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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

Dominik Pieniazek, P.E.


IEEE CED Houston Chapter October 2-3, 2012

Agenda

Substation Basics Electrical Configuration Physical Design Protection and Controls Design and Construction Coordination

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Electrical System Substation - A set of equipment reducing the high voltage of electrical power transmission to that suitable for supply to consumers. Switching Station A set of equipment used to tie together two or more electric circuits.

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

TRANSMISSION LEVEL VOLTAGES 765 kV 500 kV 345 kV 230 kV 161 kV 138 kV 115 kV

DISTRIBUTION LEVEL VOLTAGES 69 kV 46 kV 34.5 kV 23 kV 15 kV 4.16 kV 480 V

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Typical 138 kV Substation Four (4) Breaker Ring Bus w/ Oil Circuit Breakers
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Typical 138 kV Substation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Typical 138 kV Substation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

230 kV Generating Substation Built on the side of a mountain


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

230 kV Indoor Generating Substation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

765 kV Generating Substation Four (4) Breaker Ring Bus w/ Live Tank GCBs
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

765 kV Generating Substation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

765 kV Generating Substation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

765 kV Generating Substation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Relative Size of HV Power Transformers


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Relative Size of HV and EHV Power Transformers


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Relative Size of HV and EHV Gas Circuit Breakers


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Dimensions for 765 kV Installation


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Where Do I Start My Design?

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Service Conditions?
Location, Altitude High and Low Mean Temperatures Temperature Extremes Wind Loading and Ice Loading Seismic Qualifications Area Classification Contamination

Electrical Questions to Address


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Primary System Characteristics?


Local Utility Nominal Voltage Maximum Operating Voltage System Frequency System Grounding System Impedance Data

Electrical Questions to Address


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary System Characteristics?


Nominal Voltage Maximum Operating Voltage System Grounding

Electrical Questions to Address


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Facility Load/Generation Characteristics?


Load Type Average Running Load Maximum Running Load On-Site Generation Future Load Growth Harmonic Loads

Electrical Questions to Address


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Equipment Ratings
Insulation Requirements BIL Insulator and Bushing Creep Minimum Clearances Phase Spacing Arrester Duty

Current Requirements
Rated Continuous Current Maximum 3-Phase Short-Circuit Current Maximum Phase-to-Ground Short-Circuit Current
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Contamination Levels

Multiplier applied to phase-to-ground voltage

Physical Questions to Address


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Typical Draw-Lead Bushing

Physical Questions to Address


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Electrical Studies

Power/Load Flow Short-Circuit / Device Evaluation Device Coordination Arc-Flash Hazard Assessment Motor Starting, Transient Stability Insulation Coordination Harmonic Analysis

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Substation Layout Considerations?


Available Real Estate Substation Configuration Necessary Degree of Reliability and Redundancy Number of Incoming Lines Proximity to Transmission Lines and Loads

Physical Questions to Address


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Utility Requirements?

Communication/Monitoring Requirements
Manned or Unmanned Power Management/Trending Fault Recording Local & Remote Annunciation Local & Remote Control Automation Communication Protocol

Application of Utility Specifications Application of Utility Standards Application of Utility Protection and Control Schemes SCADA/RTU Interface Metering Requirements

Other Questions to Address


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Other Studies / Field Tests


Soil Boring Results Foundation Design Soil Resistivity Ground Grid Design Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans - Contamination Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Runoff During Construction Stormwater Management Detention Pond Requirements

Other Questions to Address


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Budgeted Capital for Substation Required Power (1 MVA, 10 MVA, 100 MVA) Effect of Power Loss on Process and/or Safety Associated Outage Cost (Lost Revenue) Future Growth Considerations Reliability Study Estimate Cost of Alternate Designs Determine Lost Revenue During Outages Calculate Probability of Outage Based on Design Compare Cost, Lost Revenues, and Outage Probabilities

Major Factors in Substation Selection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Electrical Configuration

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Single Breaker Arrangements


Tap Substation Single Breaker Single Bus Operating/Transfer Bus

Multiple Breaker Arrangements


Ring Bus Breaker and a Half Double Breaker Double Bus

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Configuration Single Breaker-Single Bus Main-Transfer Bus Ring Bus Breaker and Half Double Breaker-Double Bus

Relative Cost Comparison 100% 120% (with sect. breaker) 140% 125% 145% 190%

Reference: IEEE 605-2008

It should be noted that these figures are estimated for discussion purposes. Actual costs vary depending on a number of variables, including: Real Estate Costs Complexity of Protective Relaying Schemes Raw material costs Local Labor Costs

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Annual Fail Rate Annual Outage Time Average Outage Time

Reference: Reliability of Substation Configurations, Daniel Nack, Iowa State University, 2005
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Reliability Models
IEEE Gold Book For high voltage equipment data is a generic small sample set Sample set collected in minimal certain conditions (i.e. what really caused the outage) Calculated indices may not represent reality

A great reference is John Propsts 2000 PCIC Paper "IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELING AND EVALUATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY"

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Most Basic Design Tapped Line is Source of Power Interrupting Device Optional but Recommended No Operating Flexibility

Depending on utility voltage, this device could be a fuse, circuit switcher, or circuit breaker

Tap Substation
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Most Basic Design Tapped Line is Source of Power Interrupting Device Optional but Recommended No Operating Flexibility

Fault at any location results in total outage.

Tap Substation
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Pros

Cons

Small Plot Size Low Initial Cost Low Maintenance Costs

Line Operations Result in Plant Outages Multiple Single Points of Failure Failure Points are in Series Outages Expected Line Faults Cleared by Others Low Maintainability

Tap Substation
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Single Breaker Single Bus Substation


Basic Design One Circuit Breaker per Circuit One Common Bus No Operating Flexibility Widely Used at Distribution Level Limited Use at High Voltage
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IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

Pros
Each Circuit has Breaker Only One Set of VTs Required Simple Design

Cons
Circuit Breaker Maintenance Requires Circuit Outage Bus Fault Clears all Circuits Breaker Failure Clears all Circuits Single Points of Failure Between Circuits are in Series Expansion requires complete station outage

Single Breaker Single Bus


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Single Breaker Single Bus


Line Fault Bus Fault Failed Breaker

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Operating/Transfer Buses with Single Breaker


Transfer Bus

Similar to Single Breaker Single Bus Add Transfer Bus Transfer Bus Switches Normally Open Only 1 Circuit Operated From Transfer Bus Widely Used in Outdoor Distribution Applications

Operating Bus Optional Tie


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Pros
Breaker Maintenance w/o Circuit Interruption Only One Set of VTs Required

Cons
More Costly with Addition of Transfer Bus Adaptable Protection is Necessary If Not Adaptable, Protection Compromise During Maintenance Normal Operation Is Single Breaker Single Bus

Operating/Transfer Buses with Single Breaker


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Ring Bus

Popular at High Voltage Circuits and Breakers Alternate in Position No Buses per se

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Pros

Cons

High Flexibility with Minimum of Breakers Dedicated Bus Protection not Required Highly Adaptable Failed Circuit Does Not Disrupt Other Circuits Breaker Maintenance w/o Circuit Interruption

Failed Breaker May Result in Loss of Multiple Circuits Physically Large With 6 or More Circuits

Ring Bus
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Ring Bus
Line/Bus Fault Failed Breaker

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Breaker-And-A-Half

More Operating Flexibility than Ring Bus Requires 3 Breakers for Every Two Circuits Widely Used at High Voltage, Especially Where Multiple Circuits Exist (e.g. Generating Plants)

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Pros

Cons

Robust Highly Expandable Failed Outer Breakers Result in Loss of One Circuit Only Breaker Maintenance w/o Circuit Interruption

Cost Physically Large Failed Center Breaker Results in Loss of Two Circuits

Breaker-And-A-Half
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Double Breaker Double Bus


Highly Flexible Arrangement Two Buses, Each Separated by Two Circuit Breakers Two Circuit Breakers per Circuit All Breakers Normally Closed
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Pros

Cons
Cost Two Breakers & Four Switches per Circuit Physical Size

Bus Faults Do Not Interrupt Any Circuit Circuit Faults Do Not Interrupt Any Buses or Other Circuits Failed Breaker Results in Loss of One Circuit Only Breaker Maintenance w/o Circuit Interruption Highly Expandable Robust

Double Breaker Double Bus


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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Physical Arrangement

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

NEMA SG-6
Withdrawn, but still used by many BIL Based Provides
Bus spacings Horn Gap Spacings Side Break Switch Spacings Minimum Metal-to-Metal Minimum Phase-to-Ground

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE 1427-2006 Guide for Electrical Clearances & Insulation Levels in Air Insulated Electrical Power Substations
BIL/BSL Based Rec. Phase-to-Phase Min. Metal-to-Metal Min. Phase to Ground Rec. Bus Spacings including Horn Gap

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

650 kV BIL Ex: SG-6 Min Ph-Gnd Rec. Ph-Gnd Min Ph-Ph 50 52.5 63

IEEE 1427 49 N/A 54

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

BIL/Voltage Ratio

Table 8 shows the comparison between various maximum system voltages and BILs associated with these voltages. The comparison is intended ONLY to illustrate the ratio has decreased with use of higher system voltages.

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE 1427-2006 What It Doesnt Address


Uprating (Discussion Only) Wildlife Conservation Shielding Effects Contamination Hardware & Corona Arcing During Switch Operation Mechanical Stress Due to Fault Currents Safety

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

NESC (ANSI/IEEE C2) Safety Based Standard Installation and Maintenance Requirements
Stations Aerial Lines Underground Circuits

Grounding Methods NFPA 70E Safe Working Clearances for Low and Medium-Voltage Equipment

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

NESC Fence Safety Clearance

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE C37.32

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Typical 138 kV Substation Four (4) Breaker Ring Bus w/ Oil Circuit Breakers
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Less-flammable liquids for transformers: fire point > 300 deg C

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Spacing Affects Structural Design

Spacing & Clearances


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Applied Forces Wind Ice Forces from Short-Circuit Faults Design Considerations Insulator strength to withstand forces from short-circuit faults Structural steel strength under short-circuit fault forces (moments) Foundation design under high moments Ice loading, bus bar strength, and bus spans Thermal expansion and use of expansion joints IEEE 605 IEEE Guide for Design of Substation Rigid-Bus Structures

Structural Requirements
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Bus Supports
Short-Circuit Forces Wind Loading Ice Loading Seismic Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Short-Circuit Forces

Structural Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Rated Continuous Current Selected Ambient Base Allowable Temperature Rise Equipment Limitations Interaction with Transmission Lines Other Factors
Wind Ice Loading Emissivity

Current Ratings
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE 605-2008 is a great resource:


Conductor Physical Properties Conductor Electrical Properties Examples of Calculations

Bus Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Types of Substation Structures

Station Physical Layout


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Conventional (Lattice Structures)


Angle (Chord & Lace) Members Minimum Structure Weight Requires Minimum Site Area Stable and Rigid Construction Requires Considerable Bolting & Erection Time

Station Physical Layout


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Conventional Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Conventional Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Conventional Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Low Profile (Standard Extruded Shapes)


Wide Flange, Channel, Plates, Structural Tubing (Round, Square, Rectangular) Short Erection Time Aesthetical Pleasing Most Sizes Readily Available Requires Greater Site Area

Station Physical Layout


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Low Profile (tube)


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Low Profile (tube)


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Low Profile (tube)


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Conventional

Low Profile

Station Physical Layout


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

GIS (Gas Insulated Substation)

Station Physical Layout


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Maintenance Equipment Removal Vehicle Mobility Exterior Access

Station Physical Layout


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Common Designs
A-Frame or H-Frame
Lattice, Wide Flange, Structural Tubing Inboard or Outboard Leg Design

Deadend Structures
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Surge and Lightning Protection

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Design Problems
Probabilistic nature of lightning Lack of data due to infrequency of lightning strokes in substations Complexity and economics involved in analyzing a system in detail No known practical method of providing 100% shielding (excluding GIS)

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Common Approaches
Lower voltages (69 kV and below): Simplified rules of thumb and empirical methods
Fixed Angle Empirical Curves

EHV (345 kV and above): Sophisticated electrogeometric model (EGM) studies


Whiteheads EGM Revised EGM Rolling Sphere

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Surge Protection (Arresters)


Use Arresters (Station Class) Transformer Protection (High Z Causes High V Reflected Wave) Line Protection (Open End Causes High V Reflected Wave) Systems above 169 kV Require Special Attention IEEE C62.22 IEEE Guide for the Application of MetalOxide Surge Arresters for Alternating-Current Systems

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Lightning Protection Strokes to Tall Structures; Strokes to Ground Frequency Isokeraunic Levels at Station Location Design Methods Fixed Angles (good at or below 69 kV, generally applied up to 138 kV) Empirical Curves (not used widely) Whiteheads EGM Revised EGM Rolling Sphere Combination of Surge Arresters and Lightning Shielding Provides Acceptable Levels of Protection IEEE 998 IEEE Guide for Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations

A properly designed ground grid is critical for proper surge and lightning protection.

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Fixed Angle Method

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Rolling Sphere Method

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Rolling Sphere Method

Surge & Lightning Protection


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Grounding Considerations

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE 80 IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding Safety Risks Humans as Electrical Components Soil Modeling Fault Currents and Voltage Rise Demands Use of Analytical Software NESC Points of Connection Messengers & Guys, Fences Grounding Conductors, Ampacity, Strength, Connections Grounding Electrodes Ground Resistance Requirements

Grounding
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Grounding Exothermic
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Grounding Compression
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Grounding Mechanical
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

OBJECTIVES
To Identify Components of a Grounding System To Review Key Design Considerations and Parameters Needed for a Grounding Analysis To Review the Grounding Problem To Identify Grounding Analysis Methods and Applicability

Grounding Design
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

1.

2.

Assure that persons in or near any substation are not exposed to electric shock above tolerable limits. Provide means to dissipate normal and abnormal electric currents into the earth without exceeding operating or equipment limits.

Grounding Objectives
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

High fault current to ground Soil resistivity and distribution of ground currents Body bridging two points of high potential difference Absence of sufficient contact resistance Duration of the fault and body contact

Cause of Electric Shock


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Basic Shock Situations


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Simple Grid Design


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Protection & Control

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

One-Line Diagrams
The one-line diagram is probably the single most important document in the substation design package. The one-line diagram defines the design parameters and scope of the designa road map

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

One-Line Diagrams
Key elements that should be included on relaying one-lines

Substation Configuration Equipment Ratings Design Parameters Phasor Rotation Diagram Delineation of Scope Provisions for Future Expansion

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

One-Line Diagrams

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

One-Line Diagrams
Device Function Table Phasor Rotation

Future Equipment

Equipment Provided by Others

Extent of Scope

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

One-Line Diagrams
Modern microprocessor relays are fairly complex Functionality typically can not be adequate illustrated between the one-line diagram and schematic diagrams Creating Logic Diagrams is strongly recommended.

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Protection & Control


Protection Fundamentals Bus Transformers Motors Generators Line & Circuits Control Primary/Back-up Systems Breaker Failure Reclosing Pilot Systems & Communication Channels

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

A.C. Fundamentals Phasor Relationships

ia ib ic 51 50

ia+ib+ic 51 N

Residual CT connection
51 50 ia+ib+ic Ia Ib Ic 51G

Zero sequence CT

87B 51 50 Improperly connected CTs. 87B will NOT operate for bus fault as shown. Protected Bus
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers Used for Protective Relaying Purposes - IEEE Std C37.110

A.C. Fundamentals Phasor Relationships

ia ib ic 51 50

ia+ib+ic 51 N

Residual CT connection
51 50 ia+ib+ic Ia Ib Ic 51G

Zero sequence CT

87B 51 50 Properly connected CTs. 87B will operate for bus fault as shown. Protected Bus
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers Used for Protective Relaying Purposes - IEEE Std C37.110

A.C. Fundamentals
ig 51 N 51 N ig=0 51 N ig 51 N

51 50

51 50

51 50

51 50

Ig

Ig=0

Ig=0

Ig

Ig=0

51 NT

ig Ig

51 NT

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Tap Substation

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Tap Substation

Phase Protection - Overcurrent

Should 50 elements be set on all relays?


51 50

51 50

51 50

51 50

51 50

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Tap Substation

Phase Protection - Overcurrent

Should 50 elements be set on all relays?


51 50

51 50

51 50

51 50

To low impedance circuit (i.e. downstream switchgear)

51 50

To high impedance circuit (i.e. motor or xfmr)

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Tap Substation

Phase Protection - Overcurrent

Should 50 elements be set on all relays?


51

51

51 50

51

To low impedance circuit (i.e. downstream switchgear) 51 50

To high impedance circuit (i.e. motor or xfmr)

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Tap Substation

Phase Protection - Unit Differential - Overcurrent


87 U

This configuration is not preferred.

51 50? 51 51 50 51

51 50?

Pros
- Lower cost

Cons
- Lower selectivity
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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

Tap Substation

Phase Protection - Full Differential - Overcurrent


87 T

87 BL

51

87 BH 51 50

51 50?

51

51 50?

Pros
- Higher selectivity
HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

Cons
- Higher cost
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IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Tap Substation

Ground Protection
Ground coordination on each side of the transformer are performed independently
87 BL *

(*) relays measure phase quantities, but are often set to operate for ground faults in the zone of protection.

* 51 N 87 BH 51 N 87 G 51 N

51 N

51G 50G

51 N

51G 50G

51 NT

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.O. Tie


51 50 51 N

51 NT

51 P

Relaying not shown for clarity

N.O.

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.O. Tie


51 50 51 N

51 NT

51 P

Relaying not shown for clarity

N.O.

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.O. Tie


51 50 51 N

51 NT

51 P

Relaying not shown for clarity

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.O. Tie


51 50 51 N

51 NT

51 P

Relaying not shown for clarity

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.O. Tie


Why use partial differential or bus overload?

51 N 51 N 51 P 51 P

51 N

51 P

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.O. Tie


Why use partial differential or bus overload?

Pros: Use one (1) less relay Eliminate one (1) level of coordination Cons: Require one (1) extra set of CTs on the tie breaker Can not set 67 element on mains because currents are summed before the relay

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.C. Tie


87 B1 51P

Relaying not shown for clarity

67

Polarizing input not shown for clarity

N.C.

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.C. Tie


87 B1 51P

Relaying not shown for clarity

67

Polarizing input not shown for clarity

N.C.

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Secondary Selective Arrangement N.C. Tie


87 B1 51P

Relaying not shown for clarity

67

Polarizing input not shown for clarity

N.C.

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HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Bus Protection

Differential Protection
Most sensitive and most reliable Linear couplers do not saturate (no iron core) Multi-restraint differential use restraint and variable percentage slopes to overcome iron core deficiencies at high currents High impedance differential forces false differentials through CTs and not relay

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Bus Protection

Other Protection Methods Instantaneous overcurrent Low impedance overcurrent Not recommended to use parallel CT connection Relay cost is low, but engineering cost and application considerations is high Partial Differential Only sources are considered Directional Comparison Blocking (Zone-Interlocking Schemes) Feeders communicate with sources Use caution with directional relays as directional unit may not operate properly on close-in hard three-phase faults

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Bus Protection

Current Differential Not Recommended

Voltage Differential Using Linear Couplers


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Bus Protection

Current Differential Not Recommended

Voltage Differential Using Linear Couplers


HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations IEEE CED Houston Chapter 2012-2013

Bus Protection

Current Differential with Restraint Elements


Current differential with restraint elements can be used for many applications (bus, transformer, generator, etc). The relay can account for different CT ratios (great for retrofit installations). However, since each CT has its own input, consider a 15 kV swgr application with 10 feeders per bus: (10+Main + Tie) x 3 = 36 current inputs!

Voltage Differential using CTs


Main draw back is the inability to share the CT with different circuits.

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Transformer Protection

Considerations

Differential Protection

Overcurrent Protection Transformer Type


Different Voltage Levels Including Taps Mismatch Due to CT Ratios 30 Phase Shift on Delta-Wye Connections Magnetizing Inrush

CT Performance During High-Current Faults Delta-Wye Zig-Zag Grounding Transformer Autotransformer with Delta Tertiary Phase-Shifting Transformer

IEEE Std C37.91 IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power Transformers

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Motor Protection

Low-Voltage Protection Time-delayed undervoltage (27) Phase Rotation/Reversal Protection Not typically necessary Negative Sequence Overvoltage Protection (47) Time-delayed depending on amount of V2 Phase Unbalance/Negative Sequence Overcurrent (46) Select curve below (I2)2t = k damage curve k = 40 generally considered conservative value Out-of-Step Protection/Loss of Excitation Power Factor Sensing (55) Distance Relay

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Motor Protection

Source: Schweitzer SEL651A Application Guide

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Motor Protection

Abnormal Conditions Faults in Windings Excessive Overloads Reduction or Loss of Supply Voltage Phase Reversal Phase Unbalance Out-of-step Operation (Synchronous Machines) Loss of Excitation (Synchronous Machines)

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Motor Protection

Phase Fault Protection Differential Core Balance CT Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Fault Protection Zero Sequence CT Locked Rotor Protection Time Overcurrent Set below rotor damage curve Distance Relay (Large Machines) Overload Protection Time overcurrent Set below stator damage curve Thermal Protection RTDs

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Primary & Back-up Protection


Primary/Back-up Protection Philosophy Each protected component has two sets of protection Each protection set is independent of the other Failure of any one component must not compromise protection DC Battery Systems Single Battery System Primary protection on different circuit from back-up protection Blown fuse or open DC panel breaker cannot compromise protection Battery itself is a single point of failure Dual Battery System Primary protection on different battery than back-up Battery is no longer single point of failure

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Breaker Failure Protection


More common at high voltage Communication assisted tripping required for line breakers (i.e. direct transfer trip) Typical Protection Logic Trip signal received by breaker Identical signal starts breaker failure timing After a pre-set amount of time (6 cycles is common) and if current is still present in the breaker, then the breaker has failed Trip zones on either side of the breaker Dedicated lockout relay used for tripping, transfer tripping, fault recording, annunciation, and alarm

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Breaker Failure Protection


Line/Bus Fault Failed Breaker

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Some considerations for protective relay applications


Recommended References:
IEEE Standard for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus IEEE C37.90 Transformer Protection IEEE Std C37.91 Motor Protection IEEE C37.96 Bus Protection IEEE C37.97 (withdrawn) Shunt Capacitor Bank Protection IEEE C37.99 Generator Protection IEEE C37.102 Automatic Reclosing of Line Circuit Breakers for AC Distribution and Transmission Lines - IEEE Std C37.104 Shunt Reactor Protecction - ANSI/IEEE Std C37.109 Transmission Line Protection IEEE C37.113 Breaker Failure Protection of Power Circuit Breakers IEEE C37.119 IEEE Buff Book IEEE Brown Book Applied Protective Relaying - Westinghouse

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Other Considerations
Redundant DC power sources SER and DFR (oscillography) default settings enable only basic functionality at best case. Default settings by some manufacturers disable the SER and DFR. Synchronization of clocks Integration of protective relays with other IEDs Utilize outputs from non-intelligent devices as inputs to IEDs Dont forget about test switches!!!

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Engineering & Construction Coordination

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Engineering Process
Building Plans/Details Site, Grading & SPCC

Electrical Plans/Details

Foundation Plans/Details

Conduit Plans/Details

Grounding Plans/Details Wiring Diagrams One-Lines & Specifications Protection & Control Schemes Relay Settings Relay Panel Specifications & Elevations

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Construction Process
Site Prep Foundation Installation Conduit Installation Grounding Installation

Station Yard Installation

Building Installation

Commission

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Supplemental Topics

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Future Expansion Possibilities

Tap to Ring Build as Loop Tap Add switches to facilitate expansion Initial layout considerate of final ring bus configuration

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Future Expansion Possibilities

Ring to Breaker-And-A-Half Build as elongated ring bus Allows future bay installations (i.e. additional circuits, two per bay

HV Substation Design: Applications and Considerations

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Mixing Bus Arrangements

Example: Industrial
High-Voltage Ring Bus Two Single Breaker Single Bus MediumVoltage Systems with Tie Breaker (a.k.a. Secondary Selective)

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Variations

Variations Exist
Swap Line and Transformer Positions Add 2nd Tie Breaker

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Single Breaker Designs


Breaker maintenance requires circuit outage Typically contain multiple single points of failure Little or no operating flexibility

Multiple Breaker Designs


Breaker maintenance does not require circuit outage Some designs contain no single points of failure Flexible operation In general, highly adaptable and expandable

Conclusion
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Questions?

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Appendix

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Example of low profile substation using lattice structures

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Example of conventional design

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Base plates with grout

Installation leads to rusting at base of support


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Base plates without grout

Preferred Installation Method*


* Structural engineer should confirm base plate and anchor bolts are sized properly
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Verify proper phase-toground clearance


o

Vee Break vs. Vertical Break


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Arcing Horn

Quick Break Whip


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High Speed Whip

Magnetic Interrupter

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Load and Line Switcher

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