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CHAPTER 15 MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

15.1 DOUBLE INTEGRALS 1.

'03 '02 a4 c y# b dy dx '03 4y c y3 # dx 16 '03 dx 16 3


$

2.

'03 'c02 a(x# y c 2xyb dy dx '03 x 2y


'0 a4x c 2x# b dx 2x# c
3

# #

c xy# 0

! c#

dx

$ 2x$ 3 !

3.

'c01 'c11 (x b y b 1) dx dy 'c01 x2


0

b yx b x

" c"

dy

'c1 (2y b 2) dy cy# b 2yd c" 1


!

4.

'121 '01 (sin x b cos y) dx dy '121 c(c cos x) b (cos y)xd 1 ! dy 21 1 '1 (1 cos y b 2) dy c1 sin y b 2yd # 1 21

5.

x '01 '0x (x sin y) dy dx '01 cc x cos yd ! dx 1 1 '0 (x c x cos x) dx x 2 c (cos x b x sin x)


#

1# #

b2

6.

# '01 '0sin x y dy dx '01 y2 sin x dx '01 " # sin x dx


#

" 4

" 1 '0 (1 c cos 2x) dx " < 1 4 x c 2 sin 2x ! 4


1

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

942
7.

Chapter 15 Multiple Integrals

ln 8 ln y '1ln 8 '0ln yexby dx dy '1ln 8 cexbyd ! dy '1 ayey c ey b dy ln 8 c(y c 1)ey c ey d 1 8(ln 8 c 1) c 8 b e 8 ln 8 c 16 b e

8.

'12 'yy

dx dy '1 ay# c yb dy y 3 c
2
$

" " 8 3 c2 c 3 c #

# y# # "

7 3

3 #

5 6

9.

'01 '0y 3y$ exy dx dy '01 c3y# exy d 0y


#

dy
" !

'0 3y# ey c 3y# dy ey c y$ e c 2


1
$ $

10.

'14 '0

3 #

2 $# % 7(e c 1) (e c 1) '1 x dx < 3 2 (e c 1) 3 x "


4

3 #

eyx dy dx

'14 < 3 x eyx x dx 2 0

11.

'12 'x2x '12 '12

x y

2x dy dx '1 cx ln yd x dx (ln 2) '1 x dx 2 2

3 #

ln 2

12.

1 xy

dy dx '1

" x

(ln 2 c ln 1) dx (ln 2) '1 dx (ln 2)#


2
$ $ $

13.

x) x) '01 '01cx ax# b y# b dy dx '01 x# y b y3 "cx dx '01 x# (1 c x) b (1c ' 1 # $ (1c 3 dx 0 x c x b 3 dx


0

x 3 c 14.

x% 4

" (1cx)% 1# !

" 3 c

" 4

c 0 c 0 c 0 c

" 1#

" 6

2 " '01 '01 y cos xy dx dy '01 csin xyd 1 '1 < " " ! dy 0 sin 1y dy c 1 cos 1y ! c 1 (c1 c 1) 1

15.

'01 '01cu v c u dv du '01 v2


'0 " # cub
1

c v u

"cu
0

bu du '0 1c2u c u(1 c u) du #


1
#

u# #

u c u"# b u$# du 2 c

u# #

u$ 6

2 $# 2 &# c3 u b5 u !

"

" #

" #

" 6

2 3

2 5

c" # b

2 5

" c 10

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Section 15.1 Double Integrals


16.

943

'12 '0ln t es ln t ds dt '12 ces ln td 0ln t dt '12 (t ln t c ln t) dt t2


(2 ln 2 c 1 c 2 ln 2 b 2) c c " 4 b1
" 4

ln t c

t# 4

c t ln t b t

# "

17.

'c02 'vcv 2 dp dv 2'c02 cpd vcv dv 2'c02 c2v dv


c2 cv# d c2 8
0

18.

'01 '0

1cs
1

8t dt ds '0 c4t# d 0
1

1cs

ds
8 3

'0 4 a1 c s# b ds 4 s c

" s$ 3 !

19.

'c1133 '0sec t 3 cos t du dt 'c1133 c(3 cos t)ud 0sec t


'c13 3 dt 21
13

20.

3 2u c4 4c2u '03 '14c2u 4c dv du '0 < 2uv du v 1 3 $ '0 (3 c #u) du c3u c u# d ! !


#

21.

'24 '04cy)2 dx dy

22.

'c02 '0xb2 dy dx

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944
23.

Chapter 15 Multiple Integrals


#

'01 'xx dy dx

24.

'01 '1cy1cydx dy

25.

'1e 'ln1ydx dy

26.

'12 '0ln x dy dx

27.

'09 '0

1 2

9cy

16x dx dy

28.

'04 '0

4cx

y dy dx

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Section 15.1 Double Integrals


29.

945

'c11 '0

1cx

3y dy dx

30.

'c22 '0

4cy

6x dx dy

31.

y '01 'x1 sin ' 1 ' y sin y '1 y dy dx 0 0 y dx dy 0 sin y dy 2

32.

'02 'x2 2y# sin xy dy dx '02 '0y2y# sin xy dx dy 2 2 y '0 cc2y cos xyd 0 dy '0 ac2y cos y# b 2yb dy
cc sin y# b y# d ! 4 c sin 4
#

33.

'01 'y1 x# exy dx dy '01 '0x x# exy dy dx '01 cxexyd 0x dx


x '0 axex c xb dx " 2 e c 1
#

" x# # !

e c2 #

34.

xe '02 '04cx 4 ' 4' cy dy dx 0 0


#

2y

4cy
4 2y e

e '0 #x (4cy)
4
# 2y

4cy

xe2y 4 cy

dx dy
2y

dy '0

dy e4
!

e) c " 4

35.

'02

ln 3 ln 3 ln 3

'y/2

ex dx dy '0
# # #

ln 3

'0

2xex dx cex d 0

ln 3

'02x ex

dy dx

eln 3 c 1 2

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

946
36.

Chapter 15 Multiple Integrals


$

1 '03 ' ey x3 1

dy dx '0
$ $

'03y

ey dx dy

'0 3y# ey dy cey d ! e c 1


"

37.

'0116 'y12 cos a161x& b dx dy '012 '0x


"%

cos a161x& b dy dx
"# !

161x b '0 x% cos a161x& b dx sin a80 1


12
&

" 801

38.

'08 '2x
$

" y % b1 y y % b1
$

dy dx '0 dy
" 4

'0y y " dx dy b1
$

'0

cln ay% b 1bd !

ln 17 4

39.

' ' ay c 2x# b dA


'c1 'cxc1 ay c 2x# b dy dx b '0
0 0 0

xb1

# # xb" # 1cx ' <" # 'c1 < " 2 y c 2x y cxc1 dx b 0 2 y c 2x y xc1 dx


1

'x1cc1x ay c 2x# b dy dx

" # # # # 'c1 < " # (x b 1) c 2x (x b 1) c # (cx c 1) b 2x (cx c 1) dx " # # # # b '0 < " # (1 c x) c 2x (1 c x) c # (x c 1) b 2x (x c 1) dx
1 0 1

c4 'c1 ax$ b x# b dx b 4 '0 ax$ c x# b dx c4 x 4 b


%

x$ 3 c1
23

b 4 x 4 c
2x

" x$ 3 !

1) 4 (c4 b
2cx

(c1)$ 3

3 " " b 4 4 c3 8 12 c

4 12

8 c 12 c2 3

40.

' ' xy dA ' ' xy dy dx b ' ' xy dy dx 0 x 23 x


1

# 2x ' < " # 2cx dx '0 < " 2 xy x dx b 23 2 xy x


1 23 1

23

" $ $ # '0 2x$ c " dx b '23 < " dx # x # x(2 c x) c # x

'0

23

3 #

x$ dx b '23 a2x c x# b dx
1

2 8 % 23 < # 2 $ " 3 16 < 4 2 27 <3 8 x 0 b x c 3 x #$ 8 81 b 1 c 3 c 9 c 3

6 81

27 81

c 36 81 c
$

16 81

13 81 " (2cx)% 12 !

41. V '0

'x2cx ax# b y# b dy dx '01 x# y b y3 2cx dx '01 2x# c 7x 3


$

(2cx)$ 3

dx 2x 3 c

7x% 12

2 3 c
1

7 12

" 12

c 0 c 0 c
1

16 12

4 3 1 & 1 % $ dx 'c2 a2x# c x% c x$ b dx < 2 3 x c 5 x c 4 x c#


1

42. V 'c2 'x 2 3 c


" 5

2cx#

" c4 c c 16 3 b

x# dy dx 'c2 cx# yd x
32 5

2cx#

"

16 4

40 60 c

12 60

15 60

c c 320 60 b

384 60

240 60

189 60

63 20

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Section 15.1 Double Integrals


43. V 'c4 '3x
1 1 4cx# 4cx (x b 4) dy dx 'c4 cxy b 4yd 3x dx 'c4 cx a4 c x# b b 4 a4 c x# b c 3x# c 12xd dx 1
#

947

7 $ % # " 'c4 acx$ c 7x# c 8x b 16b dx <c 1 4 x c 3 x c 4x b 16x c% c 4 c "

7 3

b 12 c 64 3 c 64

157 3

c
2

" 4

625 12
#

44. V '0

'0

4cx

(3 c y) dy dx '0 3y c
2

y# 2 0

4cx

x dx '0 34 c x# c 4c # dx
2
#

c" x # 3 2 x 4 c x b 6 sin # c 2x b

# x$ 6 !

6 1 # c4b

8 6

31 c

16 6

9 1 c8 3

45. V '0 46. V '0

# $ # '03 a4 c y# b dx dy '02 c4x c y# xd $ '2 ! dy 0 a12 c 3y b dy c12y c y d ! 24 c 8 16

'04cx

a4 c x# c yb dy dx '0 a4 c x# b y c
2

$ <8x c 4 3 x b

" 10

x& ! 16 c

y# 2 !

4cx#

dx '0

" #

a4 c x# b dx '0 8 c 4x# b
#
2

x% #

dx

32 3

32 10

480c320b96 30

128 15

47. V '0

2 x '02cx a12 c 3y# b dy dx '02 c12y c y$ d #c dx '0 c24 c 12x c (2 c x)$ d dx !

24x c 6x# b
0 xb1

# (2cx)% 4 !

20
1

48. V 'c1 'cxc1 (3 c 3x) dy dx b '0


2 1x 2

'x1cc1x (3 c 3x) dy dx 6 'c01 a1 c x# b dx b 6 '01 (1 c x)# dx 4 b 2 6


2

1x 49. V '1 'c1x (x b 1) dy dx '1 cxy b yd c dx '1 <1 b 1x 2 cx b ln xd # " 2(1 b ln 2)

" x

" " c c1 c x 2 '1 1 b x dx


2

50. V 4 '0
2 3

13

'0sec x a1 b y# b dy dx 4 '013 y b y3 sec x dx 4 '013 sec x b sec3 x dx


$ $

c7 ln ksec x b tan xk b sec x tan xd !

1$

2 3

7 ln 2 b 3 b 23 <" b x 1 c lim " b c1 1

51.

1 " '1_ 'ec ' _ ln y " x y dy dx 1 x


x

ec x

x dx '1 c c x$ dx c lim
1/ 1cx#

b_

b_

52.

'c11 'c1/1/11ccxx

(2y b 1) dy dx 'c1 cy# b yd #


1

1#

4 lim c csinc" b c 0d 21 b1 53.


# # #

c1/ a1c

x# b1#

dx 'c1 2
1

1 cx #

dx 4 lim c csinc" xd ! b1
b

_ " 'c_ '_ -dx dy 2 '0 y 2 b1 _ c_ ax b1b ay b1b


b_

b_

lim

tanc" b c tanc" 0 dy 21 lim

b_

'0b y " b1 dy
#

# 21 lim tanc" b c tanc" 0 (21) 1 # 1

54.

'0_ '0_ xecxb2y dx dy '0_ ec2y


'0 ec2y dy

b_

lim

ccxecx c ecx d b dy '0 ec2y lim 0


" #

b_

acbecb c ecb b 1b dy

" # b lim _

acec2b b 1b

55.

" " ' ' f(x y) dA " " " " " " " " " " " " " 4 f c # 0 b 8 f(0 0) b 8 f 4 0 b 4 f # 0 b 4 f c # # b 8 f ! # b 8 f 4 #

" 4

" c # b

" #

" b 0 b 8 0b

" 4

" #

b3 4

3 16

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948
56.
R

Chapter 15 Multiple Integrals

' ' f(x y) dA " < 7 9 9 9 5 11 7 11 9 11 11 11 5 13 7 13 4 f 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4

" 16 13 11 13 7 15 9 15 b f 9 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4 bf 4 4

(25 b 27 b 27 b 29 b 31 b 33 b 31 b 33 b 35 b 37 b 37 b 39)
1 6

384 16

24
x 3

57. The ray )

meets the circle x# b y# 4 at the point 3 1 the ray is represented by the line y

Thus, ' ' f(x y) dA '0


R

3 4cx x 'x3 4cx# dy dx '0 3 a4 c x# b c 4 c x# dx 4x c 3


#

x$ 3

a4 c x # b 3 3

$#

58.

203 9 c1) ' x#3 dy dx '2 3(y ax# cxb dx 2 cx b


"$

'2_ '02 ax cxb " (yc1)


#

#$

6 lim

b_ b_
1

" " '2b xc 1 c x dx 6

3 x # cx

dx 6 '2

dx x(xc1)

b_

lim

b 6 lim cln (x c 1) c ln xd 2

b_

[ln (b c 1) c ln b c ln 1 b ln 2]

6 lim 59. V '0

ln 1 c " b b ln 2 6 ln 2
$

'x2cx ax# b y# b dy dx '01 x# y b y3 2cx dx


x
$

1 '0 2x# c 7x 3

(2cx)$ 3

dx

$ 2x 3

c
4 3

7x% 12

2 3 c

7 12

" 1#

" (2cx)% 12 !

c 0 c 0 c

16 12

60.

" '02 atanc" 1x c tanc" xb dx '02 'x1x 1b y

dy dx '0

'

2 tan

" 1 c 1 y 1by# dy 0 c1 12 ln 5 b 1 c"

b'

'yy1

" 1 by #

dx dy b '2
" #1

21

" 'y21 1b y

dx dy
21

2 tan

y 2 c 1 1 by # 2 c"

21

c" # # c" < dy 12 yb 1 cln a1 b y bd ! b 2 tan " 21

ln a1 b y# b 2

21 c

ln a1 b 41# b c 2 tanc" 2 b
# ln 5 #

21 c 2 tan

c"

2c

" 21

" #1

ln 5

ln a1 b 41 b b

61. To maximize the integral, we want the domain to include all points where the integrand is positive and to exclude all points where the integrand is negative. These criteria are met by the points (x y) such that 4 c x# c 2y# 0 or x# b 2y# 4, which is the ellipse x# b 2y# 4 together with its interior. 62. To minimize the integral, we want the domain to include all points where the integrand is negative and to exclude all points where the integrand is positive. These criteria are met by the points (x y) such that x# b y# c 9 0 or x# b y# 9, which is the closed disk of radius 3 centered at the origin. 63. No, it is not possible By Fubini's theorem, the two orders of integration must give the same result.

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Section 15.1 Double Integrals


64. One way would be to partition R into two triangles with the line y 1. The integral of f over R could then be written as a sum of integrals that could be evaluated by integrating first with respect to x and then with respect to y:

949

' ' f(x y) dA


'0
R
1

y2 2 2cy2 '22cc2y f(x y) dx dy b '1 'yc1 f(x y) dx dy.

Partitioning R with the line x 1 would let us write the integral of f over R as a sum of iterated integrals with order dy dx. 65.

'cbb 'cbb ecx cy


#

dx dy 'cb 'cb ecy ecx dx dy 'cb ecy 'cb ecx dx9 dy 'cb ecx dx9 'cb ecy dy9
b b
# #

# # # 'cb ecx dx9 2 '0 ecx dx9 4 '0 ecx dx9 ; taking limits as b _ gives the stated result.

66.

'01 '03 (ycx1)


#

#$

dy dx '0
b

'01 (ycx1)
#

#$

dx dy '0
3

" (yc1)#$

x 3 dy
!

"

" 3

'03 (ycdy 1)

#$

" 3 b lim 1c

'0

dy (yc1)#$

" 3

b 1b

lim

'b

dy (yc1)#$

b 1c

lim

<(y c 1)"$ b b lim <(y c 1)"$ 3 0 b b 1b

2 1 b $ 2 lim c (b c 1)"$ c (c1)"$ c lim b (b c 1)"$ c (2)"$ (0 b 1) c 0 c $ b1 b1 67-70. Example CAS commands: Maple: f := (x,y) -> 1/x/y; q1 := Int( Int( f(x,y), y=1..x ), x=1..3 ); evalf( q1 ); value( q1 ); evalf( value(q1) ); 71-76. Example CAS commands: Maple: f := (x,y) -> exp(x^2); c,d := 0,1; g1 := y ->2*y; g2 := y -> 4; q5 := Int( Int( f(x,y), x=g1(y)..g2(y) ), y=c..d ); value( q5 ); plot3d( 0, x=g1(y)..g2(y), y=c..d, color=pink, style=patchnogrid, axes=boxed, orientation=[-90,0], scaling=constrained, title="#71 (Section 15.1)" ); r5 := Int( Int( f(x,y), y=0..x/2 ), x=0..2 ) + Int( Int( f(x,y), y=0..1 ), x=2..4 ); value( r5); value( q5-r5 ); 67-76. Example CAS commands: Mathematica: (functions and bounds will vary) You can integrate using the built-in integral signs or with the command Integrate. In the Integrate command, the integration begins with the variable on the right. (In this case, y going from 1 to x).

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

950

Chapter 15 Multiple Integrals

Clear[x, y, f] f[x_, y_]:= 1 / (x y) Integrate[f[x, y], {x, 1, 3}, {y, 1, x}] To reverse the order of integration, it is best to first plot the region over which the integration extends. This can be done with ImplicitPlot and all bounds involving both x and y can be plotted. A graphics package must be loaded. Remember to use the double equal sign for the equations of the bounding curves. Clear[x, y, f] <<Graphics`ImplicitPlot` ImplicitPlot[{x==2y, x==4, y==0, y==1},{x, 0, 4.1}, {y, 0, 1.1}]; f[x_, y_]:=Exp[x2 ] Integrate[f[x, y], {x, 0, 2}, {y, 0, x/2}] b Integrate[f[x, y], {x, 2, 4}, {y, 0, 1}] To get a numerical value for the result, use the numerical integrator, NIntegrate. Verify that this equals the original. Integrate[f[x, y], {x, 0, 2}, {y, 0, x/2}] b NIntegrate[f[x, y], {x, 2, 4}, {y, 0, 1}] NIntegrate[f[x, y], {y, 0, 1},{x, 2y, 4}] Another way to show a region is with the FilledPlot command. This assumes that functions are given as y = f(x). Clear[x, y, f] <<Graphics`FilledPlot` FilledPlot[{x2 , 9},{x, 0,3}, AxesLabels {x, y}]; f[x_, y_]:= x Cos[y2 ] Integrate[f[x, y], {y, 0, 9}, {x, 0, Sqrt[y]}] 67.
" '13 '1x xy dy dx 0.603

68.

'01 '01 ec x by

dy dx 0.558

69.

'01 '01 tanc" xy dy dx 0.233 '0 '2ye


1 4 x#

70.

'c11 '0

1cx

31 c x# c y# dy dx 3.142

71. Evaluate the integrals: dx dy


x/2

The following graphs was generated using Mathematica.


4

'0

'0

ex dy dx b '2
#

'01 ex

dy dx

c" 4

" 4 4 e

c 21 erfia2b b 21 erfia4b

1.1494 106

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Section 15.2 Areas, Moments, and Centers of Mass


72. Evaluate the integrals:
3 9
2

951

'0 'x x cosay2 bdy dx '0 '0


9

x cosay2 bdx dy

The following graphs was generated using Mathematica.

sina81b 4

c0.157472

73. Evaluate the integrals:

'0 'y
2

4
3

2y

ax2 y c xy2 bdx dy '0 97.4315

'x /32 ax2 y c xy2 bdy dx


3 2

The following graphs was generated using Mathematica.

67,520 693

74. Evaluate the integrals:

'0 '0
2

4cy#

exy dx dy '0

'0

4cx

exy dy dx

The following graphs was generated using Mathematica.

20.5648

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

952
2

Chapter 15 Multiple Integrals


x#

75. Evaluate the integrals:


1 '1 '0 xb y dy dx 1 2 1 ' 4' 2 1 '0 '1 xb y dx dy b 1 y xby dx dy

The following graphs was generated using Mathematica.

c1 b ln 27 4 0.909543

76. Evaluate the integrals:

'1 'y
2

8
3

1 x 2 by 2

dx dy '1

'1

x
3

1 x 2 by 2

dy dx

The following graphs was generated using Mathematica.

0.866649

15.2 AREAS, MOMENTS, AND CENTERS OF MASS 1.

2 2cy 2 or '0 '0 dx dy '0 (2 c y) dy 2

'02 '02cx dy dx '02 (2 c x) dx 2x c x2 # 2,


#

2.

4 2 2 '02 '2x dy dx '0 (4 c 2x) dx c4x c x# d 0 4, 4 y2 4 or '0 '0 dx dy '0 y # dy 4

3.

y 1 'c12 'yc dx dy 'c2 acy# c y b 2b dy c2


#

c y 3 c c " 3 c

y# # " #

b 2y

"

c# 9 #

b 2 c 8 3 c2c4

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley