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ANATOMY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

1. *

Which of the following structures are most dominant in the left ventricle? a) b) c) d) Subendocardial plexus Thebesian vessels Myocardial sinousoids Thebesian veins

2. *

Of the following arteries, which is most superior? a) b) c) d) Celiac Mesenteric Renal Iliac

3.

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding Carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO)? a) b) c) Increased concentration of HbCO will shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the left. CO will bind o the molecular site of hemoglobin more firmly than oxygen Increased amount of CO in the blood stream will result in decreased release of oxygen to the tissues Carboxyhemoglobin, unlike oxygen, dissociates with difficulty

* 4. *

d)

An isolated ventricular septal defect without other cardiac pathology a) b) c) d) Causes increased right ventricular work load Never closes spontaneously Can be repaired without cardiopulmonary bypass Is usually associated with cyanosis in the first month of life

5.

Which of the following is TRUE of hypertensive CAD patients? a) b) c) d) Increased blood volumes Increased peripheral blood pooling Increased sensitivity to vasodilation Muted responses to stimulation

6.

Ebsteins anomaly includes all of the following EXCEPT: a) b) c) d) Atrialized ventricle Tricuspid insuffiency ASD Pulmonary stenosis

* 7. *

The majority of SBE occurs in patients with: a) b) c) d) Mitral stenosis and mitral insufficiency Mitral stenosis and aortic stenosis Tricuspid stenosis and tricuspid insufficiency Mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency

8. *

Rheumatic fever occurs following infection with one of the following: a) b) c) d) Alpha hemolytic streptococci of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci of Group A Streptococci viridians Non-hemolytic pneumococcus of Group M

9.

All of the following would be expected to occur in aortic regurgitation EXCEPT: a) b) c) d) e) Impaired coronary blood flow Decrease in aortic diastolic pressure Decrease in left intraventricular diastolic pressure Diastolic murmur Turbulent blood flow in heart

10. *

A tumor that develops in the adrenal medulla that leads to hypertension is known as: a) b) c) d) Pheochromocytoma Glodblatts tumor Adreno cortical hypertension Charcot-Bounchard tumor

11. *

The most common EKG Abnormality associated with Mitral Valve Disease is: a) b) c) d) Atrial fibrillation Sinus bradycarcardia PVCs Ventricular tachycardia

12.

The danger of postcardiotomy syndrome is: a) b) c) d) Restrictive pericarditis Right heart failure Graft occlusion Pulmonary edema

* 13. *

The following O2 saturations were observed: RA= 60% ; RV= 92% ; PA= 80%. Which of the following might be indicated? a) b) c) d) Acute ventricular septal rupture Severe mitral insufficiency Severe tricuspid insufficiency Anomalous pulmonary return

14.

The sympathetic nervous system: a) b) c) d) Lies only on the posterior Has two sympathetic ganglion for each lumber and thoracic cord segment Has fibers that leave the cord through the anterior root and enter the white ramus Innervation of internal organ occurs due to fibers passing through the gray ramus

15.

The most common cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm is: a) b) c) d) Trauma Hypertension Arteriosclerosis All of the above

* 16.

Blood flow through a vessel does NOT decrease until the diameter occluded is greater than: a) b) c) d) 10% 25% 50% 90

* 17.

The external jugular vein drains into the: a) b) c) d) Internal jugular Branchycephalic Subclavian Superior vena cava

18.

In the normal fetal circulation, most of the oxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava is shunted around the lungs into the ascending aorta via the: a) b) c) d) Foramen Ovale Azygos Vein Ductus Arteriosus Pulmonary Vein

19. *

In beta thalassemia, one of the clinical findings is: a) b) c) d) Iron deficiency Splenomegaly An amino acid substitution in the beta chains of the hemoglobin molecule All of the above

20.

Treatment for a blood transfusion reaction should include which modalities? a) Administration of Benzodiazepines, nitroprusside, and hydroxyethel starch solution Administration of platelets, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate Administration of steroids, diuretics, and heparin Administration of vasopressors, antibiotics, and cryoprecipitate

b) c) d)

21.

A CAD patient gets angina when climbing two flights of stairs at a normal pace. Into what modified NYHA functional classification would he fall? a) b) c) d) 1 2 3 4

22.

Balloon atrial septostomy was introduced by: a) b) c) d) Taussig Waterson Rashkind Mustard

* 23. *

It does NOT constitute intracardiac return when on total bypass with the SVC and the IVC cannulated. a) b) c) Azygous vein Thebesian veins Vasa Vasorum

24. *

Valvular foraminis ovalis represents the embryonic: a) b) c) d) e) Septum secundum Septum primum Mitral valve Aortic valve Interventricular septum

25.

Double outlet-right ventricle is sometimes referred to as: a) b) c) d) Trilogy of Fallot Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return Partial transposition Corrected transposition

* 26.

The most common complication associated with syphilitic heart disease is: a) b) c) d) Aortic valve stenosis Aortic aneurysms Aortic valve insufficiency Coronary ostia stenosis

* 27. *

The lungs are contained in the: a) b) c) d) Pleural cavity Mediastinal cavity Pericardial cavity Retroperitoneal cavity

28. *

Electrolytes are: a) b) c) d) Charged atoms or molecules found in body fluids Molecules capable of producing electricity Molecules that dissociate in an electrical field Exclusively strong acids of bases

29. *

Baroreceptor are: a) b) c) d) Stimulated by increased distention of the structure and discharge at an increase rate. Inhibited by increased distention of the structure and discharge at an increase rate. Inhibited by increased distention of the structure and discharge at a decrease rate. Stimulated by increased distention of the structure and discharge at a decrease rate.

30. *

The normal pH range of venous blood is: a) b) c) d) 7.31-7.41 7.30-7.45 7.35-7.45 7.35-7.38

31. The complement system is critical to the mechanism of: a) b) c) d) Blood-gas exchange Glucose metabolism Inflammation and phagocytosis Renal excretion of macroproteins

* 32. *

The corrective procedure using a conduit to connect the RA with the MPA is: a) b) c) d) Rastelli Fontan Norwood Glenn

33.

The following pressure parameters describe what defect? RA is 8, RV is 100/0-15, PA is 80/60, LA is 15, LV is 80/0-15, and AO is 80/40. a) b) c) d) Truncus Arteriosus Transposition of great vessel Hypoplastic left heart Tetralogy of Fallot

34.

In truncus arteriosus, a chest X-ray will usually reveal: a) b) c) d) Dextroposition Boot-shaped cardiac silhouette Cardiomegaly Sarcomas

* 35. *

The most common use of isolated limb perfusion is in the treatment of malignant: a) b) c) d) Squamous carcinomas Melanomas Lymphomas Sarcomas

36.

Bleeding due to hyperfibrinolysis is best treated by the administration of: a) b) c) d) Heparin Protamine Tropical thrombin Amicar

* 37.

Vessels responsible for the dampening of the systolic output are: a) b) c) d) Thebesian Capacitance Windkessel Borelli

* 38.

Albumin accounts for what percent of the plasma proteins? a) b) c) d) 25% 35% 45% 55%

* 39. *

In mitral stenosis, the following may be detrimental: a) b) c) d) Tachycardia Slow heart rate (50 BPM) Adequate hydration None of the above

40. *

Hyperventilation will cause: a) b) c) d) Increased serum potassium Decreased serum potassium No change in serum potassium None of the above

41.

Which of the following lesions might cause the LA to equal 43 mmHg with an LVEDP= 10 mmHg? a) b) c) d) Aortic regurgitation Mitral stenosis Aortic stenosis Mitral regurgitation

42.

Differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism may be made by noting: a) b) c) d) That the CVP and PA are high That the CVP is low while the PA and PCW are high That the CVP and PA are high while the PCW is low That the CVP is normal and the PA and PCW are high

* 43.

The increased right heart pressures seen in valve disease are a result of: a) b) c) d) Left ventricular hypertrophy Increased workload demands Increased blood volume Increased pulmonary pressures

* 44. *

A possible sequel to the development of thromboses in valve disease is: a) b) c) d) Renal failure Cerebrovascular accident Coronary artery disease Peripheral vascular disease

45.

The use of albumin is unjustified in: a) b) c) d) Adult respiratory distress syndrome Burns Chronic liver disease Cardiopulmonary bypass

* 46.

Which of the following is (are NOT a branch of the Right Coronary Artery? a) b) c) d) Acute Marginal Branch Posterior Descending Branch Diagonal Branch a & c above

* 47.

Cyanosis is said to be present when: a) b) c) d) e) The shunt is left to right Arterial po2 falls below 60 mmHg Arterial saturation remains in the range of 94-95% a&b None of the above

48. *

In adults, the most common congenital defect is the: a) b) c) d) Ventricular septal defect Aortopulmonary window Atrial septal defect None of the above

49.

The waveform usually found on the EKG indicating on MI has occurred are called? a) b) c) d) ST waves Q waves QRS waves None of the above

50.

The 4 plasma lipid complexes include chylomicrons, high density lipoproteins and: a) b) c) d) VDRL and LDL VLDL and LDL HDL and LDL None of the above

51.

A coarctation in which the left ventricle supplies the upper body and collaterals through the intercostal and internal mammary arteries supply the lower body is called? a) b) c) d) Preductal Supraductal Postductal Infraductal

* 52.

Total corrective surgery for transposition where pericardial tissue is used to create a baffle to redirect blood flow is called: a) b) c) d) Senning Jantene Mustard Le Compte

* 53. *

Which of the following would be classified as subvalvular Aortic Stenosis? a) b) c) d) IHSS Calcified Aortic Valve Hour-glass type of Aortic Coarctation Hypoplastic Aortic Stenosis

54.

Persistent left superior vena cava IPLSVC) occurs because of the absence of: a) b) c) d) Coronary sinus Left jugular vein Left innominate vein Left subclavian vein

* 55.

If the full thickness of the myocardial wall is involved after a myocardial infarction, this is known as a: a) b) c) d) Subendocardial infarction Transmural infarction Macro infarction None of the above

100/0-15

do not type, use as setting only CO will bind to the molecular site of hemoglobin more firmly than oxygen c) Increased amount of CO in the blood stream will result in decreased release of oxygen to the tissues