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A useful resource detailing pattern grading for garment design and construction.

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You are on page 1of 192

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Inlernalional Copyiight,

1917

by the

Reproduction

Interdite

VervieKaelligung UnlersagI

Ibi/

The

American

Paiiern

Grader

Jl Complete,

Practical, Up-to-T)ate

Work

MEN'S

GARMENTS

and

Alterations

How

to ^TUCake

Them

By

SAMUEL TiEGAL

li

PUBLISHERS

New

<^^K

5^0

Introduction

DRAPER

be found so

dividual

" Excebior "

in

his

" Intellectual

" Individual

Advancement

advancement

is

of

Civil-

ization" says :

is

the

model

Nowhere

marked

in

in-

is

every

advancement

is

avenue of

life.

man and

rush

crush, through the whirlpools

and

life's

and

fast

flowing streams of

ticular

still

more

sphere and

in their

own

individual calling.

his time to

work, and has arranged

this this

volume

in

this

amyone

of average intelligence

can master

method with

The

pounded simple

been eliminated so

easily

and

entirely free

from

All

that every line

to mislead the

student, has

r.l.A4ri5789

M.AR

-6 1917

V

'i^i>^1i)

Preface

IN

1

publishing the

it

way

particularly

is

to advocate cutting

by proportion

of

this

in spite of

art

indispensable to him

who

It

is

and always

possible.

to

words, the cutter

vidual

where

this

is

In other

who

and

is

remunerated adequately

cutter,

For the

however,

who

ing

is

engaged

in

as "

work

Block

where

by

proportion, popularly

known

The Use

of

Patterns,"

becomes a

necessity.

it

becomes necessary

is

first

to learn

how

to

grade, as the

former

page,

it

latter.

is

will

be found

is

that the

grade

is

pattern

which

In this volume, the

it is

and

anyone

who

work

is

In order to facilitate the

of the

man who

is

is

com-

pelled

to of

employ

this

method

in

all

of cutting, a

most complete

added.

course

instructions

These

alterations

have

been

practically tested

during

which

necessities

was given

and requirements

of altering garments

encountered

daily

TABLE OF PROPORTIONS

F

OR

COATS

AGE

COAT

TABLE

Breast

OF

32 33 3^ 35

16

36 37

f6

/6

38

/6

39

J6

9'/s

W

/6

9'4

^/

^Z ^3

/6 16_

9'^

^^

^J ^6

^6

^7 V8

Breast

WaiitUnqtii

Might

5-^

5-5

5-6

9'A 9% 9^2 978 ycye Strap /2h 12% 12?^ 13% 131^ 133k. 1 79'/2 /9% 20f, ZO% (heahoulder J^iM^ 76k. /692 76U JZ^7722j7Jt 78 18% 78% 79 J6k /6f2 Ml72 m2j6'^ 76'^ lOh 7092 76k 769s 769^769^ 7699i 7/79z Wmtfenyfh 8% 8% 8^s 9'/2 9^/s 9fs 9'A 10 im. IIM. ia% Scye /P/8 17^8 im. 121^ i2%m8 13 13'A1392 13% 73^/8 12h irM/n Strap

(3%

I

892

/6

M. M_

//^

J6

W

9'/^

79'/8

S% 8%

9%

9%

/^ /6 /O ms /^^

Scye

strap

(hnshoi/ldtt

//93

/ff^A

/2% /2% 72% 73 13h. /6% ms_ 17% 17% 18h mz m/8

/2

ms

ms 13% ma /^ /m

T&h.

76^ /m.

/2'8

83k

ILAU'/^

7/'/2

ms

Waistlayth

77 17bJ7'H_ 777s 789s 789ii 78^/^ 7998 19% 79^i 20 ZOA 2092 ( hershoulder M^rn^ /m 763a 76^A 70% 76% 76% 763a 703a io% 10-% 70% 70% 703A 76% 9h 9f7 91z 9% 9^/ 9h 70 lOls lOk mi 20^ 10' Scyt 5-7 b%\s^/f- 3% //9^ //92 ms im 12f8 12^ 129^ 72% 73 13^8 73% 73^^. 73% 1^7 179, 77% Strap 76 m^ 16h 76% 779s 779i 77-^'^ 78 789j, ms B2M919 79^ 193t 209s 203/, 20ft OvenJiou/der /7 /7 /7 /7 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77^ 77 77 yaistUnifflr

i5U16'/s

/63a,

WaJstUtifftb

ms /6fi

iM

mt

m. lA

9^

ms

9%\m

m^Mk

m.

5-8

Ml ms

//%

9%

9'A

9^18

992

mi

im. m\

5-9

79%\797s 297^ 2O'^2O3/jf0verd,ouldn/7'A /7ff rm. 723^ 779^ 779 77'A 72k 12A 77f 779i, 779^ 72k 779v 779 779i^ 779^^^ Waist lenqtfi SVs 9 9fs 99f 9'/2 10'/^ lOfs 7012 7998 707^ 7/77s Scye 10 //'/z 72 113^ /23^ 12^ 72% 13 1399^13% 13% 73' 72 217^ I2I2 77fs 7798 Strap

i& 72 mt 77

/2h 12h

9% 9% 9h 10 10fs\l079 ms 7092 10% m. 12% 131s 13lv lllk 73% 137s7778 777s 17^ 17%

78% 79 79'

Scyt

St, rap

9%

9% 9\ 9%

Ml

/69z

ms

Mk.

5-10

//%

12k 12^

M im

/6h /79s 77-^/8 773^ 78 789'^ 7S9z 787/8 7998 799^ /^^* 20^^s2078 2/?7s /792 77fz 7792 77'^ 7792 7792 779^, 779^ 7792 7792 7212 77/2 72/2 77h /7'9^

9'A

20

(htrshouUer

yaisllmfft h

9h 9^ 9% 9% 10

12%

77%

/63k 763^

77

77'/v /7'/z

107s 70'929^s 7072 79% 707^7978 127s 1393 1372 73M.22 17% 77% 773/1^ 7898 783/s 78% 79 199779^8 79fs 2d9s 2972 20^

77

,

^cyc

Ws

ms

7J

27

SLrap

(herslioulda-

12^ 12^ 123^ 77-^^ 12^ 77-% mt 123k. 77% 773/^ 77% 77% 72^ 12^ 77% 77% TZ^vk 5-11 9ls_ 92l m. 992 9% 9% 9?s 10 70fs707j^70% 10^2 70% 70% 7078 77 777s Scye 12 12h ms 72% 12% 13 13'A Ml 73% 137s 777s 779v 77992 77% 777s 7J7s Strap /6'/2 16^ 7798 /7^8 77% 18 189t /89ii 78^ 7978 793/s 793/, 20 ZO'Af 20%207/8 27fS lA^ /8 18 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 /S Waisften^ 70f^ 2/7^ Scye 7sm7 7078 77 0-0 9A 9% 9'l2 9% 9% 97s 10 Ml 1298 72'/3 12!^ /2% 12?8 mi3% /3A1A 79 177^ 7n8 777s 77k 75 7Sf^ Strap 'h /6h /a 77^2 7^ 789s ^ 7S^/sm's Hk 79A ms 27/'s ?0% 27 279^ Blarl^ 10 \im mio% // /372/J% 22 BUe 13 /m/2

<her5fiouUtr

mim^

m.

mm

m mm m

Qyerihoutt/tr

How

to

is

Single Pattern

the

same

in

all

cases,

double breasted.

respective share.

The The

idea

is

way that the backpart and front part will each receive their (meaning the breast measurements) are increased or decreased by an inch for each size, which leaves the pattern to be increased or decreased J4 inch, and is distributed in the following manner J4 'ich at the front edge and ^ inch at the side seam, which makes the lA inch double or i inch. The % inch at the side seam is divided in halves, which

the smaller patterns in such a

sizes

:

gives y&

]/&

This

latter

inch

is

also

forepart and the other ]/ inch to the side of the backpart. added or deducted from the width of the back, thereby increasing

The scye depth is increased or decreased ]/(, inch for every size. If all men were of the same height and the increase or decrease were in the breast and waist measures only, the scye depth would increase or decrease ]/% inch for every size, but as the majority of men range in height from 5 feet 5 inches to 5 feet 9 inches, we must cut patterns for the majority, or as men are so beginning with a 38 breast coat for a man of normal height, and decreasing yi inch down to 33, the 33 pattern will give a proportionate measurement for a man 5 feet 5 inches in height, and increasing ^ inch up to 44 will make the 44 scye depth proportionate for a man

;

feet

9 inches

in height,

10

How

First, be sure to

to

Grade from a

it

Single Pattern

the pattern a

is

have

tiie

marked on

size,

a

it

medium size pattern, neither too large nor too small. A 38 breast is you may first grade down to 33 and then up to 43 or 44. This grade is made from a 38 breast pattern and graded down to

good

and from

33.

THE BACKPART.

Copy

the 38 backpart

on a sheet of

stiff

paper,

mark

is

and pro-

ceed as follows

in length

A

I

to

is

i,

inch;

to 2 to

is is

B and make

inch.

the

distance from

of 33 breast.

the

to B.

or you can

to

make

ment.

From E

and from

is

and from

HF

to

is

the same.

through

to J.

From 4

to 3 is the

pattern to points

Now

mistakes.

draw

lines

same distance as from A to B, which is inch place the top of back and trace it, and do the same from 2 to 3. from 2 to 5, 3 to 4, H to G and from J to I divide all spaces indicated after which cut out the graded backpart and number each division to avoid

THE FOREPART.

Copy

the 38 forepart

lines.

be >^ of the breast or yi plus 34 inch, or >^ less >4 inch, in either case the shoulder point on the 33 pattern should be proportionately the same distance from as the 38 pattern.

i.

to

by sixths,

e.,

the distance

may

For

Now

inches.

P on the 38 pattern is 3^ of 38 breast plus 34 inch, should be Yb of 33 breast plus ]4 inch square up from Q. reduce the front edge from L to K, 34 inch for every inch, in this case 5 quarter

from

to

to

From

line,

to

is

the

same as from

13.

N K,

to

through

K N 11

and

From 7 to 6 is 34 inch for every inch reduction; from 9 to 8 and to are the same; place the side of the forepart to points 6 8 and trace the side from 6 through 8 to X; from to is the same as from C to on backpart; 14 to 15 is the same.

Trace the side seam and bottom of forepart with the original pattern. Measure from R to T 5^ inch or the same as from A to B on backpart; from 17 to 16 is the same as from T to star, and from 18 to 19 is the same; from T to 19 is Y& inch less than from 2 to 3 on the small backpart.

Ascertain the height of neck by eighths,

34 inch.

t.

e.,

from

to

in this case is

]/%

of 38 breast plus

Make

the distance

from

to

pattern.

Now

into five equal parts.

10 to 11 and 12 to 13, and as as will ensure perfect lines on the graded patterns, and divide each line

to

to Z,

to R, 18 to 19, 7 to 6,

W,

the 33 pattern according to your judgment,

size of pockets

on

and

this

is

then completed.

DIAGRAM

I.

we

will

now proceed

extend

all

to

make

the

from

is

At

A B A

to

2 to

5,

3 to 4,

to G, J to

it

add the same amount from 38 to 43 as the decrease was from 38 to 33, which

At 2 5 adil in the same proportion, i. c, whatever the decrease was from 38 to 33, make same increase from 38 to 43 breast. Increa.se at all grading points in the same way, adding at each point the same amount per size as the decrease was from ^S to 33.

the

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a paper and

mark around

it.

Extend

Z,

all

from 19

to 18, 16 to 17,

T

is

to R, 23 to 22, 25 to 24,

to

to L,

At

K L

M to

N,

add ^ inch for every inch; at line which will make the sizes as follows:

Brea.st.

W and 6 M N, which

to

to 7.

the waist

line,

Waist.

38 39

34^ 35H

37

38>4

39J^

40

41

42 43

40?4

44

42

other grading points, add from the 38 to 43 breast in the same proportion as the reduction was from 38 to 33 number the various sizes and proceed to cut out the patterns.

all

;

At At

II

10 and 13

12,

at

M N.

all

Beginning with the 39 breast, mark around the lower part of armscye, prick through pxDints marked 39 and trace out with the next smaller pattern, which is the 38 size,

13

DIAGRAM

2.

14

The

principle of grading the stout coats

is

the

same as

size.

that

made

to run in sizes

from 38

to

48 breast measure.

42

grade from.

Now

and waist

proceed as follows

stiff

lines.

it

also

mark

the breast

Measure from 17

which

and

38.

From

15 to 15

is

the same,

inch.

Now

16 to 17.

reduction, which

is

From

ID to 10

is

mch

Yt11, 34

Square out from the lower point 10 and make the distance from 10 to square up from 11,^ inch.

of 38 breast;

From

12 to 12

is

the

same as from 10

11

10

and

11

12

Now draw

Divide

all

lines

from

11 to 11, 12 to 12, 13 to 13

and 14 to

14.

the points as

marked

THE FOREPART.

Place the forepaYt on a paper and

mark around

;

it;

also

mark

the breast

and waist

lines.

Reduce from 2y to 27, Y& '"ch for each inch from 29 to 29 is the same as from 27 place your pattern to points 27 29 and shape the side seam of the smaller size forepart.

to 27

From

same.

23 to 23 reduce the forepart 34 inch for every inch, and from 24 to 24 reduce the

place the pattern, the front edge to touch at the inner line 23

Now

24 and

edge of the smaller coat as from 22 through 23, 24, 25 and 26.

it

may

Ascertain the distance from 32 to 33 or the neck point of the large pattern by sixths, i. c, be Yd of the breast, or Yd pl^s 34 inch or Yd '^^s 34 inch, and whatever the distance

is_

Yd of

is

In other words, if the distance from 32 to 33 42 breast, make the distance from 32 to 34 Yd of 38 breast and square up from 34. From 20 to 20 is Yd inch for each size, or the same distance as from 10 to 10 on backpart.

19 to 19 and 18 to 18 are the same as from 20 to 20; measure the small backpart from and make the small forepart from 20 to 18, 34 inch less.

to 35 11

Ffom

to \2

From 20

pattern

is

on

large pattern

is

3^ of

from 20

to

36 on small

3^ of 38 plus 34 inch.

Now

connect

all

points as

All divisions

must be numbered and the patterns cut out the same as explained before.

15

DIAGRAM

3.

i6

How

The

46 inches.

to

Continued

Single Pattern

we

will

now

THE BACKPART.

Place the graded back part on a sheet of paper and

mark around

it;

also

mark

the

breast

and waist lines. Extend all the grade lines from the original grade as shown from 10 up, from 11 up, from 12 up, from 1,3 out, from 14 out, from 15, 16 and 17 out. Increase the back height from the 42 grade up the same amount as the decrease was made from 42 down to 38, which is Yf, inch for every inch. Increase each size at 1 1 the same amount as the decrease was from 42. Increase at points 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 the same amount as the grade was decreased from

42 to 38, which

is

THE FOREPART.

Copy

the graded forepart on a paper

all

Extend

;

lines.

Add

Vi;

waist size as follows:

Breast.

This

will increase

Waist.

42

43

42

4.3'4

44

45

445^

45?4

46

47

Make

ately at all

same as the decrease was below 42, and increase proportiongrading points the same space per size as the decrease was from 42 to 38.

it

Number

so on,

all spaces as before and, beginning with 43 size, trace always tracing each pattern with the next smaller size.

./

GRA

DER

17

DIAGRAM

4.

i8

How

to

Single Pattern

This grade

is

made

is

in the

first

it

so as

to avoid referring

back to the

grade.

This pattern

and

is

THE BACKPART.

Copy

the backpart

to

Square forward from

From A

is

is

and

make the distance from A to E K of 33 breast. Go up from From M to M is J/^ inch for every inch reduction. I to

Place the side of the backpart to points

side of small backpart

I,

y& inch.

the same.

I is

From F

to

is

to

and

to

M.

Draw

all

mark

from

to

and

to F.

Divide

paper,

the sizes.

THE FOREPARTS.

Trace the forepart on a

stiff

mark the

^

i

to i, and from 3 to 3 is the same. and 3 and trace the front edge from Z down. From 6 to 6 reduce the side of forepart Yf, inch for every inch, and from 4 to 4 the same. Place the side of forepart to points 6 4, and trace the side seam of the small pattern from 7 through 6 and 5 to 4. Ascertain the distance from D to J by sixths, and make the distance D to S proportionate!)-

From

2 to 2

is

the

same as from

i

the same.

For

S, Yb of

instance,

if

the distance

from

S.

to J

is

3^ of

is Y(>

to

33 breast.

Square up from

is

From From

".

to

O

to

the

to

inch decrease.

e.,

if

from

Q on Q

to

small pattern to

is

is

of

12,

inch, then

from

to

Y

and trace out the shoulder of the small

pat-

From O From N

to

is

Now

tern

;

N O Q

also

from

Points

Y X

where the

Make

pattern.

the distance

the gorge.

small pattern

the

same

as

to

is

on the large

to Z.

Now draw

Divide

all

to Q, T to T, Y to Y, to O, lines from 7 to 7, N to N, connecting points into five equal parts and number them.

to

and Z

Now

Do

all

mark

Prick through

this to all

points

marked 37 and

Now

jirick

With an awl

38 pattern.

through

all

them with the next larger pattern.. and mark the front of artnscye. points marked 37. Remove the grade and trace out with the

Do

19

DIAGRAM

5.

20

How

The

sack coat

is

to

Single Pattern

is the same as the sack coat with this exception, the and this coat has three parts, /. e., the back, sidebody and forepart. The division at the back seams must therefore be in three parts instead of two, and as 3-12 equals '/j, and the division is J4 inch for every inch, each part must have either aii increase or

decrease of

-,ij

is

The

size

of this pattern

38 breast and

is

THE BACKPART.

PYom A

to

is

the distance

B and make

is

from B

to

i,

>^ of

34 breast.

inch.

From 4

to 3

is

the

H 30

A

2

same as from

to B.

B 2 and

3

i

and trace

out.

From E From D

Place

F is T^ inch for every inch. to C and J to I are the same. F C the backpart to points H

to

is

and trace

out.

From Draw

I to J.

lines

to 30

the same as

to 29. 3 to 4, 30 to 29,

connecting

all

5,

to F,

to

and

Divide

all

THE SIDEBODY.

Reduce

the sidebody

from 12

to 13

from 8

to 7,

and

Place the sidebody to points 8

inch.

E and trace

out.

Now

divide

all

THE FOREPART.

Reduce from 17 to 16 ^^ inch for every inch, and from Reduce from P to Y 34 inch for every inch, and from Q

Place the forepart, breast line on breast line to points

25 through

K

to

to

20 the same.

the same.

Z

;

Y Z

Y and

to S.

to

same.

M

V

to

W

U

X

is

the

same

as

from

on backpart.

as

W W

to 23

to

and from 22 to

is is

are the

same

from 28 to

W.

(See

first

to

diagram.)

to 25.

Now

them.

all

U23 W,

THE

and trace

all

out, also

from

Connect

number

SKIRT.

to T,

Reduce the skirt from 34 to 33, J4 inch for every inch. Measure the small front and sidebody from S to 16 and

to

skirt

from 33

32 the same.

DIAGRAM

6.

From 35 to 36 is the same as from 31 to 32. Place the skirt pattern to points 32 36 and trace into four equal parts and number each size. For cutting out you proceed as follows

down;

also trace

down from

33, divide

all

mark

is

points

marked

37.

Remove

the grade and trace out with the next larger size which

for the next

size.

the 38

backpart.

Continue

in the

same way

Prick through

all

points

marked 36

THE SIDEBODY.

Place the graded sidebody on a paper and

bottom from

through

all

to 17.

Prick through

all

places

mark down the side as from E to T and the marked 37 and trace out with the 38 pattern. The

the

places

the 38 pattern.

To

THE BACKPART.

Extend lines B to A, 2 to 5, 3 to At B A increase from 38 to 43

4,

30 to 29,

to G,

to

and

to J.

in the

same proportion

as the decrease

was from 38

to

34,

same proportion as the decrease was from 38 to 34. same proportion as the decrease was from 38 to 34. The sidebody and skirt are increased in the same way as the backpart, . e., increase in the same proportion as the decrease was made.

increase from 38 to 43 in the

all

which At 2

is Yf,

Increase at

grading points

in the

The forepart is increased as follows: At line Y P add J4 '"ch for every size,

at lines

all

size; at 17

portion as

and 16 add -^ inch for every size; the decrease was from 38 to 34.

Z Q and S R add 5-16 inch for every other points are increased in the same pro-

23

DIAGRAM

7.

24

to

How

The

42 breast and

is

Single Pattern

THE BACKPART.

From A

to

is

the distance

B and make

from B

to

i,

of 38 breast.

From 4 From E From D Draw

Divide

to 3

is

is ]/&

is

4-8 inch.

the

H 30

A

B

to B.

to

H.

same as from

to to

2 and 23

H F C I

and trace

out.

is

lines

and trace

out.

4,

connecting

all f>oints

grade points from 2 to 5, 3 to into four equal parts and number them.

all

to F,

to

and

I to J.

THE SIDEBODY.

Reduce the sidebody from 12

to 13, -^ inch for every inch,

to 7,

and from 7 through 13 and down; from 13 to From 9 to 8 is T^ inch for every inch. Place the sidebody to points 8 *, which

15

is

the

same

as 12 to 14.

is

and trace

out.

Now

divide

all

THE FOREPART,

Reduce from 17 to 16, -^ inch for every inch, and from K to 20 the same. inch for every inch, and from Q to Z the same. Reduce from P to Y Place the forepart, breast line on breast line to points Y Z; and trace the front edge from 25 through Y and Z to S.

is

to

17.

16

is

and trace

out.

From

above

18 to 16

17.

is

the

same

as 19

From

(See

the

same as 16

same.

L by sixths, and make from 24 to 21 proportionately the Square up from 21. is the same as from A to B on backpart. From to From \' to 23 and from 22 to U are the same as from 28 to W. From to U is J^ inch less than 2 to 3 on backpart. From to X is proportionately the same as from iVI to N. (See first diagram.) Square forward from X.

Ascertain the distance from 24 to

first

diagram.)

W W

Now

them.

all

U23W,

and trace

all

out, also

from

W to

25.

Connect

and number

Prick through

the 42.

all

points

largest pattern,

which

is

In increasing the sizes begin with the 43 and trace out with the 42

smallest.

which

is

the next

25

DIAGRAM

8.

26

to

How

The

Single Pattern

graded down

38 breast and

is

to 34.

THE BACKPART.

From

From From

A

I

to

is

to 2

is

from

to

i,

>^ of 34 breast.

5^ inch.

ind

to

29 to 30

is

H 30

is

4-8 inch.

to B. From 4 to 3 is the same as from Place the backpart to points B 2 and 2 From E to F is T*z inch for every mch.

3 and trace

and trace

5,

out.

From

to

is

the same.

H FCI

out.

Draw

I

3 to 4, 30 to 29,

to F,

to

and

to J.

Divide

all

THE SIDEBODY.

Reduce the sidebody from 12

to 13 t's inch for every inch, and from 6 to 7 the same. Place the sidebody breast line on breast line to points 13 7 and trace out from 8 to 7 and

from 7 through 13 and down. From 13 to 15 is the same as 12 to 17. inch for every inch. From 9 to 8 is Place the sidebody to points 8 star, which is slightly above the breast Now divide all grading points into four equal parts and number them.

line,

and trace

out.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce from 17 Reduce from P

to 16

to

t*!

Y ^

K to 20 the Q to Z the

same.

same.

Place the forepart, breast line on breast hne to points Y Z, and trace the front edge from 25 through Y and Z to S. Point S is as much above the lower line as line 16 is above line 17. 16 and trace out. Place the side of forepart to points 20 Ascertain the distance from 24 to L by sixths, and make from 24 to 21 proportionately the

same.

(See

first

W W

Square up from 21. same as from A to B on backpart. to 23 and from 22 to U are the same as from 28 to W. to U is J^ inch less than 2 to 3 on backpart. (See to X is proportionately the same as from M to N.

diagram.)

is

to

the

first

diagram.)

to 25.

Square

forward from X.

Now

them.

all

U 23 W,

all

Connect

grading

f)oints as

number

THE

SKIRT.

skirt

inch for every inch. Reduce the skirt from 34 to 33, Measure the small front from S to 16 and 15 to T, and make the

from 33

to

32 the

same.

down; also trace down from 33, divide and number each size. For cutting out always begin with the next to the largest size, in this case the 37. Prick through all points marked 37 and trace out with the next largest pattern, which is the 38. The rever is graded as follows From R to 10 is the same as S to 25 on forepart, from 10 to 14 is the same as 11 to 15,

into four equal parts

From 35 to 36 is the same as from 31 to 32. Place the skirt pattern to points 32 36 and trace

DIAGRAM

9.

28

This grade is made from a 38 breast pattern and is graded down to 34 inch breast. The back and sidebody being graded the same as the other frock coats, we will just show the front

and the

skirt.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce from 17

to 16, xV '"ch for every inch.

From

to 20

is

the

same as 17

to 16.

Reduce from P

to

Y ^

to

the same.

Place the forepart, breast line on breast line to points and Z to S. 25 through

Y Z,

16

D

to 17.

is

From C

Line

to 16

is

is

the

same length

line

as

from

as

much above

as line 16

above

line 17.

M

V

to

is

to 23 to

to

W W

to U are the same as from 28 to W. U is ^ inch less than the back shoulder seam. X is proportionately the same as from M to N. (See

and from 22

first

diagram.)

Now

to points

Connect

lines

as

from

U 23 W, O to 15.

is

to 10.

14 to 26

where the

to 15

;

is

from 10

all

to 11

and from 14

also

from 26

all

to 27.

Now

ber them.

connect

and num-

THE

Reduce the

skirt

SKIRT.

and from 31 to 32 the same.

from 34

the

From 35 From 36

number them.

to to

36

32

is

is

same as from 35

35, 33

to 31.

34,

Connect points 32

31 36

in the

all

and

38.

29

DIAGRAM

10.

30

How

This grade

to

is

a 38 breast

Single Pattern

made from

and

is

THE BACKPART.

From

to

is

is

4-6 inch.

to

3

to

>^ of 34 breast.

From C

is

J^ inch.

Place the square to the breast line so that the right angle will touch at

2.

toG.

and to L are % inch for every inch. Place the back pattern to points B D and trace out; also trace out from D to F, from to H and H through J to L. Draw lines connecting points D E, F G, H I, J K, and L M. Divide all connecting points into four equal parts and number them according to size.

square up from

to

is

the

same

as

from

to B,

which

is

I to

to J

THE FOREPART.

Ascertain the distance from 4 to

tionately the same.

For

instance,

if

from 4

to

;

is

34 of 38 breast plus

inch

make

is

5^ of 34 breast plus

inch

square up from S.

;

and Z to i are the same. i and trace the front edge; also trace cut Place the front edge of pattern to points \' X the shoulder, opening and armscye. Draw lines connecting points N O, P Q, V'-^W, X Y and Z i, and divide all connecting points into four equal portions and number them. Now beginning with the backpart, mark the center seam and bottom.

to

to to

is

'4 inch

from

O to N

the

same

as

from S

to P.

W to V reduce the

X

is

to F.

Prick through

all

Follow

this up,

points marked 37 and trace it out with the 38 pattern. and as before, prick through all points marked 36 and trace

it

THE FOREPART.

Place your graded forepart on a paper

through

all

points

until finished,

mark the armscye and side seam, after which prick marked 37 and trace it out with the 38 pattern. Keep on in the same way always tracing out with the next larger pattern,

;

31

DIAGRAM

II.

32

Double Grading

For the man who

is

is

will

it,

It

is

the

quickest, surest and most simple way, and although some cutters alteration it is easier to make one model, alter it and grade from

argue that

yet

if

in case

of an

it

the 38,

it

is

just as easy to

is

This grade

is

made from

This grade

made from

Single'Breasted Sack

Coat

THE B^CKPART.

on breast

Place the backpart of a 36 breast pattern on the backpart of a 42 pattern, with the breast Mark the small back on the large one. line, and centre seam to centre seam.

line

Draw

all

lines

from

to

D,

E to E, B to B, F to F, C to C, G to G, and X to X. Divide between the small and large patterns into six equal parts and number

size.

THE FOREPART.

Copy

lines

stiff

paper

also

mark

Place the front of the 36 breast pattern on the 42 front, with breast line on breast line, and Mark the small pattern on the large one also mark the

;

Now

connect

all

shown from L

to L,

to

U, 6 to

6, J to J, 5

to

5,

to

Q,

P

;

to P,

to

O, and

N

all

to

K to K, R to R, S to S, T to T, N, and make as many more lines into six equal parts and number

ihem.

Now

Do

all

mark

Prick through

points

marked 37 and

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a paper and

Prick through

all

points

Do

the

mark the front of armscye. marked 37 and trace it out with the 36 pattern. 38 forepart, and trace it with the 37 pattern and so on

until finished.

33

DIAGRAM

12.

34

Double Grading

This grade

is

made from

THE BACKPART.

on breast

Place the backpart of a 38 breast pattern on the backpart of a 48 pattern with the breast line Mark the small back on the large one. line, and centre seam to centre seam.

Draw

Divide

lines

all

from

D to

D,

to E,

to B,

to F,

to C,

to

and

to X.

the corresponding points between the small and large pattern into ten equal parts

to size.

THE FOREPART.

Copy

lines

on a

stiff

paper; also

mark

the breast

and waist

line,

Place the front of the 38 breast pattern on the 48 front, with breast line on breast Mark the small pattern on the large one; also

and

the

mark

shown from L to L, K to K, R to R, S to S, T to T, Q, P to P, O to O, and N to N, and make as many more lines as desired so as to ensure perfect lines; and divide them all into ten equal parts and number

Now

connect

all

to

U, 6

to 6, J to J, 5 to 5,

to

them.

Now

Do

all

Prick through

points

marked 39 and

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a paper and Prick through

all

mark

points

Do

the

marked 39 and trace it out with the 38 pattern. 40 forepart, and trace it with the 39 pattern and so on

until finished.

35

Tl

tX

PIAGRAM

13.

36

THE BACKPART.

line

on breast

Place the backpart of a 33 breast pattern on the backpart of a 43 pattern, with the breast Mark the small back on the large one. line, and centre seam to centre seam.

Draw

Divide

parts and

lines

all

from

to D,

to E,

to B,

to F,

to C,

to G,

to

and

to

I.

division according to size.

number each

THE FOREPART.

Copy

lines

the

stiff

paper

also

mark

and pockets.

Place the front of the 33 breast pattern on the 43 front, with breast line on breast Mark the small pattern on the large one; also

line,

and

the

mark

Now

connect

6,

all

shown

from'

to L,

K to

K,

to R,

to S,

to T,

to O, and to N, and make as many more J to J, 5 to 5, Q to Q, P to P, lines as desired so as to ensure perfect lines; and divide them all into ten equal parts and

to

U, 6 to

number them.

Now

Do

all

Prick through

points

marked 34 and

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a paper and Prick through

all

mark

trace

points

Do

the

it it

out with the ^^ pattern. with the 34 pattern and so on until finished.

trace

37

DIAGRAM

14.

38

How

This grade

to

is

to

for a Frock

Coat

made from 34

42 breast.

THE BACKPART.

Place the backpart of a 34 size frock coat on a 42 centre seam to centre seam. Mark the small pattern on the large one.

size,

with breast

line

on breast

line,

and

Draw

lines

connecting points

all

Now

divide

F F, C C, G G

and

i i.

to sizes.

THE SIDEBODY.

Place the 34 sidebody on the 4-2 size, with breast line on breast line, keeping them even at line 89, mark the small sidebody on the large one U, and draw as many more lines as you Draw lines connecting points I I, Y Y, and parts graded. like so as to ensure perfect uniformity of the

THE FOREPART.

Copy the forepart

of the 42 breast size on a

stiff

it,

lines.

Place the forepart of tlie 34 breast size upon armscye to front of armscye. Mark the small pattern upon the large one.

Draw

lines

connectuig points

and

all

lines as desired to

Divide

the pockets proceed as follows:

part, after

regular breast pocket on tlie 42 copy, and mark the regular pocket on the 34 forewhich mark the breast pocket of the small pattern on the 42 copy and divide the difference between the large and small pockets into 8 equal parts and number them.

THE

SKIRT.

Place the 34 size skirt on the 42 size keeping them even as at 10 on the large one.

7.

Mark

Point 7 them.

is

where the

S

skirts diverge.

Connect points

and 6

6 and

number

This finishes the grade. Now beginning with tlie backpart. mark the

centre

all

points

marked

35.

Remove

Repeat

in the

and trace out the 35 with the 34 pattern. same way marking out the 36 size and tracing it out with the 35 backpart.

THE SIDEBODY.

Place the graded sidebody on a paper and

mark

it

is

side-

bodies diverge), through 8 to 9. Prick through all points marked 35 and trace

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on

Pridv through

-a

it it

all places marked 35 and trace Repeat the same, marking the 36 and tracing

out with the 34 pattern. out with the 35 pattern, and so on until

finished.

THE

Place the graded

skirt

SKIRT.

t%vo skirts diverge to

10,

:

down

all

points meet at 7.

and trace

it

39

DIAGRAM

15.

40

How

to

is

Coat

This grade

made from 38

to

48 breast.

THE BACKPART.

centre

the small pattern

lines

size,

line,

and

Mark Draw

connecting points

all

AA, DD, E E, F F, C C, G G,

and

and

i.

Now

sizes.

divide

to

THE SIDEBODY.

line

Place the 38 sidebody on the 48 size, with breast line on breast 8 ^ mark tlie small sidebody on the large one.

line,

Draw

you

lines

connecting points

like so as to

many more

lines as

THE FOREPART.

Copy

armscye

the forepart of the 48 breast size on a stiff paper and mark the breast and waistlines. Place the forepart of the 38 breast size upon it, with breast line on breast line and front of

to front

of armscye.

Mark the small pattern upon the large copy. Draw lines connecting points L L, K K, RR, O; and draw as many more lines as desired to ensure

Divide

all

S S, T T, JJ, Q Q, P P,

perfect uniformity of the foreparts.

and

number them.

Now

Mark the centre seam and prick through all points marked 39. Remove the graded backpart and trace out the 39 with the 38 pattern. Repeat in the same way marking out the 40 size and tracing it out with

the 39 backpart.

THE SIDEBODY.

Place the graded sidebody on a paper and

bodies diverge), through 8 to

9.

mark

trace

as

from

star,

(which

is

side-

Prick through

all

jxiints

marked 39 and

it

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a paper and

Prick through

all

mark

Repeat the

finished.

marked 39 and trace it out with the 38 pattern. same, marking the 40 and tracing it out with the 39 pattern, and

places

so on until

4i

DIAGRAM

i6.

42

to

How

Make

is

Frock

This grade

made from

a 38 to 44 breast.

1

size,

THE BACKPART.

Place the backpart of a 38 size frock coat on a 44

centre

line,

and

seam

to centre seam.

Mark Draw

lines

connecting points

all

AA, D D, E E, B B, F F, CC, G G,

and

i.

Now

divide

to sizes.

THE SIDEBODY.

Place the 38 sidebody on the 44 size, with breast line on breast line 8 9, mark the small sidebody on the large one.

line.

at

Draw

you

like so as to

U U

many more

lines as

THE FOREPART.

44 breast size on a Place the forepart of the 38 breast size upon armscye to front of armscye. Mark the small pattern upon the large copy.

the

stiff

it,

lines.

Draw

O O;

THE

SKIRT.

and

all

lines as desired to

Divide

Place the 38 size skirt on the 44 size, keeping them even at star, which is half way between Mark tlie small skirt on the large one. 5 and 7. Connect points 5 5, 6 6, 7 7 and 8 8 and divide the connecting lines into 6 equal parts

THE REVER.

Place the rever of the 38 coat on the 44 rever, keeping them even on the straight line and bottom; connect points 9 9, and 10 10 and divide them into 6 equal parts.

Now

marked

the graded backpart

centre

all

points

39.

Remove

Repeat

in the

and trace out the 39 with the 38 pattern. same way marking out the 40 size and tracing it out with the 39 backpart.

THE SIDEBODY.

Place the graded sidebody on a paper and bodies diverge through 8 to 9.

Prick through

all

mark

it

as

from

star,

which

is

side-

points

marked 39 and

trace

THE FOREPART.

mark the front of the armscye. marked 39 and trace it out with the 38 pattern. Repeat the same, marking the 40 and tracing it out with the 39 pattern, and

Place the graded forepart on a paper and

Prick through

all

places

so

on

until fin-

ished.

THE

SKIRT.

Place the graded skirt on a paper and mark across the top as from 5 through the star to 7. Prick through at 5 6 7 8 at places marked 39. Remove the grade and trace out with

the 38 pattern.

ished.

Do

is

the

same

as the other parts.

the 39 pattern

and so on

until fin-

The

rever

43

DIAGRAM

17.

44

How to

for a Dress

is

Coat

only necessary

This grade is made from 34 to 42 breast. This grade being made the same as the other double grade frock coats,

to describe the foreparts.

it

THE FOREPART.

Copy

the forepart of the 42 breast size dress coat on a stiff paper and mark the breast line. Place the forepart of the 34 breast size upon it, with breast line on breast line and front of

armscye to front of armscye. Mark the small pattern upon the large copy.

Draw

lines

K K, R R, S S, T T, J Q Q, P P,

J,

and

00.

Points 3

fish is cut

is

where the

is

11

12 13

is

where the

Connect points

Divide

all

13

13, also

M M

3 3.

places

number them.

all

Repeat the

finished.

mark the front of the armscye. marked 35 and trace it out with the 34 pattern. same, marking the 36 and tracing it out with the 35 pattern, and

so on until

45

DIAGRAM

8.

46

The

The The

sleeves are graded as follows;

Sleeve

also the

armscye

HOW TO

GRADE.

These sleeves are graded from 34 to 42. Place the top sleeve of the 34 pattern on the top sleeve of the 42, the sleeves to lay even at O A, so that the front notch will come together on both sleeves. Mark the small pattern on the large one. Draw lines connecting E E, C C, B B and A A. Put in other lines as at F F, G G, and H H, so as to ensure perfect uniformity of the patterns. Divide all connecting lines into eight equal portions and number them according to sizes.

THE UNDERSLEEVE.

Place the undersleeve of the 42 size on a

stiff

it

out.

Place the undersleeve of the 34 pattern on the 42 undersleeve. Keep them even at points N J. Mark the small undersleeve on the large one.

Now Now

connect points

all

N N,

J

O

M M and

P P.

Divide

the

two

and mark as from I (which is where and from O to A. Prick th.'f ugh all points marked 35 and trace it out with the 34 pattern. Continue in the same way pricking through all points marked 36 and trace it out with the

sleeves diverge), to point

35 pattern.

THE UNDERSLEEVE.

Place the graded undersleeve on a paper and mark as from to J. Prick through all points marked 35 and trace it out with the 34 pattern. Continue in the same way pricking through all points marked 36, and tracing

35 pattern, and so on until finished, always tracing out with the next smaller

it

size.

47

DIAGRAM

19.

48

How

The grading of

Cut a

collars

to

Grade Collars

and one for the

largest pattern.

Place the small pattern on top of the large one, the crease line as at point

to meet.

Draw

the

lines

connecting the small collar with the large one, divide them into as

is

many

parts

as the difference

same way

as

it

all

between the smallest and the largest pattern, number them, cut them out in double grades are cut, beginning with the next to the smallest collar and

size.

always tracing

49

DIAGRAM

20.

50

The

How

This grade

is

Double Grade

Two

Patterns

to

made from 34

Place the backpart of a 34 inch breast waistcoat on a 42 inch back pattern with breast line on breast line and centre seam to center seam. Mark the small pattern on the large one.

Draw

lines

connecting

all

G G;

two armscyes

B, CC, EE, F F,

and

all

number them.

THE FOREPART.

Trace out the forepart of a 42 inch breast waistcoat on a paper

lines,

;

mark

the breast

and waist

Now

on breast

place the forepart of a 34 inch breast waistcoat on the 42 forepart with breast line

line,

and front of armscye to front of armscye; mark the small pattern on the large one; also prick through the pockets of the small waistcoat on the large pattern.

N'ow draw connecting lines between the two foreparts as from J J, L L, M, O O, and I I also connect the pockets as from S S, R R, Q Q, and P P. Put in as many extra lines as you like so as to ensure perfect uniformity. Divide all the connecting lines into 8 equal parts and number them. This finishes the grade.

M

after

through

all

the backpart,

35.

mark the

centre

which prick

points

marked

Remove

Continue

the grade

in

the

and trace out the 35 backpart with the 34 pattern. same way with the 36, tracing it out with the 35 pattern.

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a sheet of paper and

sc>c, the side of tlie forepart

35-

mark around

places

marked

Remove

Continue

in the

same way, always tracing out. with the next smaller pattern.

51

DIAGRAM

21.

M E RICA i\

PA TTBR

GRADER

How

to grade stout vests

is

from two

patterns.

This grade

made from 38

Place the backpart of a 38 inch breast waistcoat on a 48 inch back pattern with breast line on Mark the small pattern on the large one.

lines

Draw

connecting

all

at

GG

two armscyes as

D D,

A A, and divide

B B, CC, E E, F F,

all

and

ten

into

number them.

THE FOREPART.

Trace out the forepart of a 48 inch breast waistcoat on a paper; mark the breast and waist

lines also the pockets.

Now

on breast

line,

the 48 the

forepart

lines

to front of armscye.

Mark

one; also prick through the pockets of the small waistcoat on the large pattern.

Now

and

I

draw connecting

LL, M M, O O, P.

J,

Put

grade.

in as

all

many more

lines as

you

like so as to

Divide

number them.

Now

all

Mark the centre seam and tottom, after which prick through Remove the grade and trace out the 39 backpart with the 38

Continue with the 40

in the

points

marked

39.

pattern.

it

THE FOREPART.

Place the graded forepart on a sheet of paper and mark around the lower part of

scye, the side of the forepart

tlie

arm-

after

which

prick

through

all

places

marked

39.

Remove

Continue

in the

M ER

CA N P

53

DIAGRAM

22

54

\~\oyv

to

Grade a Double-Breasted

NA^aistcoat

from

Two

The double grade

coats, except lines

Patterns

is

made

V,

lap.

;

lines, also the pockets.

mark

the breast

and waist

Now place the forepart of a 34 inch breast waistcoat on the 42 forepart with breast line on breast line, and front of armscye to front of armscye. Mark the small pattern on the large one also prick through the pockets of the small waistcoat on the large pattern. M, O O, Now draw connecting lines between the two foreparts as from J J, L L, and I I; also connect the pockets as from S S, R R, Q Q, and P P. Put in as many more lines as you like so as to ensure perfect uniformity. Divide all the connecting lines into eight equal parts and number them. This finishes the

;

grade.

35-

Place the graded forepart on a sheet of paper and mark around the lower part of the armand part of the bottom, after which prick through all places marked

Remove

Continue

the grade and trace out with the 34 pattern. in the same way always tracing o.it with the next smaller pattern.

AM

h'

.1 .\

PATTER N GRADER

55

DIAGRAM

23.

56

How

to

Grade Trousers

seat.

THE FOREPART.

B G on and centre line on centre line. If the trousers have no centre line, a centre line may be drawn in the following manner; Point E is half way between D and L and the double circle line is half way between B and G. Draw a line from E through the double circle. Now place centre line on centre line. Draw lines connecting the smallest with the largest pattern, as from A to A, I to I, B to B, C to C, D to D, L to L, K to K, G to G, J to J, and H to H. Divide all connecting lines into 6 equal part.s and number them.

Place the forepart of a 34 size pattern on the forepart of a 40 pattern with lines

lines

G,

THE BACKPART.

Place the 34 backpart on the 40 backpart, keeping them even at the side seam. Connect points Q, R, S S, O, M, N, T, U, P,

WW.

T U

it

\' V, and

Divide

all

as explained here, or

The backpart may be graded either in the way and half in the same way as the forepart is.

If the side

may

be graded half

way because

it

seams of the smallest and largest backparts are even, it if the side seams do not come out even

is

it

is

best to grade

them

trace

same way

all

Now

it

points

marked 35 and

trace

way

pricking through

all

points

marked 36 and

the 35 pattern

and so on

until finished.

THE BACKPART.

Place the graded backpart on a piece of paper and trace

all ]X)ints

down

the side

seam

the

prick through

marked 35 and

backpart

is

If the

out with the 34 pattern. graded half and half then it must be cut out

trace

it

in

same way

as the

forepart.

57

DIAGRAM

24.

5

Block

Patterns

and

;

How

to

Use

Them

In the use of block patterns, the various attitudes are divided into three degrees, i.e., the shghtly erect, the erect and the over-erect the slightly stooping, the stooping and the very stooping (the hunchback

is

;

normal, the square and the high shoulder's. To meet these attitudes, use 34 inch for each degree in the following manner: For instance, if your order calls for a coat or a waistcoat for a slightly stooping figure,

the.

it

means

is

to be lengthened

J4 inch

to be left as

it is.

add

"^

amount from

the strap.

strap.

The

reverse

is

very stooping, add ys inch to the scye depth, and deduct the This makes }i inch difTerence between the back and forepart. the rule for the erect. If the figure is described as slightly erect, reduce the

it

scye depth

is.

to the strap,

part

1/2

same to the strap, which again makes up three degrees. For the sloping shoulder, add ^4 inch to both scye depth, and strap for each degree, and for the square shoulders, reduce >4 inch from both scye depth and strap for each degree, of course the various heights must be considered, and these will be explained in connection with the proportion table on the first and second diagrams of How To Use Block Patterns.

DIAGRAM

The measurements given

Coat length

Breast over vest

for

25 manner

31 inches

5 feet

block

30 inches 38 inches

Sleeve

Height

Figure

Shoulders

4 inches

Waist

34 inches

Hip

40 inches

Normal Normal

By

we

Scye depth

9

16

inches

inches

Blade (actual)

Waist length

Strap

17^ 11^

inches inches

I2j^ inches

To which add

Total

i^

13

inches

inches

follows

From

is

to

is

the scye depth for a 38 breast, 5 feet 4 inches in height, plus }i inch, which

g}i inches.

Move the backpart down to B and keeping even at the centre seam, mark from B to D. From E to F is ^ the distance of A to B. Turn the back shoulder and mark from D to

F.

From I to J and K to L are the From G to H is the same as from E to F on backpart. Move the pattern down, keeping it even at the front edge, and mark from

the front shoulder and shape

to J

J to L.

Turn

from

and

finish.

SLEEVES'-DIAGRAM

The

is

26

Measure the upper part of the armscye from 6, which is the notch, to F, and from 5, which H in this case, the measure is gyi inches. Now select the sleeve to correspond with the pattern used, and draw a line from i (which

;

is

2.

I

From

to 2

is

line.

Now

ure

to 3, full length plus

amount

to 2,

and meas-

down

inch.

it

Move

the pattern

up

to 3,

keeping

/i

59

(X,

DIAGRAM

The measurements

Full length

27

are as

follows:

32>4 inches

Sleeve

38

34

inches inches

Height

Figure

34 inches feet 6

Waist

Hip

40

inches

Shoulders

Normal Normal

measurements

as follows:

By

10 18

we

Scve depth

inches

Overshoulder

Blade

18^

1

inches

Waist length

Strap

inches

1>4 inches

i>^ inches

13 inches

133^ inches

Add

for

make-up

Total

Measure from

to

B.

is

10%

inches.

From F to E is >^ the distance from A to Move the backpart up to A and keeping

from

to

mark

to C.

Turn

mark from C

and

finish.

THE FOREPART.

same distance as from B to A. and keeping it even at front edge, mark from I to K Turn the front shoulder and shape it from I to G. inch less than C to E. The waist length and full length are measured From I to G is

From Move

are the

THE SLEEVE'^^DIAGRAM

Measure the upper part of armscye from 6

inches.

to E,

28

measure

is

and

9^

Now

2.

to 2, 9)4 inches.

to 2

of sleeve from

and measure

line.

down

inch.

Move

the pattern

down

to 3,

keeping

it

even

at the front

6i

62

Block

Patterns

and

How

to

Use

Them

The

erect figure

:

This will show how to change a pattern from a normal to an erect figure. must be classified into at least two degrees, i.e., the erect and over-erect. For the erect figure the change is made as follows (see diagram 29)

Shorten the back scye from 14 to 15, 16 to 17 and 18 to 19, say J4 inch. Raise the forepart or lengthen the strap from 22 to 23, 54 inch add the same

;

inch from

20 to 21 and from 24 to 25

lines.

The

over-erect

is

is

flat

erect

whose back

small or

is

is full.

The change

5.

therefore

made

as follows (see

Diagram 30)

inch

;

Reduce the backpart from 2 to i and 4 to 3, 8 to 7 and 10 to 9 re-shape as per broken line.

;

to

THE FOREPART.

Reduce

"he side

to 19

and 18

to 17, J4 inch.

Now add inch at the front edge of the forepart as from 16 to 15 all the way down; also add 34 inch from 14 to 13 and form 12 to 11 and re-shape. Cut out a V at the gorge and finish.

63

64

Block

Patterns

33

DIAGRAM

The Hunchback

There

is

no

is

hump

same

place,

neither

is

it

always in the

Select

way

the pattern

may

be

fixed

as

follows:

measure and height. Split the backfrom A to B say ^ inch or i inch if the hump is very prominent, after which reduce the same amount from C to D and E to F and re-shape to G.

the

as

it

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the forepart from

backpart.

to J

and

to

the

same amount

as

from C

line.

to

on the

Move

the pattern

down

to points J

From

J to

is

to

on backpart.

DIAGRAM

Normal

Reduce the backpart from

Figure,

34

Square Shoulders

to

^

B

Move

the backpart

down

to points

to

the same.

to

and

to E.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the forepart from

I

Move From

the pattern J to

down

to J

D

to E.

to J

;

to

the same.

from

to J.

is

line.

65

66

DIAGPvAM

31

Normal

THE BACKPART.

Add from A to B and C to D >4 inch. Move the backpart up to points B D and

to

and

to L.

THE FOREPART.

E to F and G to H J4 inch. Move the forepart down to F H, and trace out from J From F to J is Yi inch less than D to L.

Reduce the forepart from

to

and

F to H

broken

line.

DIAGRAM

32

Normal

THE BACKPART

Add from A

line.

to B,

to

D,

to F,

to

and

to J

'4

THE FOREPART

Add

to the side of

forepart

at tlie

inch as from

to L.

to

seams, which

is

J-S

34

inch.

the side

inch.

to

Reduce from

M

is

N,

to

P and R

to

From

to

to

F on

backpart.

Reshape

as per

broken

line.

67

68

DIAGRAM

35

Reduce the backpart from A to B and C to D Reduce the forepart from F to H ^ inch. From H to G on forepart is y& inch less thin

line.

^

D

inch,

and re-shape

to E.

to

on backpart; re-shape

as per broken

DIAGPvAM

36

These

ing figure

flat

and

flat chest.

is

stooping figure,

to 2

normal blade

made

as follows

as

it

is

and 3 to

4,

>:4

inch and

69

70

DIAGRAM

Normal

37

THE BACKPART.

Add from B to A 5^ inch and from D to C the same. Move the backpart up to A C and re-shape as to E.

THE FOREPART.

Add from J to I 5^ Move the pattern up

From

I to

to I

K and re-shape.

C

to E.

to

the same.

is

line.

DIAGKAM

38

THE BACKPART.

Add

E.

to the scye depth

inch from

to

B and C

to D.

line to

THE FOREPART.

Add

inch from

to J

and

to G.

line to point

K.

71

72

DIAGRAM

39

THE BACKPART.

Raise the backpart from

C.

to

B and C

to

D ^

inch.

From B

to

is

the

same as

to

Re-shape to

THE FOREPART.

Raise the forepart from

H

G

to

^4 i"ch.

line.

Add

y4 inch

from F

to

DIAGKAM

How

Add from D

From B

to

to

40

the

to

Increase

Waist

Sweep from B

to

is

5^ the

amount of from

to E.

73

74

DIAGRAM

41

How

to

is

Reduce from D to E, % inch for every inch the waist Sweep from B to C pivoting at A. Advance from B to C the amount of D E.

to be reduced.

H E

and reshape.

is

Add from F

to

the

DIAGRAM

42

How

to Exaggerate a

THE BACK.

Mark around

the back

from

to

and from

down

to L.

Add from B to C ^ inch for every inch exaggeration, in this case yi inch From F to G is the same as B to C. From D to E is the same as B to C. Move the pattern, the side seam to touch at G C and E, and reshape.

for 2 inches.

THE FOREPART.

Add from H to L on forepart From J to R and O to M are

edge to touch at

the

R I

the

to

to

C

I.

on backpart.

the pattern forwards, the front

Move

and reshape.

75

7^

How

to

Make

a Double-Breasted

Single-Breasted

Forepart

from

Pattern

43

DIAGRAM

Add from B to C 2j4 From E to G is I inch.

E>rop the gorge >4 inch at A. inches and from

to

the same.

How

to

Make

DIAGRAM

After the pattern

is

44

THE BACKPART.

Point

is

half

way between

marked

in the

; ;

now add

and G; from E to A is i% inches; G to B is the same; a seam to the lower portion of the back and add the

same

and J from

to the yoke.

The

;

forepart

is

made

is

same way.

From

;

to J

is

inch;

is

half

way between

from

to

H to

D; add

cut the pattern through as from is the same to J^ inch a seam to the lower part of the front and the same to the yoke..

to

and

77

78

DIAGRAM

45.

How

to Increase the

Waist Length

B

in

a Frock Coat

Apply the waist length desired as from O to B. From C to D is the same as from A to B. Move the back pattern down to D and re-shape.

THE SIDEBODY.

From E to F and G to H are the same Move the sidebody down to F H and

as

from

to B.

re-shape.

THE FOREPART.

From Move

I to

to L are the same as to H. J and the front pattern down to J L, keeping it even at the front edge

and re-shape.

79

DIAGRAM

46.

How

to

Frock Coat

Apply the waist length desired from O to B. From C to D is the same as from A to B. Move the backpart up to B D and re-shape.

THE SIDEBODY.

From E to F and G to H are the same as from Move the sidebody up to H F and re-shape.

to B.

THE FOREPART.

From Move

I

to L are the same as G to H. to J and L, keeping it even at the front edge and re-shape. the front pattern up to J

8o

DIAGRAM

47.

THE BACKPART.

Add from A to B and C to D >4 inch. Move the backpart up to points B D and

to

and

to

J.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the forepart from

E to F and G to H J/4 inch. Move the forepart down to F H, and trace out from N From F to N is Yf, inch less than D to J.

to

F and F

to

broken

line.

DIAGRAM

48.

Shoulders

Add from A to B and C to D, ^4 inch. Add at E and F the same and re-shape.

Add

Chest,

Normal

THE BACKPART.

inch at

and

I,

re-shape.

Add

inch at J and K.

Reduce

same amount

that

seams which is j4 inch. Reduce from R to S and P to Q, 34 Reduce the same at T and re-shape,

inch.

DIAGRAM

49.

pattern corresponding with the breast measure and height. Split the backpart from A to B say fi inch or i inch if the hump is very prominent, after which reduce the same amount from C to D and E to F and reshape to G.

Select

the

as

and open

it

THE FOREPART.

Reduce from

H

is

From

to

on backpart.

From

J to

L J

is

and trace out also trace out the shoulder from J to N. F to G on backpart. Reshape as per broken line.

:

83

DIAGRAM

50.

THE BACKPART.

Reduce the backpart from A to B and C to D, K '"ch. Reduce at E and G Ys, inch and re-shape as per broken

line.

THE SIDEBODY.

Reduce Reduce

at

F and

19,

inch.

the

to 20

and re-shape.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the forepart at 16 and 21 Add from 12 to 13 and 15 to 14

forepart have been reduced.

Yg inch.

J4

inch,

which

is

the

amount

the sidebody

and

side of

Add from 6

to 7

and 8

to

line.

How

to

Make a Square

Shouldered

Inverness

Out

of a Kegular Overcoat

Select an overcoat pattern of the size required

THE BACKPART.

Reduce the backpart from B

to

and

to

seam

is

straight.

THE FOREPART.

Add from

to C.

K

to

the

same amount as

the backpart

is

reduced from

to

and

as to U.

From

is

to

Square back from

S and back

to

U, pivoting

3 inches.

at F.

From

to

is

From G From G

and

finish.

to If

is

is

'4 breast.

I J/^

to J

and shape the armscye from G through H and back to O. Sweep from G to J, pivoting at H. inches. Draw a line from U to J. Add 34 inch rounding

to line

DIAGRAM

51.

86

How How

to

to

Use Block

Patterns

Make a Round

Shouldered

Inverness

Out

Select an overcoat pattern of the size required

THE BACKPART.

From

to

is

1^4 inches.

indicated.

THE

Extend the breast

Point

line

CAPE.

From E to is 3/2 breast. Draw a line from to and K. From N to O is iJ4 inches. inch. Shape the cape from AI through O and L to J. Now mark arotmd K to L is From E to P is the the pattern from J to T, around the gorge and down the front edge. Sweep from P forwards to R and back to Q, pivoting at T. From R to S is sleeve length.

from

back.

K.

is

half

way between

inch.

Re-shape as indicated.

THE FOREPART.

G.

From E From C

to

to

is

3J2 inches.

is

on backpart

the

Square back from F to G. Shape the armscye from J to same as H to G on forepart. Notch the back at D.

87

DIAGRAM

52.

88

Circular

Square down and out from B.

Cape

and place the center of back pattern

to

Hne

A C

;

D

to

mark around

i

the back as

from

and from

to 4 and the

forepart from 4 to

and from

to 24.

;

Point 24

is

i

add from

to

7 on the backpart

-indicated.

to 25 the

i

same; re-shape as

lialf

at the front

edge at 24

Z,

to I

inch

draw a

line

from

A

;

to

24

point

is

way between

and 24

from

is

to

;

C

Z

is

is

i

sweep from C

finish.

to Z,

pivoting at

from

to

Y^ inch

inch

89

DIAGRAM

53

90

DIAGRAM

54.

Shoulder

Draw

it

Cape

and proceed as follows

line

as

from

A C; place the backpart pattern, the edge to touclv at A C, and mark around A to D and D to E; line B is the breast line; from B to F is 14 breast; F to G is

;

;

Yi breast

a line from D through G from A to C is the length of the cape desired sweep from H, pivoting at D; from H to I is 2^ inches; from I back to J is i inch; shape the side as indicated from D through E to J and shape the bottom of the cape from C to J.

Draw

to

91

DIAGRAM

55.

THE FOREPART.

The

forepart

is

made

as follows

same length as D to B; line E is the breast line; from E to O is i inch; O to F is 314 inches; to get J from F to G is >4 breast G to H is ^ breast draw a straight line from C through H to is i inch and from from J to K is I inch sweep from K to L, pivoting at P from L to N is the same; from P to B and C to K of the forepart is K inch more than D to J of the backShape the front of cape and finish as represented. part.

;

;

;

Place the forepart pattern on a sheet of paper and mark around it as indicated. to C is the same ; from D to breast from A to B is i inch ; From A to D is

is

the

92

DIAGR--^M

56.

THE BACKPART.

Reduce the scye depth y^ inch from

point E.

to

B and C

to D.

line to

THE FOREPART.

Add

inch from

to

and

to

J.

J.

93

DIAGRAM

57.

THE BACKPART.

Reduce from

to

>4 inch,

and re-shape

THE FOREPART.

Add from O to Reduce from I

to J

and and

to

N^

to

inch.

>^ inch

and re-shape

94

DIAGRAM

58.

THE BACKPART.

Reduce the scye depth

inch

from

to

B and C

to D.

to E.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce yi inch from

to

H.

line to point F.

95

DIAGRAM

59.

Shoulders Sloping,

Figure

Erect

THE BACKPART.

Add

to

to the scye

to

and

to C.

Then re-shape

THE FOREPART.

Add

J4 inch

from

to G.

line to F.

96

DIAGRAM

60.

Stooping Figure,

Normal Shoulders

THE BACKPART.

Add from A to From B to D is

B, and

the

to

same

as

D A

34 inch. to C.

line.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the forepart from H to I, % inch. Add 34 inch from G to F, and re-shape.

97

DIAGRAM

6i.

THE BACKPART.

Add from A

to

B and C

to

^4 inch

and re-shape

to E.

THE FOREPART.

Add from G to F From H to F is

54 inch

and from

to

the same.

}i inch

to E.

line.

MHR

./

.V

PA TTERN

GRADER

DIACRAM

6:

THE BACKFART.

Rctiuce the back from

D

to

to

From n

to

is

the

same as

.\

A A

is

V4 inch.

to B.

the

same as B

to D.

Ro-shapo.

THE FORErART.

From

1

to

is

'

.<

broken

line.

MER

CA

N P

TTERN GRADER

99

DIAGRAM

63.

THE BACKPART.

Add from G to H and I to J >$ inch. Add from E to F J^ inch and re-shape

as per broken

line.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce from

to

and

to

"/$

DIAGRAM

64.

A

Reduce from

THE BACKrART.

to

B and E

from

to

F

to

inch,

and rc-shape as per broken line to G. and open it until the distance from C to D

is

inch.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the front shoulders from

I

to

it

from

to L.

From L

to J

is

yz inch

more than F

to G.

Re-shape armscye.

DIAGRAM

65.

How

Point

to

Make a

Clerical

Waistcoat Out o^ an

Ordinary Pattern

A

is

line,

inch.

to E.

From B

to

is

J/^

breast plus

J/$

C down.

J/2

From C to D B to F is ^

is

J/^

breast plus

incii.

breast.

Draw

a line from

to D,

THE COLLAR.

From Draw From

Shape

D

I

to

is

J^ inch.

a line from

H through

to get

L

making

the height of the

and

finish,

same

as desired.

DIAGRAM

GCy

Clergyman's Waistcoat

A A

is

to

Button on

the

Side

Point

From

to

is

inch.

to E.

Square forward from P> to C breast, ])lus lj^ inch. Reduce the front at G and J one seam or '^ inch, and shape the front edge from

to

].

From C to D is ^f, breast i)his ^ inch. H to F is >^ breast. Draw a line from F to D and shape the gorge. The collar is made the same as on the ordinary clergyman's vest. The piece for the button .stand is cut as follows;

Follow the side of forciwrt. shoulder and armscye as indicated. From P> to K is I inch. L is I'i inches from the side seam. Cut the piece as from

to

and

finish.

The buttonholes

the

piece.

103

DIAGRAM

67.

How

to

Make

Go back from A to B >4 inch, and from E to D Draw a line from B through D to F. From C to J is 3 inches. F to G is V/a inches. Draw a line from J to G. From J to I is ^ inch.

the same.

to

is

the same.

finish the

bottom.

104

DIAGRAM

68.

How

From Draw From

6

to

to

Make a

Out

5 bade to. 4 is Jl inch. 7 back to 6 a line from 4 through 6 to get 10.

is

tiie

same.

10 to 11

is 23/2

is

i,'4

inches.

to

11 to 12

is -)i

inch.

inches,

and 8

11,

I

lines

from 8 to

is

back to 3

>^ breast.

a line from 2 through 3 down. Apply the opening measure plus yi inch from

to

B and

;4 inches to 10.

Sweep from

105

DIAGRAM

69.

How

From 6

to

Make a

Dress Vest

5.

Out of a Regular

4,

Pattern

The

u which

is

1/

/^

i. inch

Draw

a line from

to 3

]o6

DIAGRAM

70.

How

to

Reduce the

Rise; Also

How

to

Shorten or

Lengthen Trousers

THE FRONTPART.

from A to B as much as desired. From C to D is the same as from A to B. Move the pattern down to B D and measure 34 of waist from B

Reduce the

rise

to

D.

Reduce the

rise

from

to

to

the forepart

is

reduced from

to B.

How

Shorten Trousers

Apply the inseam length from the crutch down to H. From E to F is the same as G to H. Move the pattern up to F H and re-shape. From L to and J to K is half the distance of G to H.

THE BACKPART.

From N to Q and O to P is the same as G to H on forepart. From S to T and R to U are the same as L to M on forepart. Move the back pattern up to P Q and re-shape. To increase the rise and length proceed in the opposite way.

107

DIAGRAM

71.

Trousers

The

size of trousers is indicated

in

measure and

alter as follows

To reduce

the waist

From C

line.

to

is

of waist measure,

i.

e.,

THE BACKPART.

From

inch

to

W

half

I

is

as

per solid

line,

}i

V

To

as indicated.

is

F From F

Point

way between

34 of

and

J-

to

is

knee desired.

to

is

line.

THE BACKPART.

Point

is

half

way between

Q

;

and

S.

From O

to

is

to

is

the

same

re-shape.

To

io8

DIAGRAM

72.

Trousers

The

size of trousers is indicated

always take

To

THE FRONTPARTS.

Point 9

is

half

way between

and

4.

i.

From 9

9 to 2

is

e.,

for 40.

the same.

From Draw

5 to

is

J< inch

more than 4

to 5.

line.

a line

from 2

to 6

THE BACKPART.

If the seat

the backpart,

measure is only i or 2 inches larger than the waist measure, leave the and measure as follows: From 7 to 8 is J4 waist plus i inch for seams. Re-shape.

out of

109

DIAGRAM

73.

How

to

Block Pattern

of a Normal

proceed as follows: Take a normal pattern with the scat measure corresponding, aiid knee measure required from After measuring and marking the proper lengths appl>' the

NtoE.

from F, through E, to get point C, or add from B wanted, and shape from A through C and E down to F.

Draw

a line

to

say

u mch, or as much as

.

THE BACKPART.

From

to

is

Shape from

the

H to E on forepart. L down to M.

to J

is

the

same

as

to

on forepart.

DIAGRAM

74.

How

together.

tern as follows

Split the

to

Make Trousers

for a

Bow

Legged Person

his alter

feet

bowed by having the person stand with Measure as nearly as you can what space is between the knees and

pattern as from

close

your pat-

to

B and open

(see diagram

B) from C

to

J4 inch for

every inch space between the knees, straighten the inseam by filling it in slightly from E to F. Open the backpart from G to the same as the frontpart is opened from C to D.

MER

CA N FA

TT ER N

GRA

DER

DIAGRAM

75.

TOE

The

IN.

For a man whose toes point inward the crease of the trousers turns outward. alteration on the block pattern should be made as follows inch more or less as may be necessary, and reduce Add from 4 to 5 on the forepart say Re-shape as from A to 3 and P. to 5. the same amount on the outside seam from 2 to 3. broken lines.

THE BACKPART.

Add

2 to

3.

to the outside seam from 7 to 6 the same amount Reduce the same amount from 9 to 8 and re-shape

as per

broken

lines.

DIAGRAM

76.

TOE OUT.

I"r)r

the

man whose

toes ixiint

falls to the

inscam.

to the outside seam of forepart from 3 to 2, say }i inch, or as much as necessary. Reduce the same amount from 5 to 4 on the inscam and re-shape as per broken line.

The Add

alteration

THE BACKPART.

increased from 3 to

Reduce the outside seam of tiie backpart from 6 to 7, the same amount as the forepart is 2, add the same amount from 8 to 9 on the inseani and re-shape as per

lines.

broken

//

II

UICAN

PA T T

fi

RN C

A'

.ID B

"3

DIAfjRAM

78.

The

facinfj

for broar]

falls

arc cut as

follows:

After the side pockets are marked and notclicd on the forepart, mark from

to I)

incii.

to II

is

2>i inches,

falls

II

to J

is

-'^

inch,

to

(i is

the same.

Shape

tin-

lacing as indicated.

The narrow

Line

l*".

of forepart.,

.\

to C.

From F

to

]'..

to

!"

is

2 inches.

Draw

a line from

to

is

214 inches.

is

II

II

to

is

the same.

lJi;iw a line

I

I'mm

I

(j iliroi]j4h

Is

From K

Cut

to I.

j^ hicli.

to J is the

same,

(raw a

line

irom

to

I.

in the forepart

from

I) to F,

ii4

DIAGRAM

79

How

to

Make

Trouser Pattern

Select a block pattern to correspond with the seat

THE FOREPART.

Line

is

^J

is

is

From C

to

2j/$

inches.

is

D to E

P

is

4 inches.

M to O

half

From P

to

is is

is

to

R

L

the same.

>4 of small of

8 to

knee measure, 8 to S

to

is

the same.

is

the same.

to I

is

inch.

to

is

1%

inches.

THE BACKPART.

Line

ii^Y

is

is

to 2

23^ inches.

2 to 7

7.

is

4 inches.

lines across

from 2 and

is

is

to

Z on backpart

the

the

same

2 to 3 on backpart

same as

to

is

the

same

as

to

on

to

forepart.

Draw

W

part.

a line from

.^

to 6.

Shape the inseam as indicated. Apply the small of knee measure plus i mch from

is J<t

inch.

to

Apply the

calf

measure plus

is

I

inch from

From

to

'4

inches.

on backpart.

"5

DIAGRAM

79.

DIAGRAM

80

How

Line

to

Make Golf

Block Pattern

Select a block pattern to correspond with the seat measure

to

is

the same.

Draw

a line from

to E.

Point

is

half

way between

and E.

From J to M is From B to O is i^ inches. G to P is ^ From H to L is J/ inch. H to K is the From L to I is 34 bottom plus ^4 inch.

inch.

same.

to lo is the

same.

Cut out a

between

and

THE BACKPART.

is 5 inches. From R to S to X is the same. Draw a line from X to W. Point T is half way between X and Q. From Q to 3 is ;4 of knee plus >< inch.

\V.

Square up from

to

get

to 2

is

the same.

inches.

inch.

Cut out a

8 to 9

is

is

3^ inch and 6 to 7

is

the same.

to

the same.

V

to

between

From

U

Y

is

is

J4

to

the same.

finish.

117

DIAGRAM

80.

ii8

FIGURE

A.

The Low

Figure

Shoulder

shows a

fault

which

is

on

illustration.

the high shoulder side.

side is tight over ^he hip, and the fulness therefrom is carried over to This not alone causes the low side to wrinkle under the arm, but also to

side.

make

the coat

hang

to

one

How

in

Diagram A.

Let us say the difference between the high and the low shoulder is 3/^ inch. inch and re-shape. Split the backpart as from A to D, overlap as from D to E,

THE FOREPART.

Split the forepart as from B to G and overlap from between the high and the low shoulder.

to F,

inch,

which

is

the difference

The

alteration in the

in the

Ai)

is

body alongside of the backpart the same way as the sack coat.

same position

in

and overlap

M ERl C A N

If tlie difference

is

not

so great, alter

as follows

(Diagram A2)

Move

,^

the hackpart

down

to 4 the

same amount.

it

is.

as from i to 2, or '/< inch, reduce the back shoulder from Alake the distance from 4 to 6 the same as from 3 to 5, leaving the

front

shoulder as

Should

when

the coat

(

is

:

goods be of a

stri])ed material,

make

i

Diagram A3 )

Lower

to 2

high and low shoulder, reduce the shoulder from 6 to 5 the same amount, from 5 to 7 the same length as the original backpart is from 6 to 8.

make

the backpart

THE FOREPART.

Reduce the side of forepart from 3 to 4 the same amount as the backpart was reduced from I to 2. From 9 to .V is the same as from 3 to 4. I'lace the forepart pattern at points 4 A and re-shape as per broken line.

FIGURE

B.

FIGURE

Bi.

Figures

B and B show

i

same

coat.

and is too tight side seams, and shows a wrinkle under the collar. At the front the coat looks as if it were made button, and sticks out below the waist.

the coat catches,

At the back

for a fat

man;

it is

all

The cause of

these defects

is

the back

is

Diagram B. We will now show how to make these alterations in detail. As the back shows a slight wrinkle under the collar, there must be

to alter, see

slope, or a tightness over the shoulder pitch.

How

too

much

shoulder

i

We

it

will therefore

is.

to 2

and 3

to

4 about

123

We

As

there

will

now

is

the coat

i.

would be no tightness

at

shows that the tightness at the hip is were transferred to the side, the hip; therefore, the proper alteration is to swing the forepart

it

e.,

if

Should there be any tightness at the first button, all that is necessary is to crook and raise Diagram B i, broken line) about J^ inch. But if the first button is right, then make the alteration as shown on Diagram B. Raise the shoulder from 9 to 8 and 7 to 6 about 34 inch, and drop the backpart from 14 the same as the back is lowered to 15 the same amount; lengthen the forepart from 13 to 12

the shoulder (see

from 14

to 15,

which

is

"4 inch.

124

FIGURE

C.

125

DIAGRAM

C.

Figure

C shows

is

This defect

shoe" wrinkles. is called the '"horse the back of a sack, coat, with what for the forepart. caused by the backpart being too short

to be all

^rrc^'r

backus

::dSM:;s^een.

ri^U there

is

nled

up the shoulder will becon^e a

Lengthen the back from 6

little

.p

poi.

. Aft. t.

i

to

3 about 14 inch.

to

'"ch. 7. 3^

126

FIGURE

D.

FIGURE

Di.

FIGURES D and DI

wrinkles at the back of the neck, as illustrated by Figures D and Di arise from entirely different causes, as will be seen. See Figure D. Cause The collar is just right for height; yet there is a surplus amount of cloth between the shoulder-pitch and the neck, which shows that there is too much back length from the shoulder-pitch up; and yet, if the back scye were too deep, the backpart would drop and show a wTinkle at the back of the armscye; but as such is not so in this case, then the coat is too tight at the shoulder-pitch and must be altered as follows. (See Diagram D.) To alter Reduce the backpart from A to B and C to D, say, '/z inch, re-shape as p>er broken line to E, make the back slightly wider at F, so as to retain the shoulder width, and

Defect^The

let

Fig.

from the preceding, and shows that it is caused by the stretching of the collar stand from the fact that the collar lacks in height the same amount tliat the wrinkle takes up.

is

Di

to G, say

inch.

different

The collar stand, as cut and after the seam is sewed up, will fit to the back as on Figure Diagram D2; but when the stand is stretched, it becomes rounder than the back will allow (see Diagram Di), and thus forces the back away from its proper place and leaves a wrinkle underpeath.

To

alter

So,

in

order to

fix this

wrinkle, put in a

new

127

DIAGRAM

Di.

DIAGRAM

D2.

128

FIGURE

E.

129

DIAGRAM

E.

shoulder

The cause of this defect is that the Diagram E. Sweep from B to C pivoting at A; make the distance from B to C K' inch, or as much as is necessary. Lower the gorge from F to G the same amount as from B to C. From C to D is the same length as from B to E. Re-shape as per broken line.

Figure

is

E shows

a coat

too crooked.

How

I30

FIGURE

F.

F"igure

F shows

much overlap

at the front.

131

diagra:\i

f.

How

to alter, see

Diagram

F.

Should the coat have one inch too much overlap, straijjhten the shoulder jS inch, as frooi A to B, which is half of the excess overlap. Reduce from E to F, C to D, I to J and G to H the same amount.

132

FIGURE

G.

Figure

("i

slunvs a fault that has been very cuiniuoii lately, and for the want of a better name,

it

some

cutters call

"carbuncles."

These wrinkles are caused by the stretching of the front shoukler without adding extra

height to the shoulder pitch.

The

gorge

is

materials, for

order to

is not good at any time and is positively bad on striped no matter how careful you are, you cannot keep the stripe straight but if the But in stretched and the shoulder pitch made higher, these wrinkles would disappear. c. straighten stretch the gorge, it is necessary to first advance the shoulder point,

/.

the shoulder.

133

DIAGRAM

G.

This change

may

be

made

in the pattern

is

cut,

garment

is

finished.

To alter see Diagram G. Raise the shoulder pitch from 8 to 9 about }i inch straighten the shoulder as from 10 to half that amount make the length from 7 to 1 1 the same as from 7 to 10 and re-shape.

;

134

,/

FIGURE

H.

FIGURE

Hi.

Alterations

fault

is

and

How

to

Make Them

This

Fault: Coat wrinkles across the back under the collar and at the front shoulders.

more common

collars

in the

summer

time, as at

that

turn-down

and no waistcoats.

away from the collar band, and vacuum between the shirt and the outer edge of the collar. Therefore, when a coat is put on over a collar of that kind, especially when no waistcoat is worn, the coat collar cannot come close to the neck, because the shirt collar keeps it away and

the turn-down collar, the outer leaf invariably sticks

leaves a

On

Naturally,

if

still

wrinkle.

filling

summer

But the actual cause of the trouble is that the backscye is too deep, and in measuring for a coat, the scye depth should begin just where the collar edge ends. If an alteration is to be made on a garment of that kind it should be made as follows: Shorten the scye depth as from i to 2 and 3 to 4 (Diagram II) say half an inch, more or

according to the size of the wrinkle. tight shoulder will often make a wrinkle across the back,

in

less,

shoulder, as from 5 to 6, and re-shape as per broken lines. In case there is no outlet on the shoulder, make your alteration as in

the scve depth from

i

Diagram Hi.

Shorten

to 7 the

to 2

and 3 to

4, half

lines.

135

136

FIGURE

I.

137

DIAGRAM

I.

this

over the breast. Figure I shows a coat with what some tailors consider too much fold how to reduce While we do not consider this a fault, yet we have so many inquiries as to fold, that we herewith show how to make the alteration. Diagram I shows how the alteration is to be made. to D the same and Pare out the armscye from B to A, say 'A inch reduce the side seam C

;

line.

1.^8

FIGURE

J.

FIGURE

I.

139

DIAGRAM

I.

DIAGRAM

J.

FIGURE

FaultThis

sleeve wrinkles

Jl

,.

.

a from i to 2, say /^ inch, and alter-(See Diagram Ji)-Reduce the sleeve head the same amount as the to from undersleeve 4 3 the Reduce re-shape as per broken line. upper sleeve and re-shape.

.

CauseIt

has too

much

sleeve head.

How

to

Fault-The CauseThe

sleeve

sleeve

DIAGRAM

as per to D, say /a inch, and re-shape How to alter-Reduce the sleeve from A to B and C re-shape. E to F the same amcmt and and H to G from sleeve under Reduce the broken hue mch. I to J the same, /^ Lengthen the sleeve from K to L and

I40

FIGURE

K.

141

DIAGRAM

K.

Figure

Pirst

shows two defects. coat shows a wrinkle under the collar. well Second It shows a slight wrinkle on the side seam and does not drape

The

at the bottom.

The cause of

this

defect

is

the back

is

too long.

to

How

to alter, see

Diagram K.

to

B and C

to C.

>^ inch

more or

less as

may

be necessary.

From B From E

to to

D

F

is is

the

same as

J4 the distance of

to B.

line.

^,

to F.

Shrmk

, ,

and

as indicated.

142

I'fGL-RE

L.

143

DIAGRAM

L.

FIGURE L

Fault

Cause

The backpart wrinkles the The backpart too short for the

at

is

sides.

forepart.

DIAGKAM

How

to

L

to B, say yi

inch,

as necessary.

backpart up to point

to

D as

much

144

FIGURE M.

MnR

CA

PATTERN GRADER

145

DIAGRAM

M.

FIGURE

Fault

M

at

-Too

imicli

and not

cn(Pii,i,'li

the bottom.

Cause

crooked shoulder.

DIAGRAM

Mow

to alter

M

(1

Sweei)

A

is

from

.\

to

1!.

pivoting at

.Vdvance from

to R, say

^

D

as

inch.

-J^

to

inch.

From B

to

the

same

to F,

line,

46

FIGURE

N.

147

DIAGRAM

N.

The

fault

shown on Figure

is

one that

is

pulled down, the collar sets

When

frequently seen on overcoats, and many otherthe garment is first put on and the undercoat

up well and

but after a

little

while

it

seems

is

to

gradually slide

The

that the

backpart

is

too short.

How

to alter (see

Diagram N).

B and C

less

to

D

to

than

say /. inch, more or less as may be necessary. on backpart. Re-shape as per broken line.

14S

FIGURE O

Cause

Fault The coat wrinkles at the The backpart is too short How to alter (see Diaeram O)

sides

waist.

140

DIAGRAM

If there

is

Oi.

inch.

on the top of back, leave out from A to B and C to D, say, }i ought to be the same as from A to C, which would bring it as to E, but as there never is any outlet on the back shoulder, make the width from B to D wide as you can. If the backpart is much too short, the front shoulder ought to be somewhat

sufficient outlet

The

distance from

to

to

if

is

the front

shoulder as

waist from

it

is,

and the

to

same

as

(see

Another way

make

to

F; baste up the

Diagram Oi) Lengthen the back side seam and leave out the

:

FIGURE

F.

>5'

DIAGRAM

P.

FIGURE P

FaultThe coat wrinkles under the collar and down the sides. The center vent opens. The backpart is too long for the forepart. How to alter (see Diagram P) Shorten the back from A to E and C to D, say '/2 inch. Lengthen the front shoulder from F to G and H to J, say 5^ inch, or as much as necessary-.

Cause

152

FIGURE

Q.

153

DIAGRAM

Q.

Fat Man's

Fault

Double-Breasted

Frock

Cause

The The

skirt

How

to alter

See

Diagram Q.

line

to point A.

to

broken

line C,

say

'/i

it

Lengthen the

skirt

from

to F, the

same amount

as

to C.

54

FIGURE

R.

155

DIAGRAM

R.

shows the back skirts over-lapping in which case alter, as on Diagram R. 2 to 3 is >< the distance the skirts overlap, say }i inch if the overlap is i^ inches. Reduce the skirts, beginning- with nothing at the point of sidebody, and shape gradually as

;

Figure

From

I>er

broken

line 3.

k6

slanting upwards, and on the back Wrinkles on the forepart from the open the back. slanting downwards, and the too long for the The cause The fronts are too short for the backpart, or the backpart one and the same which understood when say the fronts are too short for the Let me be How

Figwres

S and Si

^ides

skirts

The

fault is

at

is

is

fronts,

is

fault.

to alter

plainly

back.

do not mean to say they are too short in the length, on the contrary, they may be full k^ng. and yet too short to balance with the back .\s there are se\-eral ways to alter this fault I -ill here give three diagrams showing three

I

different

ways

to alter it

alter as follows:

57

DIAGR.A.M

S.

DIAGILAM

S2.

DIAGRAM

Reduce the back from

S

inch or J4 inch.

slightly

A

1/2

to

B and C

to D,

say

From E

broken

line.

to

reduce

the amount,

SI

at

F,

DIAGPvAM

Reduce the back from 2 Let out the outlet from 8

This alteration

It

on Diagram Si. and 4 to 5, say J4 Jnch, to 7, and 10 to 9, say 54 inch, and re-sh^)e as per broken

iine.

will

require a

new

is

collar.

outlet

alter as

collar,

or that there

is

no

Lei^hen the fronts from inch. Cut down the armscye from F to G, say >4 or and K to L, to X, and O to P, the same amount and re-sh^)e as per broken line.

DIAGKAM ^

S2

to J

158

FIGURE

T.

159

DIAGRAM

T.

DIAGKAM

Fault

How

broken

T. alterIf the pleats are right, and do not overlap, alter as on Diagram and re-shape as per Reduce the skirt at the waist seam as from 2 to 3, Vs or /^ inch,

to

line.

The

i6o

AMERICAN PATTER

A'

GRADER

FIGURE

Ui.

FIGURE

U.

Fault

Cause

The The

collar

is

is

come

shoulder

two ways to make this alteration. and the armscye a little close make the alteration as on Diagram U. This will let the coat come Just raise or loosen the shoulder as from A to B, say yi inch. down to its proper place and leave the collar closer. If the collar is loose and the armscye is easy and deep enough, make your alteration as on Diagram Ui. Straighten the shoulder as from

to alter

How

There

are

to C, say J^ inch or as

much as necessary. Make the length from G to C the same as from G From C to E is the same as from D to F.

line.

to D.

i6i

DIAGRAM

U.

Figure U does not alone show a looseness in the collar, but also a faHing away of the collar from the neck, which does not alone necessitate the straightening of the shoulder as on Diagram Ui, but also the crooking of the collar See Diagram U. From C to E should be the full width of collar stand, which is i% inches, and should be

made

as follows

Draw a line from the lapel break F through E to G. From G to K is 134 inches. From E to G is the same as the top width of back; shape

i.

l62

DIAGRAM

Fault The

vest

V.

FIGUKE V

is

front

is

of

breast.

It

may

be

large

enough or

sides.

away from

How

One

to alter

See

alteration will

defects:

Unbutton the vest all but the bottom button and see what the distance is between the upper button and buttonhole. Say the distance is i inch, now crook the shoulder as from A to B half of that amount, t. e., yi inch, and reduce the backpart from C to D the same.

163

DIAGRAM W.

FIGURE

Fault-This

vest flares at the opening

W

too loose at the upper buttons.

and

is

S:^;;^^^t ':T:::^

amount

necessary. }i inch as may be as you have advanced

. conar the

o.^ th.^

to

is

to stretch the

^^y.

ui /.

from

to B.

164

FIGURE

X.

DIAGRAM

X.

i6s

DIAGRAM

Xi.

DIAGRAM

X2.

e., the vest is too low at the back of the neck, Fault: Figure X shows a very common fault, and does not cover the collar button. scye depth may be too short. Cause: There are several causes for such a fault: (i) The

i.

(2)

The

strap

is

the vest

may be too long for the scye depth. (3) not high enough at the back of neck, there

It

is

also happens sometimes that while a wrinkle across the back part 2 or 3

How

to alter

We

will treat

is

the reason and the vest length

is

If the first

just right,

make

inch,

to

to 2,

to B,

and

to

to

from H to G on forepart., the difficulty from the second cause the same alteration will remedy in which case leave the backpart as it is and excepting where the vest can stand being shortened, (See Diagram Xi.) .shorten the strap. and if the backpart has a wrinkle across Should the third cause be responsible for the defect, low in the neck, proceed as on Diasomewhere between the neck and scye depth and still is too or ^ inch. Reduce the same from K to gram X2. Advance the shoulder point from I to I /^

to

and from

to F.

Measure

the distance

from

C and from B

is

now

I.

as per

broken

line.

i66

FIGURE

Y.

DIAGRAM

Fault

Y.

The

is too long from the shoulder pitch up. Diagram Y). Reduce the back from A to B and C to D, say Yz inch and re-shape as per broken line to E. Measure the back shoulder from C to E and from D to E and whatever difference there is, reduce the same amount from F to G on forepart.

Cause

The

vest back

How

to alter

(See

167

FIGURE

Z.

DIAGRAM

Z.

The

shown

is

is

fall

When

the

man

;

little

ful-

at the knee,

but

when

the knee

drawing wrinkles from the crotch downward, at the same time causing the forepart bend of the ankle and the backpart to stick away at the heel

this defect is:

is

that will have

sers,

little

We

know

that

it

is

or no surplus length at the back crotch, but there is a limit to straight trouespecially when the goods happens to be a hard worsted or any hard woven material,

a defect

is

when such

the

more apt to occur. Diagram Z. Reduce the backpart from C to O, say draw add from A to B the same.

How

to alter, see

inch, or as

much

Raise J^ inch at

an

line.

i68

FIGURE AA.

169

DIAGRAM

AA.

FIGURE

Fault

AA

at the fly

Cause

The trousers wrinkle and seem to draw Too much waist and stomach. How to (See Diagram AA).

alter

By

too

much

waist

we do

not

mean

that the trousers are too large at the waist, but that

to

to

the

same as

is

Therefore reduce the waist from and re-shape. Add from B to A on reduced from C to D.

it.

much of

to

170

FIGURE

BB.

FIGURE BB

in the making. kind happens often the cause is in the cutting, in which case reduce the backpart as from 9 to 10, or inch and advance the same amount from 6 to 12.

Cause

Fault The crease of the trousers turns The cause may be in cutting or

to the inseam.

If a fault of this

171

DIAGRAM

But

it

BB.

the tailor's.

happens once

forepart

fall to

is

in

10

is

For instance:

If the

more thar

Sometimes the notches do not meet, in which case the alteration from what cause, if you drop the notch on the backpart as from 4 to 5 and make the forepart notch meet it, the crease will fall to the center. In moving the notch down reduce the backpart from 13 to 14 the same amount as the notch has been moved down and add the same from 12 to 7.

crease will

is

the inseam.

172

FIGURES CC

173

DIAGRAM

CC.

Figures

C C show

the

same

trousers.

on what

is

called a back

bow.

The cause of

to alter, see

this defect

is

How

Diagram C

C.

THE FOREPART.

Reduce and raise the forepart from D to C, say >4 inch each way, and add amount from B to A. Re-shape as per broken line.

the

same

THE BACKPART.

Reduce the

to

side

the same.

seam of the backpart from N to M about i inch, and leave out the outlet to K the same amount. Leave out from I to J, say yi inch, and from G Reduce the same amount from E to F and re-shape as per broken line.

174

A 16

FIGURE DD.

DIAGRAM

DD.

Fault

Cause

The trousers wrinkle front of crotch. This sometimes caused by the forepart being stretched on the inseam.

in

is

trouser makers have a habit of stretching the inseam while shrinking the backpart, seams are sewed up, which is decidedly wrong, for while the inseam of the backpart must be stretched between the knee and the crotch, yet it must be done before the seams are sewed up, so that the inseam of the forepart will not stretch. How to alter To remedy this defect is easy, all that is necessary is to rip the inseam, press the forepart straight and sew it up again. Sometimes, however, this defect is caused by the inseam being too long in which case see

after the

Some

Diagram DD.

To

In

D

to

>^ or

.)4

same amount, cut the backpart accordingly, that shortens the If, however, the trousers are finished and from A to B cannot be advanced, there inseam. being no outlet on the forepart, make your alteration as follows Let out the outlet on the backpart from E to F, say i inch, and take in the same amount on

inch and reduce from

to

the

Instructions for Tailoring

175

Coats

In order to be a successful cutter, the first thing necessary is to work in harmony with your tailors. It is not essential to have the best tailors, for every tailoring house can't have the best trade, but, no matter how good a tailor a man may be he must look to his It is the cutter who is held responsible by the firm for the good cutter for instructions. or bad garment produced, and so it naturallyfollows that his instructions must be followed.

The indiscriminate stretching of shoulders or gorge by good coat makers has done more produce bad garments than many cutters are aware of, and the drawing in and shrinking of armholes for chest eflFect where no provision for such work has been made has killed many a job. In the back shops, where many good coat makers come together and where work of a high-class is made, the best coat maker is looked up to for pointers as to how stylish garments ought to be made, and, as it is every coat maker's ambition to be considered as good or better than the best, he will not alone follow the good man, but go him one better. That is, if it is good to stretch the shoulder seam a little, it is better to stretch it much, at the same time forgetting the old story, "That what will cure an Irishman

to

may

kill

a Dutchman."

The proper way to make a coat depends upon the way the coat is cut. We have now what is known among cutters as three kinds of shoulders, viz. the straight, the crooked and the normal shoulder, each of which requires manipulation of its own to produce the proper efifect. To make myself more clearly understood I must explain where the crooked shoulder begins and where the straight shoulder ends. To the average cutter's judgment a crooked shoulder is one wjiere the distance from the line in front of the armscye to the

;

shoulder point

is

less

than

coat.

%

at

of breast.

and a straight shoulder is one that That is true providing the front edge are on a square with the breast line on the normal

of the breast measure,

of breast

is

therefore normal.

176

However, should the distance from the same line in front of the armscye to the shoulder point be >4 inch less than Yt of the breast measure, and the waist at the front edge extend 3^ inch in front of the breast line, (see Diagram BB) then the shoulder is not crooked

but normal.

with an imaginary breast line squared back by squaring up from the present breast line in front of the armscye and measuring from that line to the shoulder point the distance will be Yd of the breast measure and the shoulder is therefore not crooked.

is

Diagram

CC

a copy of

Diagram

BB

(See broken

line.)

By

way; on the normal figure, where the distance from the armscye to the shoulder point is Yb breast, plus i inch, and the waist point recedes i inch from the line squared down from the breast, Csee Diagram DD), the shoulder is not straight but normal. Now let us consider the shoulder from the present

The same

in

is

line

front

of the

point of view.

now proceed to explain how coats ought to be made up; As the greater part makings up of coats are known to every tailor, I will explain only those points which e., the shoulders, collars, sleeves, chest deal with the vital fitting points and artistic lines, effect and the front edges.

I

will

of the

/.

177

The Crooked

The

;

Shoulder

must not have the chest worked in from the armmust be worked in from the front edge. At the armscye the canvas must be The overshoulder must have no extra additions except for cut and the armscye stretched. the seams. The high shoulder is produced by the stretching of the armscye. The upper sleeve may be cut J4 inch larger than the armscye because the stretching of the armscye

coat with the crooked shoulder

scye

the chest

requires a larger upper sleeve. The collar may be put in easy at the hollow of the gorge, but not too long, and must be shrunk in at the crease. This kind of a coat used to be made by almost every tailor some years ago, and is still made by some tailors now. The coat with a normal shoulder must be made up as follows: The chest is worked in slightly from the armscye and the rest from the front edge. The shoulder seam of the forepart must not be stretched unless extra height is given to the shoulder pitch, the collar is put in longer than in the coat with a crookedshoulder and is also slightly shrunk in at the crease. The armscye must not be stretched and the sleeve, which is cut to measure, is put

in in

The manipulations

of this coat

is

Straight Shoulder

is cut.

Let us

shoulder ought which case the manipulations are as follows: The front of the armscye should be drawn The gorge may be slightly stretched, but if not stretched at all and in and shrunk yi inch. the collar is put in full long it is just as good. The canvas must have a }i inch V cut out from in front of the armscye, and a J4 inch short V set in at the shoulder near the gorge. The upper sleeve may be slightly reduced in width, especially if the material is worsted, and may be raised ^ to ^ inch if the shoulder is narrow. The front edges must not be worked in much at the breast, and at the lowei part of the edge the stay tape must be put The collar crease must not be in short enough to prevent the edge from being stretched. shrunk in. Keep the crease straight.

yi of breastplus yi inch from in front of the armscye. The to be raised the same amount in height as the shoulder is straightened, in

J78

Index

Introduction Preface Table of Proportions for Boys and Youths Table of Proportions for Men Table of Proportions for Short Measures

Page 4

....'...

6

7

GRADING.

Grade a Sack Coat from a Single Pattern from a Single Pattern {continued) Grade a Stout Sack Coat from a Single Pattern to Grade a Stout Sack Coat from a Single Pattern {continued) to Grade a Double-Breasted Sack Coat from a Single Pattern How to Grade a Frock Coat from a Single Pattern How to Grade a Stout Frock Coat from a Single Pattern How to Grade a Double-Breasted Frock Coat from a Single Pattern How to Grade a Dress Coat from a Single Pattern How to Grade a Dress Waistcoat from a Single Pattern.... r Double Grading: Single-Breasted Sack Coat Double Grading: Single-Breasted Stout Sack Coat Double Grading: Double-Breasted Sack Coat How to Make a Double Grade for a Frock Coat How to Make a Double G/ade for a Stout Frock Coat How to Make a Double Grade for a Double-Breasted Frock Coat How to Make a Double Grade for a Dress Coat

to

How How

9

12

to

14 16

18

20

24 26 28 30 32

34

3f>

38

40

42

The Sleeve

44 46

48 50 52

54 S6

How

to

Grade Collars

:

Grade Vests from Two Patterns to Grade Stout Vests from Two Patterns to Grade a Double-Breasted Vest from Two Patterns..

to

How

to

Grade Trousers

Block Patterns and Block Patterns and

HOW TO

.

USE THEM.

58 60 62

How How

to

to

How to Use Them How to Use Them Change a Normal Pattern from Change a Normal Pattern from

Figure,

{continued)

a a

Normal Normal

to an Erect Figure

for a

Hunchback

Normal

Square Shoulders Stooping Figure, Normal Shoulders Stooping Figure, with Flat Chest, Shoulders Normal Figure Erect, Shoulders Square Figure Stooping, Shoulders Square Figure Normal, Shoulders Sloping Figure Erect, Shoulders Sloping ... Figure Stooping, Shoulders Sloping How to Increase the Waist How to Decrease the Waist

64 64 "

^

i

68

70 7" 72 ^^ 74

179

IndeX^" (Continued)

Page

Exaggerate a Coat from a Block Pattern to Make a Double-Breasted Forepart from a Single-Breasted Pattern to Make a Norfolk Coat from an Ordinary Sack Coat Pattern to Increase the Waist Length in a Frock Coat to Shorten the Waist Length in a Frock Coat Frock Coat for Stooping Figure, Shoulders Normal Frock Coat for Stooping Figure with Flat Chest, Shoulders Normal Frock Coat for Hunchback Frock Coat for Over-Erect Figure, Shoulders Normal How to Make a Square-Shouldered Inverness Out of a Regular Overcoat How to Make a Round-Shouldered Inverness Out of a Regular Overcoat Pattern

to

74 76 76

78

79 80

81

82

83 84

to

to

to

a Circular

86 88 9

91

(^contwucd)

Shoulders Normal, Figure Erect Flat Blade, Full Breast Shoulders Square, Figure Erect Shoulders Sloping, Figure Erect Stooping Figure, Normal Shoulders Stooping Figure, Sloping Shoulders Stooping Figure, Square Shoulders Large Blade, Flat Breast A Vest for a Hunchback How to Make a Clerical Waistcoat Out of an Ordinary Pattern A Clergyman's Waistcoat to Button on the Side How to Make a Double-Breasted Vest Out of a Single-Breasted Pattern How to Make a Double-Breasted Dress Waistcoat Out of a Single-Breasted Block

993 94 95 9^ 97

98 99

100

loi

I03

103

Pattern

'04

How

to

Make

lOS

How How How How How How How How How How How

to to

to to to

Reduce the Rise; also How to Shorten or Lengthen Trousers Reduce the Waist and Knee Measures Increase the Waist Make Peg-Top Trousers Out of a Normal Block Pattern

109

to

to

to

to to

to

Trousers for a Bow-Legged Person Trousers for a Toe-in Person Trousers for a Toe-out Person

no

1 1

112

Broad Falls

Narrow

Falls

"3 "3

114 116

1

Knickerbockers from a Regular Trousers Pattern Golf Breeches Out of an Ordinary Block Pattern

18-174

'75

IS

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qV

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'^^

'k

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f%

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^^^

^,.

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.:t

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<^^

A^^

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A"^^

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-7-,.

0^

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.A-^^

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.-^^

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