26) or (27) into eqns (54) and (55) yields:

Vi: = c c 1 1 A&;, mn I,

+20

a*wa*w I 2 ax* ay*

22 ay2

( >
26ay* axay
Ea*w
(54)

a*w 2

+40

d2Wa*w+4D I6ax* axay

dx dy

and

Fig. 14. Frequency parameter I of case 3 (S-SCS-SSCS) with concentrated mass for various clamped mixed ratio.

Fig. 16. Frequency parameter ,I of case 1 (S-SC-S-G) concentrated mass at point (0.25,0.25).

with

T.-P. Chang and M.-H. Wu

Frg. 17. Frequency parameter 1 of case 1 (S-SC-S-CS) with concentrated mass at point (0.5,0.5).

Frg. 19. Frequency parameter ibf case I (S-SC-SCS), with concentrated mass located along the y-axts (5 = 0.5).

(56)

in which r, s = 0, 1, 2. Substituting into eqns (56) and (57) yields:

eqns (58) and (59)

and

p: =

s
R

{AJT[K:f]{A)

dR

(60)

TEci =

s
R

{A}T[M~~]{,4} dR

(61)

[~.,(5)~,(5)11/.(11)~,(~)1 d5 drl

where (57) K,\:i, = $- {DI I.%I$ + y4DzeF:; 0 at + Y~DIz(G%?; + E:ljti;)

where 5 = x/a, q = y/b and mk are some masses points (&, Q). Now denote EL;,, FL; as follows:

and and

+ 4yD&!,F!; )

(62)

(63) where m,i=1,2,3 ,_.., M, n,j=1,2,3 ,..., N and Do = E,h/[12(1 - v,~v~,)], 7 = b/a. Now, we transform [K::] and [MC] for subdomain {t) using continuity matrix [Pfl] of eqn (50), we can then derive the following expression:
[RkI] = [SII:][KIG][$I]

(64)

and Fig. 18. Frequency parameter I of case 1 (S-SC-S-CS), with concentrated mass located along the x-axis (q = 0.5). (65)

Characteristic orthogonal polynomials

709 T = T + 3 Tk!, <=*

where

(70)

(66)

The total energy functional can be expressed as the difference between the total strain energy and kinetic energy as follows: C=V-T.

Using eqns (64), (65) and (66) with eqns (60) and (61) the strain energy I/i! and kinetic energy TLC; for each subdomain can be written as follows:

iv

The total energy functional is minimized with respect to the coefficients A,!,, i.e.

=--O. &,t$ and

, , ,.. 2 mn=123 3

(72)

pi =

s
A rer

This leads to the governing eigenvalue equation for the entire composite laminate plate domain:
dA.

{~Vi}T[,@~](~N}

(68)

(WI - WWkn~,:) = IO),


where the parameter 1 is defined as

(73)

Then the total strain energy, V, and total kinetic energy, T, of the entire composite laminate plate can be obtained as follows:

(74) (69)

and the final matrices [K] and [M] are given by

X = 42.35

Mode

Mode

Mode 3 Fig. 20. The first six mode shapes of case 2 (45/-45/-45/45)

Mode 0
without concentrated mass.

T.-P. Chang and M.-H. Wu

A = Mode 1

35.21

x = 17.41
Mode 2 Mode 5

A = 45.21

X = 27.38
Mode 3
of case 2 (45/ -45/-45/45)

Jt = 51.76
Mode G
mass. with concentrated

Fig. 21. The first six mode shapes

[K]

[KX]

[p]

r=2 and

(75)

[M]

= [MI:]

2 [&::I.
<=*

(76)

So the natural frequencies and coefficients for the deflection mode shapes [eqns (26) and (27)] are obtained by solving the governing eigenvalue equation (73).

5. NUMERICAL

EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSIONS

(1) The boundary condition, as shown in Fig. 4, with two opposite edges simply supported and the other two edges supported mixed with clamped (S-CS-S-SC). (2) The boundary condition, as shown in Fig. 5, with two opposite edges clamped and the other two edges clamped mixed with simply supported (C-SCc-CS). (3) The boundary condition, as shown in Fig. 6, with two opposite edges simply supported and the other two edges simply supported mixed with clamped in the center (SSCS-S-SCS). (4) The boundary condition, as shown in Fig. 7, with two opposite edges clamped and the other clamped mixed with simply supported in the center (CCSC-c-CSC). For simplicity, we chose the length-width ratio y = 1.0 and considered the ply angle (0/0/e/0) for three different cases (O/Oo/Oo/O~), (45/ -45/45/ 45), (0/90/90/0), and adopted four ply laminates composite plate. To prove the validity of the proposed method, we compared the numerical results based on the present method with those results which have been computed by some other researchers. It should be noted that all the comparisons here are performed without the concentrated mass since the concentrated mass was not considered in all the other

A few numerical examples are performed to illustrate the application of the proposed method. In this paper, the geometry of a rectangular composite laminated plate of dimension a x b, is shown in Fig. 2 with the fiber orientation indicated by the angle 0. The subdomain method as shown in Fig. 3 is used to perform the free vibration analysis with mixed edge boundary condition and concentrated mass. The material property for the composite material used in this paper is given in Table 1 from Ref. [13]. In the present study, the following four different boundary conditions have been considered:

Characteristic orthogonal polynomials

711

works. The non-dimensional frequency parameter is expressed as l(pli~~~~/&)~~. It can be seen from Tables 2-5 that the comparisons reveal good agreement as far as the first six eigenvalues are concerned. For simplicity, the concentrated mass is assumed to be only one which is located at point (0.25,0.25), and the non-dimensional frequency parameter is expressed as l(w2a4/D0)2. The first six frequency parameters for the case 4 are given in Table 6. A study on the frequency parameters 1 due to the variation of concentrated mass from zero to five times the laminate mass combined with ply oritentation 0 is carried out for the composites symmetric laminates. In the following discussion, the concentrated mass is assumed to be equal to half of the laminated mass and the non-dimensional frequency is expressed as 1 = (wa/D#2 with concentrated mass or I = (ph&4/Do)~2 without concentrated mass. In Figs 8-l 1, the eigenvalues of cases 1-4 without the concentrated mass have been presented for various simply supported or clamped ratio of mixed boundaries, respectively. In Figs 12-15, the parameters and boundary conditions are the same as those in Figs 8-11, except that the composite laminate is loaded with a concentrated mass located at point (0.25,0.25). As it can be seen from Figs 12-15, the results are quite similar to those in Figs 8-l 1. In Figs 16-l 9, the boundary condition as

in case 1 with mixed ratio equal to 0.5 is considered. The concentrated mass which is varied from zero to five times the laminate mass, is located at point (0.25,0.25), as shown in Fig. 16 and at point (0.5,0.5), as shown in Fig. 17. It can be seen from Figs 16 and 17 that the first eigenvalue of the composite laminates is larger when the concentrated mass is located at point (0.25,0.25), also the first eigenvalue is more strongly affected by the concentrated mass located at point (0.5,0.5) rather than that located at point (0.25, 0.25). We loaded the concentrated mass which is located at TV = 0.5 along the x-axis, as shown in Fig. 18 and at 5 = 0.5 along the y-axis, as shown in Fig. 19. We presented the variation of the first eigenvalue due to the various location of the concentrated mass in Figs 18 and 19. Finally in Figs 20-23, the first six mode shapes of the composite laminates (45/ -45/ - 45/45) with or without concentrated mass are shown for cases 2 and 4 individually. It can be concluded that the mode shapes of the composite laminates are strongly affected by the boundary conditions and concentrated masses.
6. CONCLUSIONS

A simple, efficient and accurate approximate method was introduced to study the free vibrational behavior of rectangular symmetrically composite

A = 12.90
Mode

Mode

X = 46.37
Mode 2 Mode 5

Mode 3 Fig. 22. The first six mode shapes of case 4(45/-45/-45/45)

Mode

without concentrated mass.

712

T.-P. Chang and M.-H. Wu

X = 42.46 Mode
2 Mode 5

X = 49.64
Mode 3
of case 4 (45/-45/ -45/45)

Mode

G
mass.

Fig. 23. The first six mode shapes

with concentrated

laminates with mixed edge boundary conditions and concentrated masses. The orthogonal polynomial functions set was constructed by using GramSchmidt orthogonalization process. The energy functional was obtained by using subdomain method with a set of orthogonal polynomials. Based on the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, the governing eigenvalue equation for the composite laminates was then derived by minimizing the energy functional with respect to each unknown coefficient. By solving this governing eigenvalue equation, we can obtain the natural frequencies and the mode shapes for the laminates composite plate with concentrated mass. In the previous study, various mixed edge boundary conditions and concentrated masses were considered, and different ply angles of the composite laminates were investigated as well. It can be concluded that the eigenvalues of the composite laminates are strongly influenced by the concentrated masses and mixed boundaries, also the mode shapes of the composite laminates with the concentrated masses are quite different from those of the composite laminates without the concentrated masses. In practice, we believe that the present work is quite important, since it provides additional useful design information for engineers who are engaged in the area of thin composite laminates plate with mixed boundaries and concentrated masses.

Acknowledgement-This work was partially supported by the National Science Council of the Republic -of China

under grant NSC 84-2212-E005-008. The authors grateful for this support.

are

REFERENCES

4.

5.

6.

7.

Y. Narita, Application of a series-type method to vibration or orthotropic rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions. J. Sound Vibr. 71, 345-355 (1981). S. C. Fan and Y. K. Cheung, Flexural free vibrations of rectangular plates with complex support conditions. J. Sound Vibr. 93(l), 81-94 (1984). C. Rajalingham, R. B. Bhat and G. D. Xistris, Natural frequencies and mode shapes of elliptic plates with boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials as assumed shape function. J. Vibr. Acousr. 115, 353-358 (1993). R. B. Bhat, Natural frequencies of rectangular plates using characteristic orthogonal polynomials in Rayleigh-Ritz method. J. Sound Vibr. 102, 493499 (1985). B. Singh and S. Chakraverty, Transverse vibration of simply supported elliptical and circular using boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials in two variables. J. Sound Vibr. 152(l), 149-155 (1992). P. A. A. Laura, R. H. Gutierrezder and R. B. Bhat, Transverse vibration of a trapezoidal cantilever plate of variable thickness. AIAA 27(l), 921-922 (1989). T. Mizusawa, Natural frequencies of rectangular plates with free edges. J. Sound Vibr. 105(3), 451459 (1986).

Characteristic

orthogonal

polynomials

713

A theoretical formulation for the 8. G. N. Geannakake, natural frequency, bucking, and deflection analysis of plates using natural co-ordinates and characteristic orthogonal polynomials. J. Sound Vibr. 124(2), 385-387 (1988). and A. Di Blasio, On the using of 9. S. M. Dickinson orthogonal polynomials in the Rayleigh-Ritz method for the study of the flexural vibration and bucking of isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plates. J. Sound Vibr. 108(l), 51-62 (1986). IO. R. B. Bhat, Flexural vibration of polygonal plates using characteristic orthogonal polynomials in two variables. J. Sound Vibr. 114, 65-71 (1987). 11. K. M. Liew, K. I.. Lam and S. T. Chow, Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates using orthogonal plates function. Compuf.-St&i. 34(l), 79-85 (1990). 12. K. M. Liew. K. Y. Lam and S. T. Chow, Study on flexural vibraticsn of triangular composite plates influenced by fiber orientation. Compos. Strut/. 13, 123-132 (1989). 13. S. T. Chow, K. M. Liew and K. Y. Lam, Transverse vibration of symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates, Compos. Struct. 20, 213-226 (1992). 14. K. M. Liew, K. SC. Hung and M. K. Lim, Method of domain decomposition in vibrations of mixed edge

15.

16.

17.

18.

19. 20. 21. 22.

anisotropic plates. Inr. J. Solids S~ucr. 30(23), 3281-3301 (1993). A. K. Noor and L. H. Tenek, Stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients for composite laminates. Compos. Sfruct. 21, 57-66 (1992). D. J. Gorman, An exact analysis approach to the free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions. J. Sound Vibr. 93(2), 235-247 (1984). S. M. Dickinson and E. K. H. Li. On the use of simply-supported plate functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method applied to the flexural vibration of rectangular plates. J. Sound Vibr. 80, 292-297 (1982). D. J. Dawe and S. Wang, Free vibration of generally-laminated, shear-deformable, composite rectangular plates using a spline Rayleigh-Ritz method. Compos. Struct. 25, 77-87 (1993). J. E. Ashton and J. M. Whitney, Theory of Laminated Plates. Technomic, Lancaster, PA (1970). R. F. Gibson, Principles of Composire Material Mechanics. McGraw-H& New York (1994). A. C. Ueural. Srresses in Plates and Shells. McGrawHill, New York (1981). A. W. Leissa and Y. Natita, Vibration studies for simply supported symmetrically laminated rectangular plates. Compos. Swucr. 12, 113-132 (1989).