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INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMANITIES II: THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT

Francisco Pesante HUM-102


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DEFINING THE HUMANITIES


Objectives
Differentiate between the humanities and various other modes of human inquiry and expression.

Identify examples of art, music, architecture, philosophy, and literature that reflect current developments in politics, socioeconomic status, and technology.

DEFINING THE HUMANITIES


What are the humanities? Why should we study humanities?
Cultural legacy: Ideas and achievements handed down from generation to generation They established the ways of living collectively.
Survival Communality Self-knowledge Creation and transition of scientific and technological tools, social and cultural institution, religious and philosophic systems, as well as personal expressions.
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DEFINING THE HUMANITIES


Tools for approaching the cultural legacy
Text
Medium, Form and Content

Context
Time and place

Subtex
Emotional and intellectual messages embedded in the cultural manifestations.

DEFINING THE HUMANITIES

Course Overview
Late Middle Ages (until XIV Century) Renaissance (XIII-XVI Century ) Modern Age (XVI-XVIII Century) Contemporary Age (1789-Present)

DEFINING THE HUMANITIES The Age of the Renaissance. Chapter 15: Adversity and Challenge: The Fourteenth-Century Transition

DEFINING THE HUMANITIES


Adversity and Challenge: The FourteenthCentury Transition. The Black Death
Bubonic plague
Flea-bearing black rats from the Far East, who came with the commercial vessels to the Mediterranean ports (1347-1375) Loss of over 1/3 of Europe population Impact on their Worldview, their philosophy of life (Weltanschauung)
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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION


Europe in Transition The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy
King John of England (1167-1216) Magna Carta Royal Council Control of feudal taxes Trial by Jury Law over the will of the ruler

THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION


Europe in Transition
The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy King Henry III (1207-1272) Great Council (Parliament)

THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION


The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
Norman Conquest Death of Charles V (1328; Capet Dinasty) Philip IV (Valois Dinasty) Wool trade (Flemish lands)

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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION

The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) English forces


Foot soldier Long-bows Gunpowder Ambush attacks

French forces
Numerous (3:1) Prolonged conflict Joan of Arc (14121431) Burgundy betrayal Scutage (brought military protection)
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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION The Decline of the Church


Avignon Papacy (1309-1377) Great Schism (1378-1417) Council of Constance (1417)
College of Cardinals

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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION


The Decline of the Church
Anticlericalism and the Rise of Devotional Piety (mysticism)
Wealth and rites (pilgrimage & relic worship) Private rites

Decline of Church Rise of the Nation State

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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION Literature in Transition


The Social Realism of Boccaccios Decameron
Fidelity to nature and personal experience Ten day. Seven young women and 3 young men retreat to the suburbs of Florence. Insight of the social concerns and values, while distracting from the horror of the pandemic plague.

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Boccaccios Decameron (1351) Novel X


Pietro de Vinciolo va a cenar fuera; su mujer manda venir a un muchacho, vuelve Pietro; ella lo esconde bajo un cesto de pollos; Pietro dice que en casa de Hercolano, con quien cenaba, han encontrado a un joven que all haba metido la mujer, su mujer censura a la mujer de Hercolano; un burro pone la pata, por desgracia, sobre los dedos del que estaba bajo el cesto; ste grita; Pietro corre all, lo ve, descubre el engao de la mujer, con quien al fin hace las paces a causa de su desdichado vicio.
Pietro di Vinciolo goes from home to sup: his wife brings a boy into the house to bear her company: Pietro returns, and she hides her gallant under a hen-coop: Pietro explains that in the house of Ercolano, with whom he was to have supped, there was discovered a young man bestowed there by Ercolano's wife: the lady thereupon censures Ercolano's wife: but unluckily an ass treads on the fingers of the boy that is hidden under the hen-coop, so that he cries for pain: Pietro runs to the place, sees him, and apprehends the trick played on him by his wife, which nevertheless he finally condones, for that he is not himself free from blame.
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Boccaccios Decameron
-Qu haces t aqu? Nada le respondi sino que le rog que por amor de Dios no le hiciese dao. El cual, siendo reconocido por Pietro, dijo: -Levntate y no temas que te haga yo ningn dao: pero dime cmo has venido aqu y por qu. El jovencillo le dijo todo; no menos contento Pietro de haberlo encontrado que dolida su mujer, cogindolo de la mano se lo llev con l a la alcoba, en la cual la mujer con el mayor miedo del mundo lo esperaba. Y sentndose Pietro frente a ella le dijo: "What dost thou here?" The boy making no answer, save to beseech him for the love of God to do him no hurt, Pietro continued: "Get up, have no fear that I shall hurt thee; but tell me:How, and for what cause comest thou to be here?" The boy then confessed everything. Whereupon Pietro, as elated by the discovery as his wife was distressed, took him by the hand; and led him into the room where the lady in the extremity of terror awaited him; and, having seated himself directly in front of her, said:
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Boccaccios Decameron
-Si tanto censurabas hace un momento a la mujer de Hercolano y decas que deban quemarla y que era vergenza de todas vosotras, cmo no lo decas de ti misma? O si no queras decirlo de ti, cmo tenas el valor de decirlo de ella sabiendo que habas hecho lo mismo que ella haba hecho? Seguro que nada te induca a ello sino que todas sois iguales, y con culpar a las otras queris tapar vuestras faltas: que baje fuego del cielo y os queme a todas, raza malvada que sois! "'Twas but a moment ago that thou didst curse Ercolano's wife, and averred that she ought to be burned, and that she was the reproach of your sex: why saidst thou not, of thyself? Or, if thou wast not minded to accuse thyself, how hadst thou the effrontery to censure her, knowing that thou hadst done even as she? Verily 'twas for no other reason than that ye are all fashioned thus, and study to cover your own misdeeds with the delinquencies of others: would that fire might fall from heaven and burn you all, brood 17 of iniquity that ye are!"

Boccaccios Decameron
La mujer, viendo que para empezar no le haba hecho dao ms que de palabra, y parecindole que se derreta porque tena de la mano a un jovencito tan hermoso, cobr valor y dijo: The lady, marking that in the first flush of his wrath he had given her nothing worse than hard words, and discerning, as she thought, that he was secretly overjoyed to hold so beautiful a boy by the hand, took heart of grace and said:
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Boccaccios Decameron
Segura estoy de que querras que bajase fuego del cielo que nos quemase a todas, como que te gustamos tanto como a un perro los palos; pero por la cruz de Dios que no ser as. Pero con gusto hablar un poco contigo para saber de qu te quejas; y ciertamente que saldra bien si me comparas con la mujer de Hercolano, que es una vieja santurrona gazmoa y l le da todo lo que quiere y la quiere como se debe querer a la mujer, lo que a m no me pasa. I doubt not indeed that thou wouldst be well pleased that fire should fall from heaven and devour us all, seeing that thou art as fond of us as a dog is of the stick, though by the Holy Rood thou wilt be disappointed; but I would fain have a little argument with thee, to know whereof thou complainest. Well indeed were it with me, didst thou but place me on an equality with Ercolano's wife, who is an old sanctimonious hypocrite, and has of him all that she wants, and is cherished by him as a wife should be: but that is not my case. 19

Boccaccios Decameron
Que, aunque me vistas y me calces bien, bien sabes cmo ando de lo dems y cunto tiempo hace que no te acuestas conmigo; y ms querra andar vestida con harapos y descalza y que me tratases bien en la cama que tener todas estas cosas tratndome como me tratas. Y entiende bien, Pietro, que soy una mujer como las dems, y me gusta lo que a las otras, as que porque me lo busque yo si t no me lo das no es para insultarme, por lo menos te respeto tanto que no me voy con criados ni con tiosos.

For, granted that thou givest me garments and shoes to my mind, thou knowest how otherwise ill bested I am, and how long it is since last thou didst lie with me; and far liefer had I go barefoot and in rags, and have thy benevolence abed, than have all that I have, and be treated as thou dost treat me. Understand me, Pietro, be reasonable; consider that I am a woman like other women, with the like craving; whereof if thou deny me the gratification, 'tis no blame to me that I seek it elsewhere; and at least I do thee so much honour as not forgather with stable-boys or scurvy knaves."
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Boccaccios Decameron
Pietro se dio cuenta de que las palabras no cesaran en toda la noche, por lo que, como quien poco se preocupaba de ella, dijo: -Calla ya, mujer: que te dar gusto en eso; bien haras en darnos de cenar algo, que me parece que este muchacho, igual que yo, no habr cenado todava. Pietro perceived that she was like to continue in this vein the whole night: wherefore, indifferent as he was to her, he said: "Now, Madam, no more of this; in the matter of which thou speakest I will content thee; but of thy great courtesy let us have something to eat by way of supper; for, methinks, the boy, as well as I, has not yet supped."
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Boccaccios Decameron
Claro que no -dijo la mujer-, que no ha cenado, que cuando t llegaste en mala hora, nos sentbamos a la mesa para cenar. -Pues anda -dijo Pietro-, danos de cenar y luego yo arreglar las cosas de modo que no tengas que quejarte. "Ay, true enough," said the lady, "he has not supped; for we were but just sitting down to table to sup, when, beshrew thee, thou madest thy appearance. "Go then," said Pietro, "get us some supper; and by and by I will arrange this affair in such a way that thou shalt have no more cause of complaint."
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Boccaccios Decameron
La mujer, levantndose al or al marido contento, prestamente haciendo poner la mesa, hizo venir la cena que estaba preparada y junto con su vicioso marido y con el joven cen alegremente. Despus de la cena, lo que Pietro se propona para satisfaccin de los tres se me ha olvidado; pero bien s que a la maana siguiente en la plaza se vio el joven no muy seguro de a quin haba acompaado ms por la noche, si a la mujer o al marido. The lady, perceiving that her husband was now tranquil, rose, and soon had the table laid again and spread with the supper which she had ready; and so they made a jolly meal of it, the caitiff husband, the lady and the boy. What after supper Pietro devised for their mutual satisfaction has slipped from my memory. But so much as this I know, that on the morrow as he wended his way to the piazza, the boy would have been puzzled to say, whether of the twain, the wife or the husband, had had the most of his company during the night.
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Boccaccios Decameron
Por lo que tengo que deciros, seoras mas, que a quien te la hace se la hagas; y si no puedes, que no se te vaya de la cabeza hasta que lo consigas, para que lo que el burro da contra la pared lo mismo reciba. But this I would say to you, dear my ladies, that whoso gives you tit, why, just give him tat; and if you cannot do it at once, why, bear it in mind until you can, that even as the ass gives, so he may receive.

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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION


Art in Transition Giottos New Realism Disciple of Cimabue
Madonna Enthroned (1310) Robust Lifelike Depth Chiaroscuro
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THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY TRANSITION

1290

1310

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DEFINING THE HUMANITIES The Age of the Renaissance. Chapter 16: Classical Humanism in the Age of the Renaissance

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance Accounting system inherited from the Muslims
Records of transactions (double-entry bookkeeping)

Gold florin as legal tender for all debts.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance

Money and leisure in urban setting


The goal of the emerging class Different of the feudal and chivalry obligations.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance

Great Schism
Anticlericalism Skepticism

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance City-states model


Fit well with the Italian reality Condontierri: professional soldiers whos services were brought by the Italian citystates in order to resolve their conflict. Ruled by petty nobility, by mercenary generals or by wealthy middle class families.
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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance City-states model


Florence with a population of 50k, was ruled by 100 families. Ex: The Medicis (The Medicis ruled for 4 generations, beginning in the 14th Century). Cosimo (1389-1464) Lorenzo The Magnificent (1449-1492). Banking family Supported scholarship and patronized arts.
Ex: Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Verrochio & Michelangelo

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


studiolo (small study retreat), filled with manuscripts, musical instruments, and artifacts of scientific inquiry, came to be essential to the advancement of intellectual life .

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Aristotles view of human beings as political animals and Ciceros glorification of duty to the state encouraged humanist to perceive that the exercise of civic responsibility was the hallmark of the cultivated individual.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Castiglione: The Well-Rounded Person
The Book of the Courtier (1513-1518): A treatise of a Italian diplomat, Baldassare Castiglione (14781529), which deals with the concerns and qualifications of the ideal Renaissance man and woman.
Master all the skills of the medieval warrior Display the physical proficiency of a champion athlete.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Castiglione: The Well-Rounded Person
The Book of the Courtier (1513-1518)
Possess the refinement of a humanistic education.
Know Latin and Greek Be familiar with the classics Speak and write well Compose verse, draw and play musical instrument.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Machiavelli and Power Politics
The modern notion of progress as an active process of improving the lot of the individual was born during the Renaissance. Previous and recent historical events have proven the contrary.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Machiavelli and Power Politics Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527).
Critic of Italian city-states lack of unity. A weakness against outside powers (1494). Student of Roman history.

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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Machiavelli and Power Politics The Prince, a political treatise that called for the unification of Italy under a powerful and courageous leader.
The need for a strong state, justified strong rule. A secular prince schooled in war and history, should rule. Must trust no one, least of mercenary soldiers
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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Machiavelli and Power Politics The Prince
A lion in fierceness, a fox to outsmart his enemies. Ruthless and, if needed, sacrifice moral virtue. For the preservation of a strong state, will justify any means of maintaining power, however cunning or violent.
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CLASSICAL HUMANISM IN THE AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE

Italian Renaissance Humanism


Machiavelli, The Prince
Presumes a negative nature of humankind:
Thankless, fickle, false, greedy, dishonest and simple

The state is and impersonal phenomenon, so as an amoral phenomenon, is exempt from any moral judgment. Not as is should be, but as it was. Modern Europes first political scientist.

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THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT

References: Fiero, G. K. (2011). The humanistic tradition, Book 3: The European renaissance, the Reformation, and the global encounter (6th. Ed). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Sherman, D & Salisbury, J. (2008). Civilizaciones de occidente. Vol I hasta 1715. Mxico: McGraw Hill.
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