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ERGONOMIC RISK IDENT IFICATION AND ASSESSMENT TOOL

Prepared for:

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

Prepared by: CAPP and CPPI Ergonomics Working Group Technical content provided by: BC Research Inc. Suite 880 - 401 9 th Avenue SW Gulf Canada Square Calgary, Alberta T2P 3C5

Version 1.0, January 2000

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page # Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................1 Process Overview and Flowchart.........................................................................................................................2 Level 1 - Risk Identification ....................................................................................................................................4
The Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Identification ............................................................................5 Form A Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire..................................................................................................8 Form B Ergonomic Task Identification..............................................................................................................10 Level 1: Summary Form .........................................................................................................................................11

Level 2 - Risk Assessment.........................................................................................................................................12


Form C Task Procedures........................................................................................................................................13 Form D: Primary Risk Rating - Back, Legs, Neck ...........................................................................................15 Form E: Primary Risk Rating - Upper Limb.....................................................................................................16 Form F: Forces and Contact Stresses ..................................................................................................................17 Form G: Organizational Factors..........................................................................................................................18 Form H: Environmental Factors ..........................................................................................................................19 Form I: Sitting Workstation Layout (including driving)..............................................................................20 Form J: Non-sitting Workstation Layout ..........................................................................................................21 Form K: Computer Workstation Layout............................................................................................................22 Level 2: Summary Form .........................................................................................................................................23

Level 3 - Risk Control ..................................................................................................................................................24 Reducing the Risk of MSI at Computer Workstations - The Basics .......................................25 Definitions ............................................................................................................................................................................32 References .............................................................................................................................................................................34

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

INTRODUCTION
Ergonomic risk identification and assessment tools have been developed to assist workers and health and safety personnel to identify and prioritize tasks which place workers at significant risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The goal of implementing these tools is to reduce work related musculoskeletal injuries. The tools will also help identify areas where ergonomic solutions are needed to improve workers health, comfort and performance at work. This tool has been developed to address both office and field work environments in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Please read carefully through this instruction booklet and all of the forms and definitions. Recognizing the common need to generically address computer workstation risk factors, a "short cut" section (pages 25 to 31) has been included to provide a simplified process that workers can use to directly reduce individual risk to most musculoskeletal injuries related to computer use. The complete assessment tools should be comprehensively applied to address individual and/or complex computer workstation risk situations. These tools are intended to supplement and support existing worksite injury management processes, providing operations with a systematic process to assess and control ergonomic risk factors. Only minimal reduction in musculoskeletal injuries will be achieved if these tools are used in isolation, or in the absence of effective injury reporting and investigation processes, worker fitness-to-work assessments and comprehensive injury case management, including capability assessment and worker accommodation processes. For comprehensive results, a cross section of workers with different height, weight, gender, experience, injury history, etc. should be assessed. If seasonal aspects affect the tasks these must also be considered. In order to ensure that different assessors get similar results, initially complete the process at least twice on the same worker and compare results. This tool has been developed based on existing literature and the experience of the participating ergonomists. It has not been scientifically validated. The risk scores are based on a number of risk factors that assist in prioritizing tasks based on the overall degree of risk to musculoskeletal injury. With this in mind, tasks which are scored as medium or high risk indicate that these tasks should receive medium or high priority for ergonomic controls. Due to the high degree in individual variability, this tool does not provide a means of directly linking ergonomic risk factors with resulting musculoskeletal injury. It is advised that this tool be used, only after users have received education from individuals trained in the area of ergonomics, and understand the application of the tool. For further information, or to forward suggestions for revisions, please contact:

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

Phone: 403-267-1100 Fax: 403-266-3214 Email: communications@capp.ca

Phone: 403-266-7565 Fax: 403-269-9367 Email: billlevy@cppi.ca

INTRODUCTION

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

PROCESS OVERVIEW AND FLOWCHART


A three level process is summarized in the Risk Identification & Assessment Flowchart on the next page, and briefly described below:

Level

Description
Identify tasks which may expose workers to significant risk of musculoskeletal injuries: review of injury statistics review of reported signs & symptoms significant ergonomic risks perceived

Lead
Operations; site health & safety

(Train workers in the Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury Identification - page 5)

Systematic assessment of task identified by operations in Level 1, and any additional tasks identified by occupational health and hygiene specialists. Risk-based prioritization of tasks

Occupational health & hygiene (Ergonomist may be required)

Evaluate and implement appropriate risk control solutions, involving: site health representative(s), and safety

Control Solution Team (team composition depends upon nature of the risk and task requiring control measures)

worker representative (performing the task), ergonomist, engineer, and/or management representative

OVERVIEW

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

FLOWCHART
Worker Education
identifying and reporting MSI signs and symptoms

Level 1
Risk Identification Identify tasks associated with MSI injuries
review first aid, injury and WCB statistics review event investigation reports

Identify tasks at risk to MSI injuries Site Health & Safety Operations
complete Level 1 Summary Form
review reported signs and symptoms of pain or discomfort (Form A) review of tasks with perceived ergonomic risk factors (Form B)

Level 2 assessment required? YES

NO

Level 2
Risk Assessment & Prioritization

Describe task procedures


describe specific steps/actions for each task (Form C)

Determine level of risk


complete assessment worksheets (Forms D- K)

Occupational Health & Hygiene Ergonomist

complete Level 2 Summary Form

High/ Medium Risk? YES

NO

Low Risk

YES

Detailed analysis

Level 3
Risk Control Site Control Solution Team

high risk - immediately medium risk - action plan

Develop control measures


Control Solution Team identify and evaluate control options

Implement control measures


evaluate effectiveness

Acceptable risk

Monitor
review if task demands change review if an MSI injury occurs or reported signs and symptoms

O VERVIEW

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

LEVEL 1: RISK IDENTIFICATION


PURPOSE: Identify tasks which expose workers to risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

LEVEL 1 Risk Identification

STEPS 1. Review medical and event records for the past 3 years (medical, first aid, near miss, and health event reports) and identify tasks associated with discomfort or injuries. For tasks with injuries progress immediately to Level 2 Intervention. Train all workers in The Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Identification, including typical ergonomic stressors- see page 5 Survey all workers using Form A (Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire) and identify tasks associated with discomfort. Complete Form B (Ergonomic Task Identification) with all work groups and identify tasks associated with ergonomic stressors. Complete Level 1 Intervention Summary Form to identify tasks requiring Level 2 intervention. Indicate when Level 2 Intervention will be performed on this task. Priority for action should be based on the frequency the task is performed.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RISK

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

The Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Identification


(Adapted from the British Columbia Workers Compensation Board draft document Understanding the Physical Demands of Your Job: Understanding the Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury (MSI) Risk Identification, August 15, 1998)

Many of the ways you work - such as lifting, reaching, or repeating the same movements - may strain your body. Wear and tear on muscles, tissues, ligaments and joints can injure your neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, legs and back. These injuries are called musculoskeletal injuries, or MSI. In order to help prevent musculoskeletal injuries to yourself and co-workers, you should: recognize the signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal injury (MSI), understand the potential health effects of this type of injury, be able to identify risk factors in your work that may lead to MSI, understand the responsibilities of both workers and employers to prevent MSI

1. Signs and Symptoms of MSI


The demands placed on your body from your daily activities at work and at home can cause musculoskeletal injuries (MSI). You should be able to recognize the early signs and symptoms of MSI, so steps can be taken to avoid further risks and so you seek treatment quickly if necessary. The risk of work related injuries can be reduced if your job is well designed to minimize the physical demands. Signs and symptoms of an injury developing can appear suddenly or gradually over a longer period. A sign can be observed, such as: swelling redness difficulty moving a body part a) Potential health effects: Conditions such as back strains, tendinitis, other strains, or carpal tunnel syndrome may develop. This may affect your ability to do your job. Your doctor can treat musculoskeletal injuries with methods including splints, medication, ice, physical therapy, or even surgery. These injuries are easier to treat if they are discovered early. b) What to do if you have signs or symptoms of MSI Dont ignore early signs and symptoms. If you are experiencing signs or symptoms of MSI: let your supervisor know if you think that they are related to work let your company Health Advisor know tell a member of your site occupational health and safety committee visit your family doctor, especially if unrelated to work A symptom can be felt, but cannot be observed, such as: numbness tingling pain

2. Risks of MSI
Some factors of your job can contribute to the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. These are called risk factors. Two or more risk factors can overlap, which can increase the risk of injury. The primary risk factors for MSI are the physical demands of a task, including: force work posture repetition duration
THE BASICS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

contact stress

THE BASICS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

These physical demands can result from: the layout and condition of the workplace or work station the objects handled to perform a task These physical demands can by made worse by: environmental conditions at the workplace the ways tasks are organized a) Force The force exerted by a worker to counteract a load is a primary risk factor. Your muscles and tendons can be overloaded when you apply a strong force against a load. A risk can also occur over time by repeatedly applying a weaker force. These conditions can result from: lifting, pushing, pulling carrying gripping, pinching, holding stopping a moving object or resisting the kickback from tools The effects of these factors can be made worse by: slippery or odd shaped objects which are difficult to hold handles on tools, or objects that are tool small or too large awkward body positions, such as bending down, reaching forward or reaching overhead vibrating tools or equipment poorly fitted or inappropriate gloves b) Work Posture Posture refers to the position you assume to do a task. Awkward positions force the muscles to work harder and stress ligaments, such as when any part of the body bends or twists away from a comfortable position. Awkward positions can result from: looking up to work overhead reaching at or above shoulder height working at floor level transferring items across in front of the body the position or shape of tools and equipment using a tool (such as turning the forearm when using a screwdriver) a poor visual environment (such as bending forward to view small components) lack of clearance or confined areas The effects of posture can be made worse by: applying force in an awkward position (such as strong grip with a bent wrist, or lifting while stooped over) holding the position for a prolonged period, or repeatedly moving into an awkward position c) Duration Time factors affect the workers exposure to risk. The longer the task with the risk factor is performed, the higher the risk of MSI. d) Repetition Using the same body part over and over to perform a task puts you at risk of MSI. The risk of injury can increase when: the task or motion is repeated at high frequency there is not enough of a rest period to allow the stressed muscle or body part to recover.

THE BASICS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

e) Local Contact Stress Contact stress occurs when a hard object comes in contact with a small area of the body. The skin and the tissues beneath it can be injured from the pressure. Local contact stress can result from: ridges on tool handles digging into fingers edges of work surfaces digging into forearms or wrists striking objects with the hand, foot, or knee The effects of local contact stress can be made worse if: the hard object contacts an area without much protective tissue, such as the wrist, palm or fingers pressure is applied repeatedly or held for a long time.

3. How to identify risks


Think about your job. Identify the physical demands in your work which can be risk factors. Think about objects you handle and the environment in which you work. Are these linked to the physical demands you have identified as risk factors? Do they increase the demands on your body? Does the time you spend doing a particular task or the number of times you perform the task increase the physical demands? Report your observations to your supervisor and members of your site occupational health and safety committee. Since it is the work that you perform regularly, you have perhaps the best insights into the demands of your job, and you are in a good position to identify and help prevent risks of MSI.

4. Responsibilities
To help determine which jobs are at risk for MSI, employers and worker representatives should review the injury and worker compensation claim statistics and first aid records. Worker interviews, surveys, questionnaires and task observation may also be used. a) Supervisors should ensure workers are educated about the risk factors, signs and symptoms of MSI, and their potential health effects worker representatives are consulted when identifying, assessing and controlling risk factors, as well as when evaluating these controls. In addition, supervisors should consult worker representatives regarding the content and scheduling of worker education and training b) Occupational health advisors and hygienists should ensure factors in the workplace that may expose workers to a risk of MSI are identified these risks are properly assessed and minimized, or if possible, eliminated workers who report signs and symptoms of MSI are consulted when assessing risks. Other workers who perform the task being assessed must also be consulted during this process. worker education and training includes MSI sign and symptoms and key risk factors. c) Workers should follow established safe work procedures report any signs and symptoms of MSI to a supervisor and/or company Health Advisor participate in any MSI task analysis or investigation process

5. Test your knowledge


What are the factors in your job that could lead to musculoskeletal injury? What are the early signs and symptoms of MSI? To whom do you report signs and symptoms?
THE BASICS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

What can happen if early signs and symptoms are ignored?

THE BASICS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

Form A: Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire


As part of an Ergonomics Program, this questionnaire has been designed to gather baseline information on the signs and symptoms you may be experiencing. This information will help identify areas where ergonomic solutions might be needed to improve your health, comfort and performance at work. The questions ask general information which will help identify where specific problems might exist followed by questions on how your body feels after your shift. If you have specific concerns, would like some individual attention, or would like to get more involved with the Ergonomics Program, please let us know in the comments section at the end of this page.
COMPLETE QUESTIONS 1 - 12

1. What is your job title? 2. Years of experience at this job? 3. What is your work site? 4. Work Schedule: q Day

________________________ Years ________________________ q Afternoon

Employee number Job Function _____________________________

q Evening Yes q No

5. Length of work day? _______hrs 7. Are you: 8. Age: 9. Are you: q Female q <20 q Right-handed

6. Do you work (rotating) shifts? q q q Male 20-29 q 30-39 q Both

q 40-49

q 50-59

q >60

q Lefthanded OR _______ cm q

10. What is your height? _____ft _____in. 11. What is your weight? (optional)

<150lb q 150-180lb

180-230lb

q 230-260lb q >260lb

12. Are you currently on any medication? ______________________________________________________________________

Release of information consent: The information obtained from FORM A will be used as part of the Hazard Management Program. Information will be considered confidential. I agree that the information I provide can be used as part of the Hazard Management Program. Signed_______________________________ Witness__________________________
location below.

Date:

__________________

individual basis, or have any other concerns, please provide your name and work

Name: ___________________________________ Comments:

Work Location: _______________

Please complete the body part discomfort survey on the next page.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

In the table below, please record any task related signs or symptoms you have experienced in the past month along with the body part (use figure below) in which you have felt the discomfort. Rate the discomfort using a 3 point scale where;

1 2 3

Slight Moderate Severe

pain and fatigue noticed at the end of the task or end of day; daily living unaffected pain and fatigue noticed throughout the day; daily living minimally affected pain and fatigue even during rest and after work, or any numbness or tingling experienced, daily living restricted.

Column A
Body Part (name or #) Severity of pain or fatigue Frequency of discomfort (i.e. 1/month; 1/week; >1/week; 1/Day and # of hrs)

Column B
List the tasks you associate with this discomfort For tasks listed in column B, do you find these tasks highly mentally stressful?

Column C
Frequency and duration task is performed (i.e. 1/month; 1/week; >1/week; 1/Day and # of hrs)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

History of symptoms:

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

10

Summarize results in the Level 1 Summary Form (page 11) and Proceed to Form 2: Ergonomic Task Identification (page 10)

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

10

Form B: Ergonomic Task Identification


In consultation with worksite health & safety representatives.
Date: _____________________________ Work Group: _______________________ Facilitated by: ______________________ Work Site: __________________________

Attendees: _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________


1. Please list any tasks which you feel are associated with one or more of the perceived risks (ergonomic stressors) listed in the table below. Also consider: discomfort and exposure to cold temperature without appropriate PPE working reaches, working heights, seating and the characteristics of any objects being handled. consider floor surfaces, work recovery cycles and task variability as contributors to effort Place a Yes or No in the appropriate space to identify the perceived risks. In the last column estimate the frequency and duration a worker would perform this task. Please list identifiable tasks as opposed to general actions.

2. 3. 4.

Task name

Perceived risk

Frequency and Duration task is performed

(a distinct work activity comprised of several steps or actions) 1.

Moderate or Severe Body Part Discomfort? (Y/N)

Awkward Work Postures? (Y/N)

High Effort or Force? (Y/N)

High Repetition or Work Rate? (Y/N)

Contact Stress on Skin? (Y/N)

High Mental Stress? (Y/N)

1/month; 1/week; <1/week 1/day, and # of hours

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Summarize results in the Level 1 Risk Identification Summary Form on page 8

Note: use additional pages if required

TASK IDENTIFICATION

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

11

LEVEL 1 SUMMARY FORM RISK IDENTIFICATION


Date: _____________________________ Work Group: _______________________ Facilitated by: Work Site:

Task As described in Forms A& B

Outcomes Accidents & Injuries or Musculoskeletal injuries associated with the task (Y/N)

Potential Risk Factors Reported discomfort as per Form A for all tasks with severity of 2 or 3. (Y/N) From Form B all tasks with perceived risk factors (Y/N)

Frequency /Duration 1/month; 1/week; >1/week; 1/Day,& # of hrs

Action Recommendation Who When

LEVEL 1 SUMMARY

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

12

LEVEL 1 SUMMARY

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

13

LEVEL 2: RISK ASSESSMENT AND PRIORITIZATION


PURPOSE: Assess the risks in tasks identified in Level 1, and prioritize as High, Medium and Low risk requirement for further intervention

LEVEL 2 Risk Assessment

STEPS Complete Level 2 Intervention for each task identified in the Level 1 Intervention Summary Form 1. 2. 3. 4. Gather background information on the task, if possible (task description and equipment used). Observe and video workers performing task Video workers from both the front and sides. Complete Form C (Task Procedures) following the directions on the form. Complete Form D, Primary Risk Rating for Back, Legs, and Neck, and Form E, Primary Risk Rating for Upper Limb using the following directions (Note: the only difference between Form D and E is that Form E requires separate scores for the right and left limbs: a) Observe the worker or review video as necessary. b) For each body part (row), the maximum score for each cell is 1, except the daily exposure cell which may score up to 3. Headings in the first row describe scoring. c) To determine the daily exposures for different body parts use the table on page 14.

d) Sum the scores in each row and place the total in the Total score column which is the last column on the right. e) Where necessary consult with the worker as he/she may be in a better position to provide: i. ii. iii. Estimates of forces applied or lifted during tasks; Exposure (i.e. cumulative amount of time spent doing this task in a day); Thoughts on improving ergonomics of task.

a) Complete the summary and score section at the bottom of the page using directions given. 5. Complete Forms F to K (Compounding Factors) a) Observe the workers or review video of workers performing the work cycle. b) For each factor, read across the row and select the most appropriate risk rating and record it in the SCORE column on the right. c) If the factor does not exist place a 0 in the SCORE cell. Sum the SCORE column and record the result in the TOTAL SCORE cell indicated.

d) If a factor falls between two ratings, choose the rating level with the highest risk. e) 6. Complete the Summary and Score section at the bottom of each form.

Complete Level 2 Summary Form to identify tasks requiring hazard controls.

LEVEL 2

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

14

Form C: Task Procedures


Date: ___________________________________ Work Site: _______________________________ Worker Name: ___________________________
1. 2. 3. 4.

Job Title: _____________________ Job Task: ______________________ Frequency Task is Performed: ______________________

5.

List actions/steps in the task. Consult with worker to make sure you have documented all steps and perceived problems. Estimate time each action takes. List the perceived ergonomic risks in the task (or steps), and suggested improvements. Describe equipment used and duration it is used. Describe personal protective equipment (PPE) used.

TASK DETAILS
Steps/ Actions Description Duration (hr/min) Comments (from worker and assessor regarding perceived problems and suggested improvements).

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT OPERATED

List the machinery and equipment or tools operated.

Provide weight & workstation dimensions

Duration tool is used

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

List the personal protective equipment used.

TASK PROCEDURES

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

15

Use the following page for field notes then go to Forms D and E

TASK PROCEDURES

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

16

Form C continued: FIELD NOTES:


This form is to provide you with additional space for field notes. In Part 1, consider the tasks listed on Form C1 and expand on the task activities. Note any significant information that will impact on how the task is performed, such as the amount of time required for steps/actions, constraints on the worker, workstation considerations or equipment issues. Use Part 2 to determine the amount of time that the person spends in a particular task activity. This information can then be used in Forms D and E to estimate exposure information.

Part 1: Task Procedures:

Part 2: Daily Exposure Estimation for body parts


Col. A
Task activity

Col. B
Task activity time (per cycle)

Col. C
Number # of cycles per day

Col. D
Total daily time spent in activity

Col. E
Body part using awkward postures during activity

Col. F
Percent of activity in which awkward posture used

Col. G.
Exposure

Formula: Col. B * Col. C

Formula: Col. D * Col. F

e.g. off loading fuel

20 mins

20*8=160 mins

Legs Back Shoulder Wrists

Legs 50% back 50% shoulder 25% wrists 5%

Legs = 80 mins back = 80 mins shoulder = 40 mins wrists = 8 mins

TASK PROCEDURES

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

17

TASK PROCEDURES

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

19

Form D: PRIMARY RISK RATING: BACK, LEGS AND NECK


Date: ______________________ Work Site: __________________
1. 2. 3.

Job Title: ______________________ Job Task: ______________________

Exposure Rating Table


Daily Exposure 0 - 10 min. 11 - 30 min 31 - 60 min 1 hr - 2 hrs 2 hrs - 4 hrs >4 hrs with suitable recovery *Score 1 if the same action is repeated: Score 1 if there is contact stress on skin Max 1 Score 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 -1

Observe the worker(s) performing the task or review video. For detailed directions for Forms D and E refer to page 14. Score the task in the columns below. In score chart, associate postures, forces etc. with steps A,B,C (from Form C). Total the scores for each body part (row) and place the result in the TOTAL SCORE column on the right.

If the factor does not exist place a 0 in the SCORE cell.


Note: Think of a 4.5kg (10 lb) force as comparable to the force required to lift a bag of sugar. *Score if force or repetition exceeded in any posture (not just postures which are shown).
BODY PART Score 1 for each awkward posture that is present Score 1 if an awkward posture is held more than: Max 1 *Score 1 if the force is more than:

Daily Exposure TOTAL to any of the SCORE preceding by (Score using table body above) part

Max 1 (4.5kg/10lb)

Max 1 (>5 times per min)

Legs
Are the legs ever exposed to any of the following? Kneeling (1 or 2 legs) Using foot pedal or standing on 1 leg Squat Climbing (> 20 steps)

(> 30 sec)

Back: Standing
Is the Back ever exposed to any of the following?: Lateral Flexion >20 Twisted >20 Forward Flexion >20

(> 30 sec)

(9kg/20lb) (i.e., lifting, carrying, pushing pulling)

(>5 times per min)

Back: Sitting
Is the worker exposed to any of the following while sitting? Lateral Flexion >20 Poor Support from Backrest or Sitting for > 4 hrs per day

(> 20 sec)

Force (>9kg/20lb)

(>1 time per min)

Twisted >20

Neck
Is the neck exposed to any of the following? Lateral Flexion >20 Twisted >20 Forward Flexion >20 Extension >5

(> 20 sec)

Heavy PPE headgear with flexion or extension. (e.g., welding helmets)

(>4 times per min)

n/a

COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW:

LOW

MED

HIGH

Maximum Total Score: If your maximum value in the shaded area is greater than 0 and less than 5.5check Low; 5.5 to 7- check Medium
and greater than 7- check High.

Summary Risk Score: Count the number of <5.5,5.5 to 7 and >7 scores entered in the total column and record in the Low, Med. and
High boxes to the right.

Provide general comments and list actions which were associated with High or Medium Risk scores: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

PRIMARY RISK RANKING

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

20
Exposure Rating Table Daily Exposure Score 0 - 10 min. 11 - 30 min 31 - 60 min 1 hr - 2 hrs 2 hrs - 4 hrs >4 hrs 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 3

Form E: PRIMARY RISK RATING: UPPER LIMB


1. 2. Score left and right limbs separately. Score the task in the columns below. In score chart, associate postures, forces etc. with steps A,B,C (from Form C). Use the L and the R to fill in left and right scores respectively. If the factor does not exist place a 0 in the SCORE cell *Score if force or repetition exceeded for any posture (not just postures which are shown).
BODY PART Score 1 for each awkward posture that is present

Score 1 If a n *Score 1 if the *Score 1 if an action Score 1 if there is Daily Exposure to TOTAL SCORE awkward posture is force is more than: is repeated: contact stress on any of the precedingby body part held more than: skin (Pressure (Score using table Points) above) Max 1 Max 1 (4.5kg/10lb) Max 1 (>4 times per min) Max 1

Shoulder
Is the shoulder exposed to any of the following:

R L

R L

(>20 sec)

Reaching >45 or across the body

Reaching to side>45

__ RIGHT __
LEFT

Reaching behind

Arms/Elbow
Is the forearm or elbow exposed to any of the following:

L
Forearm Rotation

R L
Flexion > 100

R L

(>20 sec)

(>4.5kg /10lb)

(>4 times per min)

Flexion < 60

__ RIGHT __
LEFT

Hand/Wrist
Is the hand or wrist exposed to any of the following?

L
Flexion >20 (Wrist down)

R L
Extension >30 (Wrist up)

R L
Deviation toward little finger >10

L
Deviation toward thumb >10

(>20 sec)

(4.5kg/ 10lb)

(>4 times per min)

__ RIGHT __
LEFT

Finger Grasp
Is the hand exposed to any of the fo llowing

L
Pinch Grip

R L
Finger Press

R L
Open or Tight Grip

R
Gloves present catch point hazard.

(>20 sec)

(>4.5kg/ 10lb or Pinch Grip >1kg/2 lb)

(>4 times per min)

__ RIGHT __
LEFT

L COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW:

L LOW

R MED.

R HIGH

Maximum Total Score: If your maximum value in the shaded area is greater than 0 and less than 5.5- check Low; 5.5 to 7- check
Medium and greater than 7- check High.

PRIMARY RISK RANKING

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool Summary Risk Score: Count the number of <5.5,5.5 to 7 and >7 scores entered in the total column and record in the Low,
Med. and High boxes to the right.

21

Provide general comments and list actions which were associated with High or Medium Risk scores:

________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

PRIMARY RISK RANKING

Risk Identification & Assessment Tool

22

FORM F: Forces and Contact Stresses


(This Form was adapted from the Assessment Worksheets provided by the WCB of BC)

Date: ______________________ Work Site: __________________


1. 2. 3.

Job Title: ______________________ Job Task: ______________________

Observe the worker(s) performing the work cycle. Consult with worker as required. Complete Forms F to K. For each factor, read across the row and select the most appropriate risk rating and record it in the SCORE column on the right. If the factor does not exist place a 0 in the SCORE cell. Sum the SCORE column and record the result in the TOTAL SCORE cell indicated.

If a factor falls between two ratings, choose the rating level with the highest risk.

Factor Low Risk 1


Weight of object lifted, pushed, pulled or rotated. Less than 8 kg (17 lbs) for two hands, and less than 4 kg (8.5 lbs) for one hand. Between hip and shoulder. Less than 3 m (10 ft). The load is easy to carry considering size, shape, and weight distribution, and has appropriate handles. Less than 2 m (6.5 ft). Less than 1 kg (2 lbs). Workers report little/no pressure is exerted on the skin. Hand or body part impacts soft material or rounded object.

Rating level Moderate Risk 2


8-23 kg. (17-51 lbs) for two hands, and 4-11.5 kg (8.5-25 lbs) for one hand. Between knee and hip height. 3-9 m (10-30 ft). The load is manageable in terms of size, shape, weight distribution and handles. 2-60 m (6.5-200 ft). 1-5 kg (2-11 lbs). Workers report some pressure is exerted on the skin Hand or body part occasionally* impacts hard object or experiences impact.

SCORE High Risk 3


More than 23 kg (51 lbs) for two hands, and more than 11.5 kg (25 lbs) for one hand. Below knee level, or Above shoulder level. More than 9 m (30 ft). The load is awkward to carry due to its size, shape, or weight distribution and does not have handles. More than 60 m (200 ft). More than 5 kg. (11 lbs). Marks or depressions left on the skin, or high pressure on skin. Hand or body part frequently* impacts hard object or experiences impact.

(record 0,1,2 or 3)

Location of load (>17lb) at start or end of lift. Carrying a load (>17lb). Characteristics of load (any weight).

Pushing, pulling or rotating a load. Seated or squatted lifting or lowering. Contact stress from an object.

Uses hand or body part with force, to strike an object or tool or body part is subjected to impact force.

*See definitions on page 37 for details. COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW:

TOTAL SCORE
LOW MED. HIGH

Forces and Contact Stresses Summary If your total score value is greater than 0 and less than
10, check Low; between 10 and 16, check Med. And greater than 16, check High.

Forces and Contact Stresses Risk Score Count the number of 1,2 and 3 scores entered
in the SCORE Column and record in the Low, Med. and High boxes to the right. (Do not count 0)

Provide general comments and list the actions associated with High or Medium Risk scores: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

FORCES + CONTACT STRESSES

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FORCES + CONTACT STRESSES

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FORM G: Organizational Factors


(This Form was adapted from the Assessment Worksheets provided by the WCB of BC)

Date: ______________________ Work Site: __________________


If the factor is not applicable Score as 0. Consult with worker as required.

Job Title: ______________________ Job Task: ______________________

Factors Low Risk 1


Daily work recovery cycles*. Daily work is consistent, with regular pauses. The worker is able to take regular pauses during the task, or The task duration is less than 1hr.

Rating level Moderate Risk 2


Daily work has infrequent pauses. The worker is unable to take pauses during the task, and the task duration is more than 1 hour and less than 4 hours. Tasks are repetitive for short periods and somewhat variable throughout the entire w orkday.

SCORE High Risk 3


Daily work has no regular pauses. The worker is unable to take pauses during the task, and the task duration is more than 4 hours.

(record 0,1,2 or 3)

Action recovery cycles.

Task variability*.

The variety of tasks performed allows for the use of different body parts/muscle groups.

The work is monotonous, or Repetitive use of the same body parts using the same muscle groups for long periods of time. Rapid steady motion and/or difficulty keeping up. Work is machine paced and worker may not modify the pace at will (little flexibility with daily deadlines). Worker always finds this task mentally stressful.

Work rate*.

No difficulty keeping pace.

Slow or steady motions.

Workers control over the work.

Worker has complete control over work (some flexibility with deadlines).

The work is paced however the worker has some flexibility over daily deadlines.

Mental stress.

Worker rarely finds this task mentally stressful.

Worker sometimes finds this task mentally stressful (specific occasion).

TOTAL SCORE

*Refer to definitions section for further information on factors.


COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW: LOW MED. HIGH

Organizational Factors Summary If your total score value is greater than


0 and less than 9, check Low; between 9 and 14, check Medium and greater than 14, check High.

Organizational Factors Risk Score Count the number of 1,2 and


3 scores entered in the SCORE column and record in the Low, Med. and High boxes to the right. (Do not count 0)

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS

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Provide general comments and list the actions associated with High or Medium Risk scores: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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FORM H: Environmental Factors


(This Form was adapted from the Assessment Worksheets provided by the WCB of BC)

Date: ______________________ Work Site: __________________


If the factor is not applicable Score as 0. Consult with worker as required.

Job Title: ______________________ Job Task: ______________________

Factors Low Risk 1


Lighting conditions. Appropriate lighting for task. Worker can assume comfortable work posture to see task.

Rating level Moderate Risk 2


Occasional* lighting changes result in worker using awkward posture during work.

SCORE High Risk 3


Low light level, (e.g. worker hunching over) or High light level, (e.g. worker may attempt to avoid glare by changing work position). The object is very cold or There is cold exhaust on hands.

(record 0,1,2 or 3)

Temperatures of objects handled.

Comfortably warm objects are handled and hands are not exposed to uncomfortably cold temperatures. Noise level is comfortable and unnoticeable.

Object temperature and hand temperature are between those described for 1 and 3. Noise levels are occasionally* uncomfortable and distracting. Vibration level is noticeable and causes some concern. Working temperature is occasionally* uncomfortable

Noise level under usual conditions (i.e., with hearing protection if usually worn).

Noise level is frequently* annoying, distracting or producing hearing loss? Vibration level is annoying or uncomfortable. Working temperature is frequently* uncomfortable and appropriate PPE is not available.

Rate the vibration level.

Vibration level is comfortable and does not cause concern. Working temperature is comfortable and unnoticeable.

Temperature of working conditions. Please comment if seasonal changes affect working conditions.

TOTAL SCORE

*Refer to definitions section for further information on factors.


COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW: LOW MED. HIGH

Environmental Factors Summary If your total score value is greater than


0 and less than 7, check Low; between 7 and 13, check Medium and greater than 13, check High.

Environmental Factors Risk Score Count the number of 1,2 and 3


scores entered in the SCORE column and record in the Low, Med. and High boxes to the right. (Do not count 0)

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

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Provide general comments and list the actions which were associated with High or Medium Risk scores: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Form I: Sitting Workstation Layout (not computer)


Use this form for driving tasks and any tasks at a sitting workstation (This Form was adapted from the Assessment Worksheets provided by the WCB of BC)

Date: ______________________ Work Site: __________________


If the factor is not applicable Score as 0. Consult with worker as required.

Job Title: _____________________ Job Task: _____________________

Factor Low Risk 1


Duration of sitting required. Operator is sitting for less than 4 hrs per day and does not sit continuously for more than 1 hour. Displays can be referred to easily without any movements or altering forward attention.

Rating level Moderate Risk 2


Operator either sits for more than 4 hrs or Sits continuously for more than 1 hour. Displays are referred to with slight movements of the head or other body parts and minimal interruption of forward attention.

SCORE High Risk 3


Operator sits for more than 4 hrs per day and sits continuously for more than 1 hour without standing up. Displays require complete diversion of forward attention and result in awkward movements such as: >45 forward trunk bending >90 shoulder flexion in front of body >30 neck bending forward or twisting to the left or right. Area in operators forward line of sight is blocked severely reducing visibility and/ or awkward postures frequently required to attain required line of sight. Frequently used items are >37 cm (15) from operator. >45 forward trunk bending >90 shoulder flexing in front of body >30 neck bending forward >20 neck bending backwards Neither the seat height, depth nor the backrest are adjustable. Neither the feet rest on the floor (or footrest) with knees at 90 nor does the backrest support the natural curve of the spine.

(record 0,1,2 or 3)

Display setup (including mirrors and gauges).

Visibility.

Visibility is not blocked in any direction from the operators forward line of sight.

Visibility is blocked to the sides, above or below the operators forward line of sight.

Horizontal reaches while sitting. Seated workstation height or while squatting

Frequently used items or controls are within 30 cm (12) of operator. 0-20 forward trunk bending 0-45 arm raised from shoulder in front of body 0-10 neck bent forward 0-10 neck bent back The seat height, depth and backrest are adjustable. The feet rest on the floor (or footrest) with knees at 90 and the backrest supports the natural curve of the spine.

Frequently used items are within 37 cm (15) of operator. 20-45 forward trunk bending 45-90 arm raised from shoulder in front of body 10-30 neck bent forward 10-20 neck bent back The seat can be adjusted in two directions ( height, depth or backrest). Either the feet do not rest on the floor (or footrest) with knees at 90 or the backrest does not support the natural curve of the spine.

Seat adjustability.

Seat positioning.

COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW:

TOTAL SCORE LOW MED.

HIGH

Work Station Summary If your total score value is greater than 0 and less than 9, check
Low; between 9 and 15, check Med and greater than 15, check High.

Work Station Risk Score Count the number of 1,2 and 3 scores entered in the SCORE
column and record in the Low, Med. and High boxes to the right. (Do not count 0)

SITTING WORKSTATION

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Provide general comments and list the actions associated with High or Medium Risk scores: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Form J: Non-Sitting Workstation or Workplace Layout


(This Form was adapted from the Assessment Worksheets provided by the WCB of BC). Consider workstations where the worker spends time both sitting and standing. If the factor is not applicable Score as 0. Consult with worker as required.

Factor Low Risk 1


Horizontal reaches for a standing work area or workstation. Standing work area or workstation height Frequently* used items are within 45 cm (18) for one handed reaches and 35 cm (14) for two handed reaches. 0-20 forward trunk bending 0-45 arm raised from shoulder in front of body 0-10 neck bent forward 0-10 neck bent back Floor or ground is springy (e.g., carpet, grass, cork tiling).

Rating level Moderate Risk 2


Frequently* used items either within 45 cm (18) for one handed reaches or 35 cm (14) for two handed reaches. 20-45 forward trunk bending 45-90 arm raised from shoulder in front of body 10-30 neck bent forward 10-20 neck bent back Floor is slightly springy (e.g., carpet no underlay). or Walks for 50% of day or Padded footwear worn. Footrest, mat (not anti-fatigue) occasionally used. or Standing stationary with no footrest or mat for less than 50% of day. or Padded footwear worn. The work area is congested or there are risks for slips and trips.

SCORE High Risk 3


Frequently* used items are not within 45 cm (18) for one handed reaches nor 35 cm (14) for two handed reaches. >45 forward trunk bending >90 shoulder flexing in front of body >30 neck bending forward >20 neck bending backwards Walking on hard floor or paved surface (e.g., concrete) for more than 50% of day and inadequate footwear.

(record 0,1,2 or 3)

Floor resiliency walking and standing.

Footrests for workers standing stationary

Anti-fatigue mat, or footrest regularly used.

Standing stationary at workstation with no footrest or mat for more than 50% of day.

Work area congested or risks of slips and trips. (e.g. obstacles, environmental conditions)

The work area is not congested and there are no risks for slips and trips.

The work area is congested and there are risks for slips and trips.

*Frequently: items used several times per 15 minute period COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW: LOW

TOTAL SCORE MED. HIGH

Work Station Summary If your total score value is greater than 0 and less
than 6, check Low; between 6 and 10, check Med and greater than 10,

check High.

Work Station Risk Score Count the number of 1,2 and 3 scores
entered in the SCORE column and record in the Low, Med. and High boxes to the right. (Do not count 0)

N ON-SITTING WORKSTATION

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Provide general comments and list the actions which were associated with High or Medium Risk scores: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

N ON-SITTING WORKSTATION

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Form K: Computer Workstation Layout


(This Form was adapted from the Assessment Worksheets provided by the WCB of BC) If the factor is not applicable Score as 0. Consult with worker as required.

Factor Low Risk 1


Duration of computer work. Operator works at computer workstation for less than 4 hrs/day and does not perform continuous computer tasks for >1 hour. Monitor is directly in front of the user and top of monitor screen is at users eye height.

Rating level Moderate Risk 2


Operator either works at computer workstation for >4 hrs or performs continuous computer tasks for >1 hour. Monitor is either not directly in front of the user or top of monitor screen is not at users eye height. Either keyboard or mouse or one of the workstation controls cannot be adjusted to elbow level. Frequently used items are within 37 cm (15) of operator. 20-45 forward trunk bending 45-90 arm raised from shoulder in front of body 10-30 neck bent forward 10-20 neck bent back Either the chair height or the backrest is adjustable. Either the feet do not rest on the floor (or footrest) with knees at 90 or the backrest does not support the natural curve of the spine.

SCORE High Risk 3


Operator works at computer workstation for greater than 4 hrs/day and performs continuous computer tasks for >1 hour. Monitor is not directly in front of the user and top of monitor screen is not at users eye height. Neither keyboard nor mouse (nor any of the keyboard controls) can be adjusted to (or are at) elbow level.

(0,1,2 or3)

Display or monitor setup.

Workstation controls or keyboard and mouse setup.

Keyboard and mouse or workstation controls can be adjusted to (or are at) elbow level.

Horizontal reaches for a seated workstation. Seated workstation height

Frequently used items are within 30 cm (12) of operator. 0-20 forward trunk bending 0-45 arm raised from shoulder in front of body 0-10 neck bent forward 0-10 neck bent back The chair height and backrest are adjustable. The feet rest on the floor (or footrest) with knees at 90 and the backrest supports the natural curve of the spine.

Frequently used items are >37 cm (15) from operator. >45 forward trunk bending >90 shoulder flexing in front of body >30 neck bending forward >20 neck bending backwards Neither the chair height nor the backrest are adjustable. Neither the feet rest on the floor (or footrest) with knees at 90 nor does the backrest support the natural curve of the spine.

Chair adjustability.

Chair positioning.

*Frequently: items used several times per 15 minute period COMPLETE THE SUMMARY AND SCORE SECTION BELOW: LOW

TOTAL SCORE MED. HIGH

Work Station Summary If your total score value is greater than 0 and less
than 9, check Low; between 9 and 15, check Med and greater than 15,

check High.

Work Station Risk Score Calculate the number of 1,2 and 3 scores
entered in the SCORE column and record these sums in the Low, Med. and High boxes to the right. (Do not count 0)

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Provide general comments and list the actions associated with High or Medium Risk scores: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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LEVEL 2 SUMMARY FORM RISK ASSESSMENT AND PRIORITIZATION


Work Site: ________________________ Job Task: __________________________ Job Title: ___________________________

Do not write in shaded areas* Use the Summary and score section at the bottom of each form to complete the table below.

Form

Date Completed

Task Summary Print Low, Med, or High in the cells below.

Risk Score Summary Print the scores associated with Low, Med, and High in the cells below.

Low
Level 2 Complete Task Procedures (Form C) Form D: Complete Primary Risk Rating: Back, Legs, and Neck Form E: Complete Primary Risk Rating: Upper Limb Form F: Forces and Contact Stresses Summary Form G: Work Organization Summary Form H: Work Environment Summary Form I: Sitting Workstation Layout Summary Form J: Non-Sitting Workstation Layout Summary Form K: Computer Workstation Layout Summary Level 3 Initiate technical analysis (Circle YES if Task summary column contains High or Med Circle NO if Low)

Med

High

YES NO

High = Technical analysis required immediately Med = Technical analysis required in future Low = No action, review if job demands change

List the actions (steps in the task) which were associated with high or medium risk ratings:

List suggested actions which will assist in determining controls (e.g., brainstorming meeting, changes to work station layout, changes to equipment, changes to worker actions, changes to work schedules).

Date for completion of action.

LEVEL 2 SUMMARY

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LEVEL 2 SUMMARY

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LEVEL 3: RISK CONTROL


This section is to be developed further following operational experience with Level 1 and 2 tools. The specific approach to ergonomic controls may vary significantly from situation to situation.

PURPOSE: Evaluate appropriate control measures engineering controls worker education and training work organization personal protective equipment work practices Engineering or administrative controls should have priority over personal protective equipment Implement appropriate control measures interim control should be implemented if permanent controls are delayed

LEVEL 3 Risk Control

STEPS 1. 2. 3. 4. Review control measures suggestions from Level 2; Perform a detailed task analysis, which may require consultation with technical expert or ergonomist High risk tasks should be a priority for Level 3 Intervention. Identify appropriate controls through brainstorming sessions with management, worksite health and safety representatives, occupational health and hygiene staff and engineering staff Document all recommendations, clearly identifying what action is to be taken, by whom and by when. Track follow-up as part of existing worksite recommendation follow-up processes. Implement controls. Reassess tasks within 2-3 months of implementing controls, comparing scores before and after. Review MSI risks at least annually, or whenever an MSI injury occurs..

5. 6. 7. 8.

DRAFT

LEVEL 3

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REDUCING THE RISK OF MSI AT COMPUTER WORKSTATIONS - THE BASICS


This portion of the tool provides general guidelines only. There may be a need to complete a more thorough assessment, which looks at the posture, task frequency, environmental and work organizational issues. Refer to the Forms A to K for more detail. Many workers are now required to spend some portion of their day using a computer workstation. The risk of MSI is significant for most computer workstation users. In response to this common work environment risk many organizations, big and small, have proactively put into place an office ergonomics program, focusing particularly on the computer workstation set up. In such cases work environment controls are generically applied in order to reduce the overall risk in the worker population. A formal process to identify, evaluate and control specific ergonomic risks is typically not applied unless the generic measures do not eliminate the signs and symptoms of MSI. Recognizing the common need to address computer workstation risk factors, this section provides a simplified process that the worker can use to directly reduce individual risk to MSI resulting from extended computer use. This provides a "short cut" which should address the needs of most workers. A more detailed and formal assessment would be required to address individual risk situations. PURPOSE: To provide more detailed education and awareness information, specific to the computer workstation scenario To provide computer workstation users with a "self-help" checklist To provide "trouble shooting" advice for common concerns and questions related to ergonomic risks and the use of computer workstations.

Understanding the MSI Risk of Computer Workstation In general the principles of MSI risk are transferable to most work settings. As a result, the information provided earlier in this document The Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Identification on page 5 provides a good base of information for MSI risk management. Specific examples of MSI risk factors related to computer workstation use are: Force When you type at a computer for an entire day the cumulative force exerted by your fingers becomes very high. Because the muscles in your fingers and forearms are small the techniques used to reduce the effects of this force (posture, typing technique, micro-breaks) are crucial in reducing your risk to MSI. Posture When the body works in awkward or non-neutral postures, the amount of force that can be comfortably and safely exerted is reduced. When working at a keyboard or with a mouse which causes the wrist to work in an awkward posture of 45 from neutral our force capabilities are reduced by about 25%. In addition, static postures (holding a posture for long periods of time) cause muscles to fatigue quickly due to the reduced blood flow to them. Repetition Work involving repeated movement, such as typing, causes muscle fatigue. With time, the effort to maintain the repetitive movements steadily increases. When repetitive tasks continue for long periods of time the tissues load tolerance decreases and the applied loads exceed what the tissue is capable of doing. Duration The time worked per day affects the total duration of exposure and increases when working hours are extended.

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Contact stress Contact stress, such as between your arm or wrist and the edge of your desk, can cause injury by concentrating a force onto a small area. Contact stresses can injure the skin and underlying structure such as nerves and blood vessels.

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Workstation Checkup
Here is a short checklist, which you should use along with the figure on the following page to assist you in correctly setting up your workstation. If you are unable to make the necessary changes to your workstation or if your signs and symptoms persist, contact your health and safety advisor. Posture
q q q q I adjust my chair height for different job tasks so that my shoulders are always relaxed. I do not slouch or lean to the side. I do not hold the telephone receiver between my shoulder and ear. My feet are flat on the floor, or I use a footrest.

Chair
q q q q q q I know how to adjust my chair to put me in a good posture at my computer. I have adjusted my back rest so that I have good lumbar support. I change my chair position throughout the day to vary my posture. I swivel my chair instead of twisting my body to reach objects. I have adequate leg room. My chair is stable and in good repair.

Workspace
q q q The items I use frequently are easily reached. Infrequently used items are stored away. I have enough desk space to perform all of my job tasks comfortably.

Computer Workstation Layout


q q q q q q q q q q The monitor is about an arm's length away from me. The top of the monitor is at about eye level. The monitor is perpendicular to the window. I tilt my screen down to reduce glare or position lighting so it does not create glare. I adjust window coverings to reduce glare from outside light. The keyboard is around elbow height so that the angle of my elbows is about 90. When I use the keyboard my wrists are straight and my elbows are by my sides. The mouse is on the same level as the keyboard and within easy reach. I have increased the speed of my mouse to minimize hand movements. I use an adjustable document holder when I work frequently from paper.

Work Habits
q q q q I alternate my job tasks so that I have different physical demands throughout the day. I perform stretches at least three times per day and stand up often. I take regular "vision breaks" by looking at an object in the distance and blinking my eyes. I stand to retrieve items from overhead cabinets.

If you checked all the boxes - WAY TO GO! Fill out this checklist every few months or when you change jobs or workstations.

LIf you missed a few boxes, try to adjust your posture or workstation so you can check them off, or contact
your health and safety advisor for assistance. COMPUTER WORKSTATIONS - THE BASICS

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Workstation Dimensions and Adjustment Ranges


Highly repetitive, forceful motions and awkward postures contribute to Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI). As an office worker, adjusting your workstation to fit you is your primary line of defense against MSI. A properly arranged workspace helps you to avoid awkward postures, muscle fatigue, eyestrain, and other causes of discomfort and injury. The workstation dimensions and ranges provided here will help you to adjust your workstation to fit you.

Source:

"How to make your computer workstation fit you" WCB of BC

Everyone is different, so everyone's workstation should be different. Find what works for you: it may be arranging your workstation the same every time or it may be varying the way your workstation is set up. However your workstation is set up you should follow the dimensions and adjustment ranges provided in this picture. Remember though, these dimensions and ranges fit the majority of the population. If you are very tall or short you will have to take special measures to arrange your workstation properly. Not all problems are caused by workplace situations. Some problems may be caused or compounded by recreational activities and some problems may be the result of an underlying medical condition. Be sure to consult your worksite health advisor or your physician whenever you are experiencing pain, numbness, blurred vision or other symptoms.

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Trouble Shooting Tips


Below are a list of potential concerns in the office environment and a range of solutions that should be considered to address these issues. Please select what appears to be appropriate in your individual situation. If you have tried these suggestions and are still experiencing a problem, please contact: Contact on site: ______________________________

Concern 1: Throughout my working day I experience pain in my shoulder.

Possible Cause: A) You may be reaching for your mouse or keyboard for a long duration throughout the day. B) You may be feeling tension, requiring physical conditioning, or have rounded shoulders. C) You may be typing while holding the telephone receiver between your neck and shoulder. D) Your mouse or keyboard may be too high. Solution: A) Improve working posture. Frequent or constant use items should be within 30 cm of you. B) Stretch and exercise your shoulders, adjust your chair to allow you to sit upright and use the backrest for lower and upper back support. C) If on the phone for long periods use a headset (or speaker phone if appropriate). D) When using keyboard and mouse your forearms should be parallel to the ground, adjust the input devices to achieve this by either raising your chair (may require a footrest) or using a keyboard tray/alternate desk surface.

Concern 2: I experience pain in my elbow.

Possible Cause: A) Your keyboard may be angled upwards, or your keyboard tray may be too high. B) You may be experiencing general symptoms of overuse to the muscles in this area. C) You may be experiencing contact stress from leaning on arm rests or desk. Solution: A) Position keyboard flat on the surface (not at an angle) with the keyboard tray parallel to the ground (not angled) and position your keyboard or chair so that your elbows are at approximately keyboard height. B) Take frequent, short breaks and perform stretching and strengthening exercises for your arms. C) Use padded arm rests, a keyboard tray or, a gel pad surface for desk.

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Concern 3: I experience pain in my forearm along the pinkie side.


Possible Cause: A) You may deviate your wrist towards the pinkie finger. B) You may hold your pinkie finger aloft as you work. C) You may be typing with your fingers flat. D) You may be holding your mouse too tightly and for long periods of time. Solution: A) Keep your wrists straight while typing. B) Improve your typing technique to relax fingers (pinkies) C) Keep fingers bent, while typing and assess room for fingers on keyboard, a larger or split keyboard may be required. D) Try to hold the mouse in a relaxed position (riding the mouse) and take short breaks.

Concern 4: I experience pain on the bottom of my forearm.


Possible Cause: A) You may deviate your wrist towards the pinkie finger. B) You may hold your pinkie finger aloft as you work. C) You may be typing with your fingers flat. D) You may be resting your wrist on a sharp desk edge. Solution: A) Keep your wrists straight while typing. B) Improve your typing technique to relax fingers (pinkies) C) Keep fingers bent, while typing and assess room for fingers on keyboard, a larger or split keyboard may be required.. D) Be careful of sharp edges on your workstation as they create contact stress that may damage the nerves and tissues in the wrists.

Concern 5: I experience numbness in my fingers or pain in my wrist.


Possible Cause: A) You may be typing with your wrist bent upwards into extension (fingers above level of wrist). B) You may be resting your wrist on the wrist rest while you type. C) You may be resting your wrist on a sharp desk edge. Solution: A) Adjust your posture so that you are typing with your wrists flat. B) Do not rest your wrists on wrist rests while you type. Use your wrist rests only when breaking from typing.

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C) Be careful of sharp edges on your workstation they create contact stress that may damage the nerves and tissues in the wrists.

Concern 6: I experience numbness in my legs.


Possible Cause: A) The seat pan on your chair may be too short or too long, causing contact stress in the back of your legs and cutting off your circulation. B) Your feet may be dangling i.e. your chair is too high. C) Seat may be improperly adjusted. Solution: A) If possible, adjust your seat pan by moving it back, or use a chair with a shorter seat pan. B) Use a footrest. C) Adjust your chair so that your knees are at 90 and you have approximately 5 cm of space between the back of your knees and chairs. Too big a space is not recommended. You would then need to have a longer seat pan.

Concern 7: I experience pain in my neck.


Possible Cause: A) Your monitor may not be positioned correctly. B) You may be reading documents lying on your desk. C) Your armrests may be poorly adjusted D) If you wear bifocals, your monitor may not be adjusted correctly, resulting in neck extension (slight tilting of your head) or excessive flexion (too much bending of your neck). Solution: A) Readjust your monitor so it is positioned in front of you with your sight-line at the top of the screen. B) Use a document holder if referring to documents while you type. C) Readjust your armrests, or remove them. D) Adjust your monitor so that when you view the screen, you are looking at the top 1/3 of the screen. This generally requires lowering the screen. You may also need to consult with your optician to obtain lenses that are designed to the exact viewing distance you require.

Concern 8: I experience headaches and eye fatigue .


Possible Cause: A) Your monitor may not be positioned correctly, either too close, too far or at the wrong angle to you. B) Your lighting may not be correct for the documents you are reading. C) You may have glare on your screen from overhead lights or from windows.

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D) You may be suffering from vision problems. E) You may not be giving your eyes the breaks they need throughout the day. F) Monitor properties may require adjusting.

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Solution: A) Readjust your monitor so it is positioned in front of you and at the correct distance (approximately arms length). B) Use task lighting or bring documents closer. As we get older we need more ambient light. C) Adjust blinds or position monitor to avoid glare from overhead lights. You may need an anti-glare screen D) Consult your optician to ensure your eyewear is correct or that you do not need glasses. E) Change your focal length to allow your eyes to focus on object more than 20 feet away. Maintain this position for 30-60 seconds at each time. Repeat this several times an hour. This allows the eye muscles to recover from viewing at short distances. F). Ensure your monitor controls are adjusted to allow more contrast and reduced flicker.

Concern 9: I use a laptop on a frequent basis. Are there any specific issues I should consider?
Possible Cause: A) The screen on a laptop is fixed, therefore it is difficult to adjust the height and position the screen to reduce glare. B) The keyboard is attached to the monitor, and it is difficult to achieve the most optimal position to meet viewing and keying requirements. C) The keyboard is small, resulting in more deviation of the wrists and hands. Solution: A) When possible dock your laptop so that you can use a regular sized keyboard and monitor, or an additional monitor. B) If you cannot dock your laptop for some or all of the day; position your keyboard to allow your wrists and elbows to assume the most optimal posture. Tilt the screen to accommodate viewing. Try to position yourself so that the light sources are not hitting the screen and reducing contrast and increasing viewing difficulty. You will need to take more breaks from the computer and try to vary your tasks as much as possible. C) Consider using a regular sized keyboard and mouse with accompanying mouse pad when using the laptop. This will reduce some the awkward postures noted with button mouse pads provided on a large number of laptops.

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DEFINITIONS
Flowchart
Musculoskeletal Injury: Sprain: Strain: Inflammation: a sprain, strain, inflammation or other disorder of soft tissues (i.e., muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, nerves, or blood vessels) that may be caused or aggravated by work. a joint injury in which some fibres of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature. localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues which serves to destroy, dilute or wall off (sequester) both the infectious agent and the injured tissue. Swelling, tenderness and a localized increase in temperature are associated with inflammation.

Form B: Ergonomic Task Identification


Body part discomfort: any aches or pains in the back, neck, legs, shoulders, arms, hand or wrist which persist while performing work tasks. Depending on the severity, discomfort may last throughout the work day and/ or continue after work has stopped. when joints are held at or near the end of a range of motion or where muscle tension is required to hold the posture without movement. Awkward postures place significant stress on tendons, muscles, ligaments and other soft tissues, decreasing their strength and efficiency. a large amount of energy or physical effort required to complete a task through actions such as lifting, continuous arm movement, running, or vigorous walking. using the same body parts to exert forces again and again without sufficient time to return to a resting state for recovery. refers to the perceived level of stress or mental effort by the workers. High mental stress may result in an increase in muscle tension. a distinct work activity comprised of several steps/actions (e.g., valve lashing, flange bolt preparation, data entry). a specific action which makes up part of a task. This will usually begin with an action such as pull, push, lift, hold, or drive.

Awkward postures:

High effort: High repetition: High mental stress: Task: Steps/actions:

Forms D and E: Primary Risk Rating


Force required: Repetition: Static work: Duration: the effort a worker must exert to counteract a load. cumulative measure of the same movement performed again and again without sufficient time to return to a resting state for recovery. holding one position so that the muscles are contracting but not moving. the length of time a person is exposed to a risky posture/movement. For lifting tasks: Long duration = lifting for 2 8 hours with standard breaks (e.g. morning, lunch, and afternoon) Medium duration = lifting for 1 2 hours with 0.3 recovery time to work time ratio Short duration = lifting for 1 hour or less with 1.2 recovery time to work time ratio. the shortening of muscles in order to produce a movement across a joint (generally body parts moving together).
DEFINITIONS

Flexion:

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Extension: Open Grip:

the lengthening of muscles in order to make a movement across a joint (generally body parts moving away from each other). posture of the hand required for holding tool or part in which thumb and fingers do not overlap (space exists between them).

Form F: Forces and Contact Stresses


Occasionally: Frequently: posture or factor is present only a few times per hour. the posture or factor is present several times per 15 minute period.

Form G: Organizational Factors (source WCB of BC)


Recovery cycles: the availability and distribution of breaks to allow the tissue to return to a resting state of recovery. The more frequent the breaks the greater the opportunity for the tissues to recover. This can be achieved through job rotation and/or use of different body parts to perform a task, for example alternate use of both right and left hands. the longer the time a task remains unchanged, unvaried or uninterrupted, the less likely are the affected tissues to return to neutral resting state of recovery. the speed at which the task is carried out. Factors that influence this are incentive pay (piece work) and machine paced work. Workers may adopt non-optimal work techniques exposing them to further risk of injury. Work rate may require more concentration which in turn may increase muscle tension. the total amount of rest required for a given period of work (work rest ratio) is important, however, the actual duration of the work before a rest period is given may be of greater importance for adequate recovery. Shorter work periods with shorter rest cycles result in better physiological recovery and lower stress levels than longer work and longer rest periods.

Task variability:

Work rate:

Work rest cycles:

Form J: Non-Sitting Workstation


Standing workstation Any workplace or workstation in which a person stands while performing a task with or without a work surface.

DEFINITIONS

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REFERENCES
1. Bhattacharya, A., McGlothlin, J.D., (1996). Occupational Ergonomics, Theory and Applications. 2. Corlett, E.N., and Bishop, R.P., (1976). Technique for assessing postural discomfort. Ergonomics, 19(2): 75-182. 3. Draft Operating Instructions . Workers Compensation Board of BC. Part B4: Sections B4.46 to B4.53 (pages B4-1 to B4-26). 4. Gauf, M. (1995). Ergonomics that work: case studies of companies cutting costs through ergonomics. CTD News, Haverford, Pensylvania. 5. Kemmlert, K. (1995). A method assigned for the identification of ergonomic hazards PLIBEL. Applied Ergonomics, 26 (3): 199-211. 6. Keyserling, W.M., Brouwer, M., and Silverstein, B.A., (1992). A checklist for evaluating ergonomic risk factors resulting from awkward postures of the legs, trunk and neck. International Journal of Ergonomics, 9: 283-301. 7. Keyserling, W.M., Stetson, D.S., Silverstein, B.A., and Brouwer, M.L, (1993). A checklist for evaluating ergonomic risk factors associated with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. Ergonomics, 36(7): 807-831. 8. McAtamney, L., and Corlett, E.N., (1992) Reducing the risks of work related upper limb disorders: A guide and methods. Institute for Occupational Ergonomics, University of Nottingham. 9. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety) (1997a). Elements of Ergonomics Programs. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Publication 97-117. 10. Occupational Health and Safety Regulation: Core Requirements. Workers Compensation Board of BC Regulation 296/97. Part 4: General Conditions: Sections 4.46 to 4.53. 11. Rodgers S. (1988) Job evaluation in worker fitness determination. Occupational Medicine : 3 (2): 219-239.

REFERENCES

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Risk Identification and Assessment Tool was commissioned by CAPP and CPPI, and developed by a joint Ergonomics Working Group, with technical content provided by the Ergonomics and Human Factors Group at BC Research Inc. in conjunction with the Environment, Health and Safety personnel at PetroCanada. Contributions are greatly appreciated from all who participated in its development. Personnel included:

CPPI/CAPP Ergonomics Working Group:


Sharon Mulligan, Petro-Canada; Co-Chair Bernard Bradford, Husky Oil; Co-Chair Darrell Myroniuk, Petro-Canada Jean Bernier, Mobile Oil Ian Wheeler, Mobile Oil, PanCanadian Agnes Murrin, Talisman Warren Schick, Crestar Energy Kathy Rohl, Shell Wanda Young, Shell Susan Schafer, Chevron Lynne Runcie, Chevron Sheila McGonigal, Imperial Oil Betty Tobias, Imperial Oil Diane Anderson, Amoco

BC Research Inc.:
Julie Springer Linda Meerveld Dan Robinson Laurel Ritmiller Carmel Murphy Gillian Gibbs

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS