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A sequestrum is a piece of dead bone that has become separated during the process of necrosis from normal/sound bone.

It is a complication (sequela) of osteomyelitis. The pathological process is as follows: infection in the bone leads to an increase in intramedullary pressure due to inflammatory exudates the periosteum becomes stripped from the osteum, leading to vascular thrombosis bone necrosis follows due to lack of blood supply sequestra are formed

An X-ray of a child's femur showing a bony sequestrum highlighted by the blue arrow.

The sequestra are surrounded by sclerotic bone which is relatively avascular (without a blood supply). Within the bone itself, the haversian canalsbecome blocked with scar tissue, and the bone becomes surrounded by thickened periosteum. Due to the avascular nature of this bone, antibiotics which travel to sites of infection via the bloodstream poorly penetrate these tissues. Hence the difficulty in treating chronic osteomyelitis. At the same time as this, new bone is forming (known as involucrum). Opening in this involucrum allow debris and exudates (including pus) to pass from the sequestrum via sinus tracts to the skin. Rarely, a sequestrum may turn out to be an osteoid osteoma, a rare tumor of the bone.
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Osteochondropathy (M80M94, 730733)

endocrine bone disease: Osteitis fibrosa cystica (Brown tumor) Osteitis

infectious bone disease: Osteomyelitis (Sequestrum, Involucrum) Sesamoiditis Brodie abscess Periostitis

Density / metabolic bone disease Osteoporosis (Juvenile) Osteopenia Osteomalacia Continuity of bone Pseudarthrosis Stress fracture

Bone density and structure Osteopathies

Fibrous dysplasia (Monostotic, Polyostotic) Skeletal fluorosis Other hyperostosis) Osteosclerosis (Melorheostosis)

Bone resorption Osteolysis Hajdu-Cheney syndrome Ainhum Ischemia Avascular necrosis (Osteonecrosis of the jaw)

Other Paget's disease of bone Algoneurodystrophy Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy Nonossifying fibro

Chondritis Relapsing polychondritis Chondropathies Other Tietze's syndrome

Osteochondritis Osteochondritis dissecans

Both

lower limb: hip (LeggCalvPerthes syndrome) tibia (Osgood-Schlatter disease, Blount's diseas Juvenile osteochondrosis spine (Scheuermanns disease) upper limb: wrist (Kienbock's disease) elbow (Panner disease)

M: BON/CAR

anat (c/f/k/f, u, t/p, l)/phys/devp/cell

noco/cong/tumr, sys

Sequestrum is a bone disorder that occurs when a fragment of dead bone separates from living bone, usually as a consequence of injury or disease. The process by which the dead bone is cast off is called necrosis, and it results in the loss of tissue. Necrosis of bones takes place after a bone fragment dies and then separates. Although sequestrum causes separation of dead bone from living bone, dead bone often remains either partly encased or in close contact with newly formed bone, causing a sinus, or a narrow cavity.

There normally are 206 bones in the human body, all of which serve one or more of three main functions. Some bones, such as the skull and ribcage, function to form a protective barrier around certain structures and organs. Other bones, such as the spine, act to support weight and posture. Specific bones are also involved in movement. These include bones found in the feet, hips and hands.

Bone is not a permanent structure in the body. It is a living and dynamic organ that is constantly adapting to mechanical, chemical and external influences. It is the bodys largest store of calcium and phosphate minerals that are vital to numerous bodily processes.Like all other organs in the body, bones are susceptible to disease. Sequestrum is one of many bone disorders, and it is the death of a bone or cell resulting in tissue damage. This bone disorder can occur because of infections such as osteomyelitis or injuries such as bone fractures. Sequestrum takes place in localized regions of the body.

Necrosis is the secondary process to cell death, resulting in tissue loss. This process is commonly a consequence of traumatic injury, bacterial infections or a condition called ischemia. The term "ischemia" refers to bloodlessness or a lack of circulation to a particular part of the body. Bloodlessness can occur as a result of a spasm, contraction or blocking of the arteries, also known as thrombosis.

It usually is about 12 hours after the death of a bone or cell body that tissue damage or necrosis begins to occur. In these earliest stages, there are no symptoms. When symptoms do begin, they usually appear in the form of pain, decreased movement and the possible development of gangrene as a consequence of decreased blood supply. Damage to tissue is permanent, and treatment is used to prevent further bone loss and tissue death, rather than to cure the condition entirely. Sequestrum adalah gangguan tulang yang terjadi ketika sebuah fragmen tulang mati memisahkan dari tulang hidup , biasanya sebagai akibat dari cedera atau penyakit . Proses di mana tulang mati membuang disebut nekrosis , dan menghasilkan hilangnya jaringan . Nekrosis tulang terjadi setelah sebuah fragmen tulang mati dan kemudian memisahkan . Meskipun sequestrum menyebabkan pemisahan tulang dari tulang mati hidup , mati tulang sering tetap baik sebagian terbungkus atau dalam kontak dekat dengan tulang yang baru terbentuk , menyebabkan sinus , atau rongga sempit.

Ada biasanya 206 tulang dalam tubuh manusia , yang semuanya melayani satu atau lebih dari tiga fungsi utama . Beberapa tulang , seperti tengkorak dan tulang rusuk , berfungsi untuk membentuk penghalang pelindung di sekitar struktur dan organ-organ tertentu . Tulang lainnya , seperti tulang belakang , bertindak untuk mendukung berat badan dan postur tubuh . Tulang tertentu juga terlibat dalam gerakan . Ini termasuk tulang yang ditemukan di kaki , pinggul dan tangan .

Tulang bukanlah struktur permanen dalam tubuh . Ini adalah organ hidup dan dinamis yang terusmenerus beradaptasi dengan mekanik , kimia dan pengaruh eksternal . Ini adalah toko tubuh terbesar dari kalsium dan fosfat - mineral yang penting untuk banyak processes.Like tubuh semua organ lain dalam tubuh , tulang yang rentan terhadap penyakit . Sequestrum merupakan salah satu kelainan tulang , dan itu adalah kematian tulang atau sel yang mengakibatkan kerusakan jaringan . Gangguan ini tulang dapat terjadi karena infeksi seperti osteomyelitis atau cedera seperti patah tulang . Sequestrum terjadi di daerah lokal dari tubuh .

Necrosis adalah proses sekunder untuk kematian sel , yang mengakibatkan hilangnya jaringan . Proses ini biasanya akibat dari luka trauma, infeksi bakteri atau suatu kondisi yang disebut iskemia . Istilah " iskemia " mengacu pada bloodlessness atau kurangnya sirkulasi ke bagian tertentu dari tubuh . Bloodlessness dapat terjadi sebagai akibat dari kejang , kontraksi atau pemblokiran arteri , juga dikenal sebagai trombosis .

Ini biasanya sekitar 12 jam setelah kematian tulang atau sel tubuh yang merusak jaringan atau nekrosis mulai terjadi . Dalam tahap awal , tidak ada gejala . Ketika gejala mulai , mereka biasanya muncul dalam bentuk rasa sakit , penurunan gerakan dan kemungkinan perkembangan gangren sebagai konsekuensi dari penurunan suplai darah . Kerusakan jaringan bersifat permanen , dan pengobatan yang digunakan untuk mencegah kerugian lebih lanjut tulang dan kematian jaringan , bukan untuk menyembuhkan kondisi sepenuhnya .