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FINAL REPORT FAUNA SURVEY AT RESORT KAWAH RATU-G. SALAK, GUNUNG HALIMUN-SALAK NATIONAL PARK By Dr. Dewi M.

Prawiradilaga Ir. Maharadatunkamsi, MSc. Ir. Mumpuni Yuli Sulistya Fitriana, SSi Dr. Anggoro H. Prasetyo Alwin Marakarmah Satrio Wijamukti, SSi Iva Irma Khumala Suryana Dewi, Spet. Nanang Supriatna Giyanto Wahyu Tri Laksana Iwan Hendra P. Agus Mulya Tatang Suryana Endang Mulyadi Yosi Irawan

November December 2008

Division of Zoology, Research Centre for Biology Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia Bogor

INTRODUCTION Gunung Halimun Salak National Park was established in 2003 based on the Minister of Forestry decree No. 175/Kpts-II/2003 with the total area of 113.357 ha. The National Park covers G. Halimun range, G. Salak, G. Endut and other forest adjacent to G. Halimun. So far, information on flora and fauna of gunung Halimun has been reported through several surveys and research (Simbolon et al. 1998). On the other hand, knowledge on flora and fauna of gunung Salak and other forest have not been well documented. Some superficial studies on flora and fauna were conducted in G. Salak area such as around CHEVRON (ex UNOCAL), Cianten and corridor between G. Halimun and G. Salak. However, those data and information are very limited in comparison with the data and information collected from the forest of gunung Halimun range. Therefore, it is necessary to complete the data and information on biodiversity in particular the diversity of fauna from gunung Salak area since knowledge on forest vegetation and the diversity of fauna are basic information which are important for further research. In order to achieve the objective, the research activity should involve animal ecologist and taxonomist. The animal taxonomist is expected to describe the diversity of fauna, unique to gunung Salak. The animal ecologist can explain animal population in relation to habitat condition. Based on collected data, it is expected that the diversity of fauna and potential of some species can be obtained, then these data can be used to develop further research and other important aspects or for bioprospecting, as well as to maximize conservation management practices in this park. OBJECTIVE To obtain data and information on the diversity of fauna especially the diversity of mammals, birds, herpetofauna and insects at Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, in particular around Kawah Ratu Resort-Cidahu, G. Salak. Our major goal in this survey is to fill the need for basic distributional fauna. METHODS Large Mammals The study was conducted in Cidahu/Kawah Ratu Resort Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park. Observation and tracking were done following five trails: a. Track 1: Pos Kancil-Cepak Bajari b. Track 2: Pameungpeuk-Cibogo-Cibogo kecil-Cepak Bajari- Geothermal (helipad)Kawah Ratu c. Track 3: Air terjun I Javanaspa- Barusosog- Jalur Salak I HM 13 d. Track 4: Legok Cicadas- Legok Leles- Pondok Loji- Kebun Damar Blok 1-3 e. Track 5: Air Terjun I Javanaspa-Air Terjun 2 undak (500 m from resort Cidahu) Mammal observation was done to perceive the existence of mammal species directly. When footprint, marking, feces, and another sign were found out, their sizes were measured and recorded. Identification and taxonomical order follow Francis, C.M (2008), Rowe, N (1996), and Payne, J., et al (2000). Information about large mammals obtained by inquiry had been collected during study period. To collect additional information, we visited and held informal discussion and interviews with local communities. Small Mammals 1. Trapping Documentation for small mammals such as rats, squirrels and treeshrew was implemented using collapsible local traps of dimension 25 x 10 x 10 cm made of wire, which has a door that closes when a baited hook releases an attachment to the door. In the field, we used baits

of a mixture of shrimp paste and peanut butter to attract animals. Traps were placed 10 metres apart along a line transect on each site with 60 traps every night. Bait was replenished normally every three days depending on bait condition. Traps were checked once daily in the morning. Trapping effort on each location was fairly similar. Each site was observed for four days. 2. Mist netting We trapped volant mammals, mainly bats, using 4 mist nets of 12 x 3 metres, with 30 mm fine mesh and 4 pockets. Mist nets were set up on each site for 4 nights. Mist nets are effective in catching bats, since it is difficult for bats to detect by their echolocation. Mist nets were placed onto intercept bat flight paths such as streambeds, river valleys or forest trail. Mist nets were checked every day in the morning and whenever possible also at night at 21.00 hours. 3. Observation and interview Small mammals are difficult to catch. Many of them are quite shy and difficult to approach closely. Most of them, including rats, bats, squirrels are active mainly at night. Although small mammals are relatively difficult to catch, there are many different ways to observe them. To complete the information that can not be obtained in any other way, direct observation was conducted during day and night time using binoculars and spotlight. Interviews with national park rangers and local people were conducted in order to get reliable secondary information on relevant species. 4. Specimens Processing Trapped animals were removed from the traps and mist nets. Trapped animals were brought to camp for examination. All animals captured were given individual identification, weighed, and measured. The measurements taken for ground and arboreal small mammals were: headbody length, tail length, and hind foot. For bats, forearm length and tibia length were also measured. Following field identification, some individuals were released at its origin trapped place. Only several individuals were processed as scientific museum specimens which liver tissues were removed and preserved with ethanol absolute (pro analysist) for further genetic studies. Specimens were placed into fixation solution of 10% formaldehyde. All voucher specimens are deposited and curated at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI. Birds Bird survey was conducted around Kawah Ratu-Cidahu, G. Salak at three habitat types i.e. the primary and secondary forest and plantation forest (Agathis damara), located between 0604438.9 - 604512.2 S; 10604237.0 - 10604316.0 E; and 975 1220 m altitude. General observation by recording encountered birds, flying birds or bird calls during the survey. Captured and released using mistnets in each habitat type, by mounting 10 mistnets with 12 m long and 6 m high and 2.5 cm mesh for 5-6 hours per day. Captured birds of each species were collected 1-2 pairs for museum collections deposited and curated at the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense. The remaining captured birds were measured, banded, photographed and released back to their habitat. Bird census by point counts with the distance between points approximately 100 m. All observed birds (seen or heard) within radius 50 m were recorded. Each point was observed for 10 minutes. Vegetation around the points were also recorded.

Bird identification followed MacKinnon & Phillipps (1995) and Prawiradilaga et al. (2003).

Herpetofauna Herpetofauna survey was conducted by walking along available trails and sites assumed to be their habitat such as creek, river, tree holes and under the stones. The surveys were carried out around four hours in the morning from 09.00 to 12.00 hours and four hours in the evening between 19.00 and 22.00 hours. Frogs were collected by hands, however most reptiles were collected using stick or blow gun. Some lizards were collected using sticky traps and some specimens were collected by the other group during the survey period. Only some captured specimens were collected for scientific collections and deposited at the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense. The remaining were relased back to their habitat after being recorded, measured and photographed. Encountered species which were not caught during the survey were also identified and recorded. Insects Description of the Study Sites Slightly Disturbed Primary Forest (SDPF) This habitat is a primary forest with slight disturbance due to main trail to the top of Gunung Salak I. The position where we laid the transect 1 was S. 06o4351.5; E. 106o4224.8 with altitude 1406 m asl Highly Disturbed Primary Forest (HDPF) This habitat is a primary forest with high disturbance due to illegal logging or local villagers taking wood from the forest. The position where we laid transect 2 was S. 06o4444.1; E. 106o4239.3 with altitude 1204 m asl. Agathis Forest (AF) This habitat is an Agathis damara forest near camping ground at Block III. The position where we laid transect 3 was S. 06o4455.7; E. 106o4258.1 with altitude 1084 m asl. In each of these habitats, sweeping of flying insect were made at least 2 days in each habitat. Taxonomic identification followed Peggie and Amir 2006, Harde 1998. Pitfall trap using 10 plastic cups with 6.5 cm diameter and 9.5 cm high filled by 75 ml of 96% alcohol was put in a line of 50 m transect; the pitfall trap was left for three days in each habitat. Animals were then collected and preserved in 80% alcohol. All individuals caught in the trap were counted and identified into order. Termite sampling and identification Termites were sampled using the Jones & Eggleton (2000) transect protocol. Each transect (100 m x 2 m) was divided into 20 contiguous sections of 5 x 2 m, and each section was sampled by two experienced collectors for 30 minutes (i.e. 1 h of sampling per section). In each section the following microhabitats were searched: 12 samples of surface soil (each 12 x 12 cm to 10 cm depth); accumulations of litter and humus at the base of trees and between buttress roots; the inside of tree stumps, dead logs, branches and twigs; the soil within and beneath very rotten logs; subterranean nests, mounds, carton sheeting and runways on vegetation, and arboreal nests up to a height of 2 m. Specimens from every termite population encountered were preserved in 80% alcohol. Mounds were sampled destructively to search for inquiline species (Eggleton & Bignell 1997). The sampling protocol gives a measure of termite relative abundance based on the number of encounters with each species in a transect (Jones et al. 2000). An encounter is the recorded presence of a species in one section. The number of encounters per transect can be used to compare the relative

abundance of termites among transects. It gives no measure of the absolute abundance per unit area. Specimens were identified and deposited at the Museum Zoology Bogor (MZB). Most specimens were identified to genus and assigned to morphospecies applied consistently across regional voucher collections (Eggleton et al. 1999, Gathorne-Hardy et al. 2002, Jones & Brendell 1998, Jones & Prasetyo 2002, Jones et al. 2003). Termites were assigned to one of four feeding groups following the classification of Donovan et al. (2001). These groupings reflect feeding preferences along a humification gradient of the dietary substrate, and correlate with the amount of plant tissue fragments and silica in the gut. Feeding groups were then subdivided into Functional Taxonomic Groups (FTG) by assigning species to putative clades based on the phylogenetic framework of Inward et al (2007). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Large Mammals Fauna diversity and protected animals are the value for national parks and another protected area. Information about local distribution, habitat, and its conservation status are important to manage the proected area. The study recorded 13 large mammal species (Table 1.) In general, observation from five locations showed that forest area is still in a good condition. This result was supported by the presence of some carnivores and their preys; the ungulate, Tragulus javanicus, Muntiacus muntjak, and Sus scrofa. The carnivore plays an important role in an ecosystem as high ranked predators of food chains, especially felids are complete flesh eater, and top predator in every food chain. They regulate the number of lower ranked animals and indirectly regulate plant community and ecosystem. They are, therefore, regarded as the keystone species and raise the diversity of animal community. Four from five species of non-human primate in Java are found on study site, Hylobates moloch, Presbytis comata, Trachypithecus auratus, and Macaca fascicularis. Only Nycticebus coucang is absent in this site. There is no record about it in this site from another research before and interview with local communities. This is interesting fact because in Gunung Halimun this primate is present. Maybe there is a such regional distribution or a kind of barrier, but it is possible to present in southern side of Gunung Salak because there is a corridor to Gunung Halimun. The forest of Gunung Salak is home to an endemic gibbon, Javan Gibbon Hylobates moloch and two species of langur, Javan grizzled langur Presbytis comata and Javan langur Trachypithecus auratus. All three are endemic to the island and thus are not found anywhere else in the world. As all three primate species are classified by the IUCN Red List as critically and endangered, primarily because of habitat loss and also by hunting and trade. Indonesia is a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and some of mammals species in Gunung Salak are listed in CITES Appendix I, which prohibits all international commercial trade of these species among contracting Parties. The mammals are threatened by hunting and continuing degradation and reduction of forest. The best habitat for these communities is forests in national parks and other protected area. Indonesia has a great responsibility towards safeguarding the future of these mammals. The effective protection of mammal communities and increasing the survival prospects by increasing protection of forest area is the key to the survival of the species.

Tabel 1. List of large mammals at Cidahu/Kawah Ratu Resort, Gunung Halimun Salak National Park 10-25 December 2008.
Species 1 Carnivora Panthera pardus Prionailurus bengalensis Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Mydaus javanensis Primata Hylobates moloch Presbytis comata Trachypithecus auratus Macaca fascicularis Artiodactyla Tragulus javanicus Muntiacus muntjak Sus scrofa Pholidota Manis javanica Rodentia Hystrix javanica
Fp; footprint Lc; least concern m; marking en; endangered

Track 2

Remark 4 5

Conservation Status IUCN CITES 1 1 3

Fp, m, f, i f, i f, t, i m,d,i d, s, m, i d, s, m, i d, i d, i i s, f, Fp, i s, f, Fp, m, i m, i i


t; trapping

lc lc lc lc cr en en nt lc lc lc nt lc
i; interview

1 2 2

f; faeces d; detection s; sound cr; critically nt; near threatened

Small Mammals During this current survey, a total of 181 individuals from 14 species of small mammals were recorded from the study areas. These comprised 8 species of bats/Chiroptera, 4 species of rats/Muridae, 1 treeshrew/Scandentia and 1 species of shrew/Soricidae. In addition, 2 species of small Carnivores were also observed. Systematic arrangements and English name used in this report generally followed Suyanto et al. (2002) Detail of records of small mammals according to site is presented in Table 2. Bats documentations were represented 6 species of Mega Chiroptera (Aethalops alecto, Chironax melanocephalus, Cynopterus brachyotis, Cynopterus horsfieldi, Cynopterus sphinx and Macroglossus sobrinus) and 2 Micro Chiroptera (Minioptrerus magnater and Myotis muricola). The rodents documentation comprised of 4 species rats (Maxomys bartelsii, Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus tanezumi and Rattus exulans). Only one species of Treeshrew, Tupaia javanica was documented during this survey, with all 5 individuals were recorded. In Cidahu Resort this species was observed in both forest habitat and disturbed situation. One species of shrew (Crocidura monticola) was also recorded. Two species of bats (Chironax melanocephalus, Aethalops alecto and Macroglossus sobrinus) were the most widespread species at Cidahu Resort. Although they occurred at all sites, each species showed a tendency changes in abundance along these sites surveyed. C. melanocephalus was densest at site 3 (Legok Cicadas-Water Tower track and Pos Kancil). While less captures of A. alecto was detected at site 1 (Cibogo track), where M. sobrinus was commonly found. Results also revealed that the distribution of rats Maxomys bartelsii and Rattus tanezumi seemed to be associated with sites. M. bartelsii was detected in sites 1 and 2 (Pondok Bajari), while R. tanezumi found at sites 2 and 3.

Findings also indicate that carnivores were documented, although encountered in low number. Only two individuals of Paradoxurus hermaphroditus were recorded in the current survey, while this civet is common and widely distributed through out Indochina, India, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia (Lekagul and McNeely, 1977). Spotlighting at night recorded a single sub adult of Common palm civet, P. hermaphroditus close to our basecamp. The other one was observed during the night in the park close the the Cidahu village. One individual of Mydaus javanensis was observed in the forest of Bajari track. This species is a montane species, found in highland forest. It is now rare and its population decreases due to habitat loss. Small mammals have crucial natural roles as seed dispersal, pollinators, and insect control (Fujita, 1988, Suyanto et al., 1997 and Maharadatunkamsi, 2006). Considering the importance of their role in maintain the balance of ecosystems, attention is necessary for their conservation. A number of small mammals species in Cidahu Resort are significant due to their natural function. For example Mega chiropteran are very important in the functioning of the forest. They play a crucial role in seed dispersal and pollination of many tropical plants. While Micro chiropteran and treeshrew prey on many kinds of insects including harmful one. In addition, rats provide as prey for various kinds of carnivore and preying bird. Since their role as important species in maintain the balance of an ecosystem, these creatures need attention for their conservation. Three species of Cidahu resort small mammals have conservation status (see Table 1). The Javan treeshrew, T. javanica has conservation status by CITES as Appendix 2. The gray fruit bat, A. alecto is listed in IUCN as NT (near threatened), while the Malayan stink badger, M. javanensis is protected under Indonesian law. Their population numbers are declining mainly because of habitat destruction. As mounting pressure of increasing human activities, this will become a threat to the survival of these Gunung Salak small mammals, especially those with limited distribution range and conservation status. These preliminary data have several worthwhile implications for the development of conservation strategy for this area. Therefore it seems noteworthy to include such potential small mammals conservation program in management plan of this valuable national park. In addition, information resulted from this current survey would help establish a more complete view of small mammals the Gunung Halimun Salak National Park. Table 2. List number of individuals and small mammal species in each of the surveyed sites. Species Carnivora Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Mydaus javanensis Chiroptera Aethalops alecto Chironax melanocephalus Cynopterus brachyotis Cynopterus sphinx Cynopterus horsfieldi Macroglossus sobrinus Miniopterus magnater Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 2 1 3 18 9 7 5 3 1 2 3 32 36 3 1 8 1 P NT Status

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Myotis muricola Rodentia Maxomys bartelsii Rattus tiomanicus Rattus tanezumi Rattus exulans Scandentia Tupaia javanica Soricidae Crocidura monticola Total

1 5 3 4 2 2 45 4 43

4 1 3 95 CI 2

Notes: Systematics arrangement followed Suyanto et al. (2002). Site 1: Cibogo track GPS position 06o44'25,8"S; 106o42'18,4"E - 06o44'29,7"S; 106o42'22,1"E 06o44'34,5"S; 106o42'34,2"E - 06o44'26,4"S; 106o42'16,0"E Site 2: Pondok Bajari GPS position 06o43'51,7"S; 106o42'32,3"E - 06o43'51,5"S; 106o42'24,5"E 06o43'43,9"S; 106o42'23,1"E - 06o43'47,9"S; 106o42'24,4"E Site 3: Legok Cicadas-Water Tower track and Pos Kancil (Javana Spa direction) GPS position 06o44'51,5"S; 106o42'46,4"E - 06o44'49,4"S; 106o42'39,4"E 06o44'55,0"S; 106o42'50,0"E - 06o44'59,4"S; 106o42'52,8"E 06o44'32,9"S; 106o42'48,2"E - 06o44'36,8"S; 106o42'50,7"E Conservation status as follows P: Protected by Indonesian government NT: Near threatened IUCN Red Data Book CI 2: Cites Appendix 2 Birds The survey only recorded 53 bird species (Table 3), which was quite small compare with the number of bird species in G. Halimun range (Prawiradilaga et al. 2003). This is because the survey period was too short (approximately only one week) and the weather was mostly wet. From those recorded birds, 11 species i.e. Black eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis), Crested Serpent-eagle (Spilornis cheela), Changeable Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus cirrhatus), Javan Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi), Collared Kingfisher (Halcyon chloris), Banded Pitta (Pitta guajana), Crescent-chested Babbler (Stachyris melanothorax), Rufous-tailed Fantail (Rhipidura phoenicura), White-bellied Fantail (Rhipidura euryura), White-flanked sunbird (Aethopyga eximia), Javan Sunbird (Aethopyga mystacallis), Little Spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra) are protected by law (Government Regulation: PP No.7/1999). Even the Black eagle, Crested Serpent-eagle, Changeable Hawk-eagle and Javan Hawk-eagle are included in the CITES Appendix 2 which protect their trade internationally. The Javan Hawk-eagle which is a flagship and logo of G. Halimun-Salak National Park, is also recorded as an endangered species in the Red Data Book of IUCN. The presence of those top predators of the food chain indicated that the forest of Resort Kawah Ratu is still healthy though some parts of the forest were already disturbed.

The survey recorded three endemic species to Java island i.e. the Chestnut-beliied Partridge (Arborophila javanica), Banded Pitta (Pitta guajava) and Crescent chested Babbler (Stachyris melanothorax). The Chestnut-bellied Partridge and Banded Pitta are rare because they are threatened by illegal hunting. However, the Babbler is still common. Most bird species recorded during surveys have widely distribution. In addition, Resort Kawah Ratu could be a destination of migratory species since we found two migratory species i.e. Western Yellow wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) and Grey wagtail (Motacilla flava). Captured and released methods using mistnets only recorded 11 species from the primary and secondary forest. The measurements of caught birds are shown on Table 4. Table 3. Bird species recorded at Kawah Ratu-Cidahu TNGHS
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Family Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Phasianidae Phasianidae Columbidae Columbidae Columbidae Cuculidae Cuculidae Cuculidae Alcedinidae Picidae Eurylaimidae Pittidae Hirundinidae Motacillidae Motacillidae Campephagidae Pycnonotidae Pycnonotidae Turdidae Turdidae Turdidae Timaliidae Timaliidae Timaliidae Timaliidae Timaliidae Sylviidae Sylviidae Sylviidae Sylviidae Sylviidae Muscicapidae Muscicapidae Species Ictinaetus malayensis (P) Spilornis cheela (P) Spizaetus cirrhatus (P) Spizaetus bartelsi [endemic] (P) Gallus gallus Arborophila javanica [endemic] Ducula badia Streptopelia chinensis Chalcophaps indica Cuculus sp. Cacomantis merulinus Phaenicophaeus curvirostris Halcyon chloris (P) Sasia abnormis Eurylaimus javanicus Pitta guajana [endemic] (P) Hirundo tahitica Motacilla flava [migrant] Motacilla cinerea [migrant] Hemipus hirundinaceus Pycnonotus aurigaster Alophoixus bres Cinclidium diana Brachypteryx leucophrys Enicurus velatus Malacocincla sepiarium Napothera epilepidota Stachyris thoracica [endemic] Stachyris melanothorax [endemic] (P) Prinia familiaris Abroscopus superciliaris Orthotomus sutorius Orthotomus ruficeps Orthotomus sepium Orthotomus cuculatus Muscicapa ferrugenea [migrant] Ficedula dumetoria Common name Black eagle Crested Serpent Eagle Changeable Hawk-eagle Javan Hawk-eagle Red Jungle fowl Chesnut-bellied Partridge Mountain Imperial Pigeon Spotted Dove Common Emerald Dove Cuckoo sp. Plaintive Cuckoo Chesnut-breasted Malkoha Collared Kingfisher Rufous Piculet Banded Broadbill Banded Pitta Pacific swallow Western Yellow Wagtail Grey wagtail
Black-winged flycatchershrike

Survey Methods 1 3 3 1 6 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2, 5 2,3,4 1,6 2 2,3,4,5 2 2 5 1 2 2,3 3 1 2,3,5 4

Sooty-headed Bulbul Grey-cheeked Bulbul Sunda Robin Lesser Shortwing Lesser Forktail Horsfield's Babbler Eye-browed Wrenbabbler White-bibbed Babbler Crescent-chested Babbler Bar-winged Prinia Yellow-bellied warbler Common Tailorbird Ashy Tailorbird Olive-backed Tailorbird Mountain tailorbird Ferruginous Flycatcher
Rufous-chested Flycatcher

38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Muscicapidae Muscicapidae Muscicapidae Rhipiduridae Paridae Dicaeidae Dicaeidae Nectarinidae Nectarinidae Nectarinidae Zosteropidae Zosteropidae Estrildidae Dicruridae Dicruridae Dicruridae

Culicicapa ceylonensis Cyornis banyumas Rhipidura phoenicura (P) Rhipidura euryura (P) Parus major Prionochilus percussus Dicaeum trigonostigma Aethopyga eximia (P) Aethopyga mystacalis (P) Arachnothera longirostra (P) Zosterops palpebrosus Zosterops montanus Lonchura leucogastroides Dicrurus macrocercus Dicrurus leucophaeus Dicrurus remifer

Grey-headed Canaryflycatcher

Hill Blue flycatcher Rufous-tailed Fantail White-bellied Fantail Great tit


Crimson-breasted flower pecker Orange-bellied Flowerpecker

2 1 2 3 3 1, 2,3 2,5 3 4 2,4 2,3,4,5 2 2,3,4 1 3 3

White-flanked sunbird Javan Sunbird Little Spiderhunter Oriental White-eye Mountain White-eye Javan munia Black Drongo Ashy Drongo Lesser Racquet-tailed Drongo

Note: Methods: 1 General observation 2 Observation at primary forest 3 Observation at secondary forest 4 Caught by mistnets in the primary forest 5 Caught by mistnets in the secondary forest 6 Information from local people

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Table 4. Morphometric measurements of captured, released and banded birds at Gunung Salak, TNGHS, November 2008
n No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Species Sex 1 9 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 7 1 1 1 9 1 2 1 1 1 1 10 1 (indv) Nat wing (mm) 84 53 66.11 56 42 78 53 42 47 70 63.14 50 Max wing
(mm)

Mean Tail (mm) 61 32 42.44 48 33.5 63 24 22 54 48 41.57 37 Tarsus (mm) 27.23 28.28 27.28 21.17 19.42 17.68 15.76 13.23 13.69 19.39 17.14 11.78 Culmen (mm) 13.15 11.87 14.38 12.63 13.81 11.00 9.10 13.20 12.86 33.95 38.72 12.77 Wing Spread (mm) 260 175 212.3 172 110 237 125 90 145 195.7 182.9 157 Total Length 157 115 132.7 126 91.5 150 83 134 120 163.3 151.3 98 Body Weight 22 16 23.89 14 9 21 8 7 6 18 13.86 7

Cinclidium diana Brachypteryx leucophrys Malacocincla sepiarium Stachyris melanothorax Orthotomus sepium Muscicapa ferrugenea Prionochillus percusus Aethopyga eximia Aethopyga mysticallis Arachnothera longirostra Zosterops palpebrosus

86 68.56 58 43.5. 80 55

55

44 50 71.67 52 65.14

Herpetofauna The survey recorded 15 amphibian species consisted of Bufonidae (1 species), Megophryidae (2 species), Microhylidae (2 species), Ranidae (6 species) and Rhacophoridae (4 species). In addition, 16 Reptilian species of lizard and snake, composed of Agamidae (4 species), Gekkonidae (3 species), Scincidae or true lizard (1 species), Colubridae or snake without jaw or its jaw is at the back (6 species), Elapidae or with venom jaw (1 species) and Viperidae or snake with folded jaw (1 species). The abundance of herpetofauna recorded during survey period varied between 1 and 18 individuals. Limnonectes kuhli and L. microdicus frogs were more common at resort Kawah Ratu in comparison with other species, though it was found less than 5 individuals. The presence of herpetofauna was rare, but in general they have an important role as predator to control the population of other animals depending on their groups. Frogs control the population of several insect species and function as environmental indicator. Some frog species can only live and reproduce in good forest and some species are tolerant and well adaptive in disturbed environment. Details of species and role in the environment can be seen in Table 5. Although most herpetofauna species recorded during the survey are not protected nor included in the IUCN threatened species, they play important role in nature as controlling fauna population and quality indicator of an area. Observations showed that frogs and reptiles at resort Kawah Ratu were not well distributed, depending on habitat condition in each site. However, Limnonectes kuhli frog tended to be found anywhere. Locations around Pondok Cangkuang, Camping Ground Blok 3, Pos Kancil and Water reservoir of Javana Spa were different from the other locations for having representatives terestrial, aquatic or arboreal species. The distribution of herpetofauna is showed on Table 6. Curve of additional species during survey is showed on Figure 1. Figure 1. No. of recorded herpetofauna species during survey

No of species

Days

Although we only recorded 31species which was less than the diversity of herpetofauna at Gunung Halimun range which was about 27 species of frogs and 49 species of reptiles, the survey added three more species i.e. small frogs Microhyla palmipes and Calamaria linnei and Bungarus fasciatus snakes (Mumpuni, 2002, Kurniati, 2003). The previous surveys in eight resorts of G. Salak did not record Microhyla palmipes frog and some reptiles such as agamid Pseudocalotes tympanistriga, snakes Calamaria linnei, C.

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lumbricoidea, Dendrelaphis pictus, Rhabdophis chrysargus, R. subminiatus and Bungarus fasciatus ( Fitri dan Kusrini, 2006). Table 5. Recorded Herpetofauna based on classification, common names and its function No. Class/Family/Species AMPHIBIA Bufonidae Bufo asper Megophryidae Leptobrachium hasseltii No of caught individuals 3

Common name River Toad/ Rough Toad Hasselts Litter Frog Horned Frog

Function Insect predator, environmental indicator Insect predator, environmental indicator Insect predator, environmental indicator Insect predator, environmental indicator Insect predator, environmental indicator

2 3

2 4

Megophrys montana Microhylidae Microhyla achatina

4 5

4 6

Javan Chorus Frog Palmated Chorus Frog

Microhyla palmipes Ranidae Fejervarya limnocharis

6 7 8 9 10

5 5 18 15 7

Huia masonii

Limnonectes kuhlii

Limnonectes microdiscus

Rana chalconota

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Rana hosii Rhacophoridae Philautus aurifasciatus

Boies Wart Frog Insect predator, environmental indicator Javan Torrent Insect predator, Frog environmental indicator Kuhls Wart Insect predator, Frog environmental indicator Indonesia Wart Insect predator, Frog environmental indicator Insect predator, White-lipped environmental frog/ Copperindicator cheeked FrogFrog Poisonous Rock Insect predator, Frog environmental indicator Gold Striped Tree Frog Insect predator, environmental indicator
13

12

13 14 15

Polypedates leucomystax

1 3 3

Striped Tree Frog Javan Tree Frog Green FlyingFrog

Rhacophorus margaritifer/ javanus Rhacophorus reinwardtii

Insect predator, environmental indicator Insect predator, environmental indicator Insect predator, environmental indicator

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

REPTILIA LACERTILIA Agamidae Bronchocela jubata Draco haematopogon Gonocephalus kuhlii Pseudocalotes tympanistriga Gekkonidae Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gehyra mutilata Hemidactylus frenatus Scincidae Eutropis multifasciata OPHIDIA Colubridae Ahaetulla prasina Calamaria linnei Calamaria lumbricoidea Dendrelaphis pictus

4 2 4 2 1 2 2 8

Nicobar Island Bloodsucker Red-barbed Flying Dragon Kuhls Forest Dragon Indonesian False Bloodsucker Marbled Bowfingered Gecko Stump-toed Dtella Common House Gecko Common Garden Skink Oriental Whip Snake Linnes Dwarf Snake Variable Reed Snake Painted Bronzeback Speckle-bellied Keelback Red-necked Keelback

Insect predator Insect predator Insect predator Insect predator Insect predator Insect predator Insect predator Insect predator

24 25 26 27

1 1 1 1

Prey upon small birds and agamid Prey on skink Prey on skink Predator of Common house gecko, eggs and bird nestlings Prey upon frogs, small birds and agamid Frog predator

28 29

Rhabdophis chrysargus

1 1

Rhabdophis subminiatus Elapidae

14

30

Bungarus fasciatus Viperidae Trimeresurus puniceus

Banded Krait

Predator of other snakes, its venom is neurotoxic Predator of rats and birds; its venom is haemotoxic

31

Flat-nosed Pit Viper

Table 6. Distribution of herpetofauna at resort Kawah Ratu - GHSNP


Location Pos Kancil Habitat Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Kolam penampungan Javana Spa Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Curug I Javana Spa Blok 3 Camping Ground Terestrial Aquatic Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Legok Leleus Kawah Ratu Simpang Bajari Jalur Cibogo Aquatic Arboreal Arboreal Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Terestrial Aquatic Arboreal Houses Species Eutropis multifasciata Limnonectes kuhlii, Rana hosii, Huia masonii, Megophrys montana (larva) Philautus aurifasciatus, Bronchocela jubata, Gonocephalus kuhlii Microhyla achatina, M. palmipes Rana chalconota, Limnonectes kuhlii, Rhabdophis subminiatus Rhacophorus reinwardtii,Gonocephalus kuhlii, Dendrelaphis pictus Megophrys montana, Limnonectes microdiscus Limnonectes kuhlii, Megophrys montana (larva), Huia masonii (larva) Bufo asper, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Limnonectes microdiscus Rana chalconota, Rana hosii, Huia masonii, Limnonectes kuhlii Philautus aurifasciatus, Rhacophorus margaritifer, Bronchocela jubata Limnonectes kuhlii Bronchocela jubata Pseudocalotes tympanistriga, Philautus aurifasciatus Microhyla achatina, M. palmipes, Eutropis multifasciatus Limnonectes kuhlii, Huia masonii Rhacophorus margaritifer Megophrys montana, Limnonectes microdiscus, Limnonectes kuhlii Megophrys Montana (larva), Huia masonii (larva) Draco haematopogon Microhyla achatina, Bufo asper, Eutropis multifasciatus, Calamaria linnei Fejervarya limnocharis Draco haematopogon Megophrys montana, , Eutropis multifasciatus, Calamaria lumbricoidea,Rhabdophis chrysargus, Bungarus fasciatus Limnonectes kuhlii Bronchocela jubata Hemidactylus frenatus,Gehyra mutilata,Cyrtodactylus marmoratus

Pos Resort

Pondok Cangkuang

Insects

15

Flying insects Flying insects were collected from all three habitats and inside and the surrounding area of Wisma Perhutani Cangkuang. A lot of insects attracted to light from Wisma and collected during the stay at the Wisma so that the number of individual was the highest among other habitats. A total of 203 individual flying insects from 117 species were collected from study area. They are from eight orders of insects namely Lepidoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera (see Table 1), for complete list of species see Appendix 1. Table 7. Number of individual flying insects collected from study area (number in the bracket is number of species)
Lepidoptera AF SDPF HDPF Basecamp 21 (15) 27 (11) 3 (1) 10 (10) Odonata 4(2) 11 (5) 2 (1) 3 (3) Coleoptera 0 12 (5) 7 (4) 26 (21) Diptera 0 1 (1) 2 (2) 1 (1) Hemiptera 0 0 0 5 (1) Homoptera 0 0 0 1 (1) Hymenoptera 0 18 (4) 2 (2) 11 (7) Orthoptera 0 4 (3) 8 (5) 24 (12)

Soil surface insects A total of ten different orders of insects (Coleoptera, Siphonaptera, Isoptera, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera) and two groups of other arthropods (Arachnida and Collembola) were found in these habitats during the study period. Among these collembolans (52%) were found to be most predominant at slightly disturbed primary forest (SDPF), coleopterans (35%) were dominant at highly disturbed primary forest and hymenopterans (38%) were dominant at Agathis forest (AF) [Figure 1].

16

Figure 2. Abundance of soil surface insects and other arthropods in different habitats.

Termites A total of eight genera from three family of termite found at the study area. They are Neotermes and Glyptotermes from family of Kalotermitidae; Schedorhinotermes from family of Rhinotermitidae; and Pericapritermes, Procapritermes, Nasutitermes, Bulbitermes and Subulitermes from family of Termitidae. Identification into species need more time, good microscope and must be done carefully. Termite data from transect are expressed as number of encounters (hits) per taxonomic unit, per transect. The number of hits acts as a surrogate for relative abundance (Gathorne-Hardy et al. 2001) see Table 2. Table 8. Termite genera found in study area ( + = present; - = absent )
Site T1 (SDPF) T2 (HDPF) T3 (AF) Casual Neotermes 0 1 0 Glyptotermes 0 0 2 Schedorhinotermes 0 0 9 + Pericapritermes 25 50 61 + Procapritermes 0 0 2 Nasutitermes 0 0 0 + Bulbitermes 3 3 0 + Subulitermes 0 0 1 -

17

Pericapritermes were recorded in all habitats and dominant among others genera. Only two genera (Pericapritermes and Bulbitermes) were present at slightly disturbed primary forest (SDPF). Three genera (Neotermes, Pericapritermes and Bulbitermes) were present at highly disturbed primary forest whereas five genera (Glyptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Procapritermes and Subulitermes) were recorded at Agathis forest (AF). Nasutitermes were not recorded from transects in all habitats however it present in study area in the houses at base camp (Wisma Perhutani Cangkuang). Neotermes and Glyptotermes belong to feeding group I with food source of hard dead wood. Schedorhinotermes with food source of hard to soft dead or live wood belong to group I. Pericapritermes and Procapritermes belong to feeding group III and IV with source of food soil, humified soil or very decayed wood. Nasutitermes and Bulbitermes are wood feeding Nasutitermitinae while Subulitermes is soil feeding Nasutitermitinae. CONCLUSION This study documented 13 species of large mammals, 14 species of small mammals and 2 species of small carnivores, 53 bird species and 31 species of herpetofauna in Kawah Ratu Resort-Cidahu. This small number of species however does not necessary mean that Cidahu is depauperate, it may simply reflect the limitation in time and coverage of the study, and provide an opportunity for future research. However, this research has provided some important insights into the features of biodiversity of Kawah Ratu - Cidahu Resort. It is expected the results can assist in managing the Gunung Halimun Salak National Park, particularly to maximize conservation efforts of important large mammals, small mammals and birds of prey since their roles in maintaining the ecological natural balance. Recommendations 1. Small mammals information derived from this survey should be incorporated into management practices of Gunung Halimun Salak National Park. 2. Environmental education programs for local communities should be started motivating them the importance of conserving natural resources, including small mammals and their habitat. 3. Integrated conservation programs with those adjacent conservation programs. Where neighbors have similar interest in conservation, then it is opportunity to conduct mutual collaboration in order to implement conservation plan. REFERENCES Amir, M. & Kahono, S. (2003) Serangga Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Jawa Bagian Barat. BCP-JICA Anonimous .2008. Survei Flora Gunung Salak, Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak. Kerjasama Bidang Botani, Puslit Biologi_LIPI dan Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak. Laporan Teknik. Bogor Donovan, S.E., Jones, D.T., Sands, W.A., Eggleton, P., (2000). The morphological phylogenetics of termites (Isoptera). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 70, 467513. Eggleton, P. & Bignell, D.E. (1997) Secondary occupation of epigeal termite (Isoptera) mounds by other termites in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, southern Cameroon, and its biological significance. Journal of African Zoology, 111,489-498.

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Eggleton, P., Homathevi, R., Jones. D.T., MacDonald, J., Jeeva. D., Bignell, D.E., Davies. R.G. & Maryati, M. (1999) Termite assemblages, forest disturbance and greenhouse gas fluxes in Sabah, East Malaysia. Philosophica1 Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. 354. 1791-1802. Fitri, A and Kusrini, M. 2006. Ada Katak dan Reptil Apa saja sih di Gunung Salak dan Sekitarnya ?. Warta Herpetofauna, Edisi VII-Desember 2006. K3AR. Francis, C.M. 2008. Mammals of Thailand and South East-Asia. New Holland Publishers Ltd. Fujita, M.S. 1988. Flying foxes and economics. Bats 6(1): 4-9. Gathorne-Hardy, F.J.. Syaukani & Eggleton, P. (2001) The effects of altitude and rainfall on the composition of the termites (Isoptera) of the Leuser ecosystem (Sumatra, Indonesia). Journal of Tropical Ecology 17, 379- 393. Gathorne-Hardy, F.J., Syaukani, Davies, R.G., Eggleton, P. & Jones, D.T. (2002) Quaternary rainforest refugia in southeast Asia: using termites (Isoptera) as indicators. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 75,453 -466. Harde, K. W. (1998) A Field Guide in Colour to Beetles. Blitz Editions. Leicester. Hilton-Taylor, C. (Complier). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Inward, D.J.G., Vogler A.P. and Eggleton P. (2007) A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of termites (Isoptera) illuminates key aspects of their evolutionary biology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44. 953-967. Jones, D.T. & Brendell, M.J.D. (1998) The termite (lnsecta: Isoptera) fauna of Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 46, 79-91. Jones, D.T. & Eggleton, P. (2000) Sampling termite assemblages in tropical forests: testing a rapid biodiversity assessment protocol. Journal of Applied Ecology. 37. 191-203. Jones, D.T. (2000) Termite assemblages in two distinct montane forest types at 1000 m elevation in Maliau Basin. Sabah. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6. 271 -286. Jones. D.T. & Prasetyo. A.H. (2002) A survey of the termites (Insecta: Isoptera) of Tabalongdistrict, SouthKalimantan Indonesia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 50, 117128. Jones, D.T., F. X. Susilo, D. E. Bignell, S. Hardiwinoto, A. N. Gillison, P. Eggleton (2003) Termite Assemblage Collapse along a Land-Use Intensification Gradient in Lowland Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 2. (Apr., 2003), pp. 380-391. Kahono, S, T. Okayama and A.J. Arief, 2002. Biodiversity of The Last Submontane Tropical Rain Forest in Java : Gunung Halimun National Park. Part I. Research and Conservation of Biodiversity in Indonesia Vol. IX.LIPI-JICA-PHKA. Bogor Kurniati, H. 2003. An Illustrated Guide Book Amphibians and Reptiles of Gunung Halimun

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National Park, West Java, Indonesia (Frogs, Lizards and Snakes).RC for Biologi-LIPI and Nagao Natural Environment Foundation-NEF. 134 Lekagul, B. and J.A. McNelly. 1997. Mammals of Thailand. The association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bangkok. MacKinnon, J. & K. Phillipps. 1995. A Fieldguide to the Birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford University Press. Oxford-UK. Maharadatunkamsi. 2006. Biodiversity in Sulawesi: Small Mammals of Toraut, Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park. Biota 11: 1-7. Mumpuni, 2002. Keanekaragaman Herpetofauna di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun, Jawa Barat. Berita Biologi 5 (6) : 711-720. Mumpuni, 2002. Keanekaragaman Herpetofauna di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun, Jawa Barat. In Kahono, S, T. Okayama and A.J. Arief. Biodiversity of The Last Submontane Tropical Rain Forest in Java : Gunung Halimun National Park. Part I. Research and Conservation of Biodiversity in Indonesia Vol. IX. LIPI-JICA-PHKA. Bogor : 91 103. Payne, J., C.M. Francis, K. Phillipps, and S.N. Kartikasari. 2000. Mamalia Di Kalimantan Sabah, Sarwak, dan Brunei Darussalam. The Sabah Society Malaysia. Peggie, D & Amir, M. (2006) Practical Guide to the Butterflies of Bogor Botanic Garden. Bidang Zoologi, Pusat Penelitian Biologi, LIPI. Jakarta. Prawiradilaga, Dewi M., A. Marakarmah & S. Wijamukti. 2003. A Photographic guide to the Birds of Javan montane forest: Gunung Halimun National Park. Biodiversity Conservation Project LIPI-JICA-PHKA. Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to The Living Primates. Pogonias Press. East Hampton, New York. Simbolon, H., M. Yoneda & J. Sugardjito (editors). 1998. Research & Conservation of Biodiversity in Indonesia. Volume IV: Gunung Halimun: The Last Submontane Tropical Forest in West Java. LIPI-JICA-PHKA, Bogor. Suganda, D., E.Sugandi, B. Suyikno dan N. Adhariyani, 2004. 50 Taman Nasional di Indonesia. PIKA, Dirjen PHKA, DEPHUT, Bogor. Suyanto, A., M. Yoneda M, I. Maryanto, Maharadatunkamsi and J. Sugarjito. 2002. Check list of Indonesian mammals. 2nd ed. LIPI, JICA and PHPA, Bogor. Suyanto, A., M. Yoneda, Maharadatunkamsi, M.H. Sinaga and Yusuf. 1997. Collection of small mammals in Gunung Halimun National Park. In: M. Yoneda, J. Sugardjito and H. Simbolon (eds). Research and Conservation Biodiversity in Indonesia Vol. II. The inventory of Natural Resources in Gunung Halimun National Park. pp 81-93. LIPI, JICA and PHPA, Bogor. Wilson, D.E. and DeeAnn M. Reeder. 2005. Mammal Species of The world; A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. The John Hopkins University Press.

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Appendix 1. Large mammals from Resort Kawah Ratu G. Halimun-Salak National Park

a b Fig 1. Field sign of Javan Leopard Panthera pardus, footprint (a) and feces (b)

a b Fig 2. Marking of Javan Leopard (a) and banana trees leave by Javan Gibbon (b)

b Fig 3. Footprint of Sus scrofa (a) and marking of Manis javanicus (b)

21

b Fig 4. Field sign of Muntiacus muntjak, feces (a) and footprint (b)

a b Fig 5. The primates, Javan grizzled langur Presbytis comata (a) and Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch (b)

a Fig 6. Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, young civet in trap (a) and feces (b)

22

Appendix 2: Small mammals from Kawah ratu, GHSNP

Miniopterus magnater (Photograph by Maharadatunkamsi)

Cynopterus brachyotis (Photograph by Maharadatunkamsi)

Myotis muricola (Photograph by Maharadatunkamsi)

23

Maxomys bartelsii (Photograph by Maharadatunkamsi)


Appendix 3: Habitat and bird species at Resort Kawah Ratu G. Halimun-Salak National Park

Resort Cangkuang Desa Cidahu

Damar plantation

Primary forest at G. Salak

Secondary forest at Kawah Ratu - G. Salak

24

Spizaetus cirrhatus (Changeable Hawk-eagle))

Ictinaetus malayensis ( Black eagle )

Dicrurus macrocercus ( Srigunting hitam )

Bracypteryx leucophrys ( Cingcoang coklat )

Malacocincla sepiarium ( Pelanduk semak )

Cinclidium diana ( Berkecet biru-tua )

25

Orthotomus sepium ( Cinenen Jawa )

Muscicapa ferruginea ( Sikatan besi ) / migrant

Motacilla cinerea ( Kicuit batu ) / migrant

Arachnothera longirostra ( Pijantung kecil )

Mist nets in the primary forest Gunung Salak

Mist net di Hutan Sekunder Gunung Salak

26

Appendix 4 : Herpetofauna from Resort Kawah Ratu, GHSNP

Microhyla palmipes

Microhyla achatina

Megophrys montana

Rhacophorus reinwardtii

Rhacophorus margaritifer

Huia masonii

Eutropis multifasciata

Bronchocela jubata

27

Cyrtodactylus marmoratus

Pseudocalotes tympanistriga

Gonocephalus kuhlii

Draco haematopogon

Ahaetulla prasina

Bungarus fasciatus

28

Dendrelaphis pictus

29

Appendix 5: Insect Pictures taken from study area

Tunnel of Bulbitermes sp. on the bark of tree

Nest of Bulbitermes sp. on standing dead tree

30

Transect 1: Habitat at slightly disturbed primary forest (SDPF).

Transect 2: Habitat at highly disturbed primary forest (HDPF), more dead wood on the forest floor.

Transect 3: Habitat at Agathis forest (AF).

Stump of Agathis damara, nest and food source of Schedorhinotermes sp.

Appendix 6. A complete list of flying insect caught at Resort Kawah Ratu - GHSNP SUB FAMILY
Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Biblidinae Biblidinae Biblidinae

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

HABITAT
AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF AF

ORDO
Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata

FAMILY
Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Pieridae Pieridae Pieridae Pieridae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Pieridae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Lycaenidae Lycaenidae Hesperidae Arctiidae Calopterygridae Calopterygridae Calopterygridae

GENUS
Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima sp.1 sp.1 sp.1

Mycalesis sp.1 Mycalesis sp.1 Faunis canens Faunis canens Faunis canens Delias belisama Delias belisama Eurema sp.1 Eurema hecabe

Nimphalinae Danainae Satyrinae

Junonia almana Ideopsis juventa Appias olferna Mycalesis sp.1 Nymphalidae sp.3 Lycaenidae sp.1 Lycaenidae sp.3 Hesperidae sp.

Artciinae Vestalis sp.

Hyctemera baulus

Vestalis sp. Vestalis sp.

32

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp

Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Diptera Hemiptera Hemiptera Hemiptera Hemiptera Hemiptera Homoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera

Scarabaidae Scarabaidae Coccinellidae Coccinellidae Coccinellidae Chrysomelidae Scarabaidae Lucanidae Cerambycidae Lucanidae Erotylidae Scarabaidae Elateridae Scarabaidae Lucanidae Scarabaidae Scarabaidae Lucanidae Erotylidae Scarabaidae Lucanidae Lucanidae Lycidae Lycidae Carabaidae Carabaidae Pentatomidae Pentatomidae Pentatomidae Pentatomidae Pentatomidae Cicadidae Xylocopidae Apidae Vespidae Formicidae Formicidae Apidae Braconidae Formicidae Formicidae Formicidae Formicidae Nimphalidae Danainae Ideopsis juventa Vespa velutina Pomponia fusca Cyclommatus sp. Onthophagus sp. Prosopocoilus zebra Excopholis sp. Excopholis hipoleuca Excopholis hipoleuca Presgiocoiles sp. Bactocera sp. Presgiocoiles sp. Ephilacna sp. Ephilacna sp. Ephilacna sp.

33

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp Basecamp HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF

Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Odonata Odonata Odonata Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Diptera

Pieridae Pieridae Pieridae Pieridae Nimphalidae Pieridae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Eupterotidae Libellulidae Coenagrionidae Libellulidae Gryllacrididae Phasmidae Acridiidae Acridiidae Acridiidae Acrididae Acridiidae Acridiidae Acridiidae Acridiidae Acridiidae Tettigonidae Tettigonidae Blattidae Manthidea Phasmidae Gryllacrididae Gryllacrididae Dytiscidae Mantidea Tetrigidae Tetrigidae Acridiidae Acridiidae Scarabaidae Carabaidae Crysomelidae Coccinellidae Coccinellidae Crysomelidae Crysomelidae Asilidae Danainae Nimphalinae

Eurema sp.3 Eurema sp.4 Eurema sp.5 Eurema sp.2 Vagran sinha Eurema sp.6 Cethosia hypsea Euploea enunice Melanothrix nymphaliaria Pantala flavescens Pseudagrion proinosum Crocothemis jenvilia Sia ferox?

Xiphidion sp Xiphidion sp Pycnocellus sp.

Gryllacris sp. Gryllacris sp. Hierodula sp

Ephilacna sp Ephilacna sp

34

115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159

HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF HDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF

Diptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Odonata Odonata Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Diptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera

Tipulidae Vespidae Apidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Libellulidae Libellulidae Acridiidae Tettigonidae Tettigonidae Blattidae Blattidae Blattidae Phasmidae Tettigoniidae Passalidae Passalidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Endomycidae Scarabaidae Erotylidae Tipulidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Apidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Vespidae Apidae Xylocopidae Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa sp. Bombus rufipes Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Vespa velutina Bombus rufipes Expholis hypoleuca Nimphalinae Nimphalinae Nimphalinae Phimenes flavopictus Apis cerana Junonia orithya Junonia orithya Junonia orithya Orthetrum sabina Orthetrum sabina

35

160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203

SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF SDPF

Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera

Apidae Apidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Nimphalidae Lycaenidae Lycaenidae Lycaenidae Nimphalidae Lycaenidae Lycaenidae Lycaenidae Pieridae Zygaenidae Calopterygridae Euphiedae Calopterygridae Euphaeidae Coenagrionidae Coenagrionidae Coenagrionidae Coenagrionidae Euphaiedae Euphaeidae Coenagrionidae Blattidae Blattidae Gryllacrididae Blattidae Satyrinae Biblidinae Biblidinae Biblidinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Danainae

Bombus rufipes Bombus rufipes Faunis canens Faunis canens Faunis canens Mycalesis sp.1 Mycalesis sp.1 Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima Ypthima sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1 sp.1

Mycalesis sp.1 Mycalesis sp.1 Ideopsis juventa Lycaenidae sp.2 Lycaenidae sp.1 Lycaenidae sp.1 Ypthima sp.1 Lycaenidae sp.4 Lycaenidae sp.1 Lycaneidae sp.3 Eurema sp.7 Eterusia sp. Vestulis luctuosa Euphaea variegata Vestalis luctuosa Euphaea variegata Pseudagrion proinosum Pseudagrion proinosum Pseudagrion proinosum Pseudagrion proinosum Euphaea variegata Euphaea variegata Pseudagrion proinosum Pycnocellus sp. Pycnocellus sp.

36

37