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Chemistry edexcel unit 2 complete summary of all topics

Section 1: Shapes and angles of molecules


Planar: 180o (2 bonding pairs, 0 lone pairs) Trigonal planar: 120o (3 bonding pairs, 0 lone pairs) Tetrahedral: 109.5o (4 bonding pairs, 0 lone pairs) Trigonal bipyramidal: 90o and 120o (5 bonding pairs, 0 lone pairs) Octahedral: 90o (6 bonding pairs, 0 lone pairs) Bent: 104.5o water (2 bonding pairs, 2 lone pairs) Pyramidal: 107o (3 bonding pairs, 1 lone pair)

Organic molecules
HCH: 109.5o CCC: 120o COH: 104.5o

Carbon Allotropes
Diamond: 4 bonding pairs to each carbon with a tetrahedral structure. Diamond has a high boiling point to completely covalent structure. It has no free electrons so it does not conduct electricity. Graphite: 3 bonding pairs to each carbon so other electron becomes delocalised (conducts electricity). Layers form, held together by weak van der waal's forces Fullerenes: Ball shaped structures. Buckminsterfullerene has 60 carbons and 32 sides, and it was the first fulllerene to be discovered. Conducts electricity with delocalised electrons. It is a black solid which dissolves to form a red solution in petrol. Amorphous carbon: Structure can vary and it is highly reactive. It is a powdery substance. It is the soot produced from burning flames.

Nanoparticles
Found when scientists made fullerenes. Can be used to treat diseases, in cosmetics and sun creams. It can alter substances to make them more useful. There are concerns that it may have unknown effects on the human body.

Section 2: Electronegativity
Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract the bonding pair of electrons. In a bond, if one atom is more electronegative than the other, then a polar covalent bond is made. If the electronegativity difference is only small or nothing, then it is a non polar covalent bond. If there is a larger electronegativity difference, then the result is an ionic bond. Linus Pauling came up with the Pauling scale, which gives all elements values of electronegativity. - images Polarity is the distortion of the electron cloud of one atom by another. This happens in a polar bond.

Polar and non polar molecules


Polar bonds are made when there is an electronegativity difference. If the molecules are symetrical, it will mean that these polar bonds are equally spread out, so the charge is equally spread too. This means that the polarity is cancelled out. Examples: CH4, SiCl4, CO2 If the molecules are asymmetrical, it will mean that the polar bonds are not equally spread, so the charges are unbalanced. This means that they do not cancel out. Examples: H2O, NH3

Section 3: Intermolecular forces


Van der Waal's: These are the weak forces that exist between nonpolar molecules. They occur because there are shifts of charge in the molecules, causing temporary polarity. Permanent dipoles: These are permanent forces that exist, between slightly polar molecules. Thy occur because molecules have permanent charge differences. Hydrogen bonds: These are similar to permanent dipoles, but they are stronger, and they only occur when the elements nitrogen, fluorine or oxygen are present.

Boiling points
In organic molecules, the longer the carbon chain, the more opportunity there is for intermolecular bonding to occur, so the Van der Waal's forces increase. This means that the boiling point is higher, because they are held together more strongly. The more branching there is, the lower the boiling point, because the formation of Van der Waal's forces is disrupted. Why does iodine have a higher boiling point than bromine? There is no electronegativity difference, so this is not a part of the answer.

I2 has more electrons, which means that the van der waal's forces are stronger, and hence more energy is required to pull molecules of iodine apart from one another. Why does C-Cl have a higher boiling point than C-Br? C-Cl has stronger bonds because the atomic radius is smaller, which means there is less distance and shielding. It also has a higher electronegativity for these reasons. Why does ammonia have a higher boiling point than phosphine? Ammonia has nitrogen, which has is highly electronegative so it has a higher boiling point than the phosphine. Again this means more energy is required to pull one molecule apart from another of ammonia.

Solubility patterns
Like dissolves with like. A polar solid dissolves in a polar solvent. A non polar solid dissolves in a non polar solvent. A non polar solvent miscible with non polar solvent. Polar solvent miscible with polar solvent.

Section 4: Redox
Reduction is the gain of electrons. Oxidation is the loss of electrons. When the oxidation number decreases, it means it has been reduced. When the oxidation number increases, it means it has been oxidised. The oxidation number is the number of electrons you need to add or remove in order to make the substance neutral. Example: The oxidation numbers of sulphur in H2SO4, H2S and SO2 Answers: H2SO4 = +6, H2S = -2, SO2 = +4

Half equations
Half equations are equations which show the oxidation or reduction of one substance. Here are the rules for writing the half equation, using MNO4^-1 as an example 1. Write out the basic equation (MNO4^-1 => Mn^2+) 2. Balance everything except oxygen and hydrogen molecules (MNO4^-1 => Mn^2+) 3. Balance the oxygen by adding water. (MNO4^-1 => Mn^2+ + 4H2O) 4. Balance hydrogen by adding H+ ions. (MNO4^-1 + 8H+ => Mn^2+ + 4H2O) 5. Balance charges by adding electrons (e-). (MNO4^-1 + 8H+ +5e- => Mn^2+ + 4H2O)

Combining half equations


When combining half equations, it is important eliminate the spectator ions (substances that appear on both sides of either equation). Electrons should be balanced and removed altogether. Here is an example: 2IO3^- + 12H+ +10e- => I2 + 6H2O SO2 +2H2O => SO4^2- + 4H+ + 2e Now get the same number of electrons in both equations: (SO2 +2H2O => SO4^2- + 4H+ + 2e-) x 5 Result: 5SO2 + 10H2O => 5SO4^2- + 20H+ + 10e Combine and cancel out other spectators: 5SO2 + 2IO3^- 4H2O => 5SO4^2- + I2 + 8H+

Section 5: Group 2
Trend in the first ionisation energy: The ionisation energy decreases down the group due to increase in the distance between the nucleus and outer electrons. There are also more electron shells, so the effects of shielding are greater.

Reactions
Group 2 & water: In the reaction a hydroxide and hydrogen gas form. The reactivity increases as you go down the group. Magnesium and beryllium do not react very much due to the build up of the insoluble hydroxide layer. Magnesium does react with steam (hot water) and this reaction produces an oxide and hydrogen gas. Group 2 & oxygen: In the reaction an oxide forms. Beryllium only reacts when in powdered form. The reactivity increases down the group. Strontium and barium for peroxides due to the peroxide ion being strongly attracted to the cation. Group 2 & chlorine: In the reaction a chloride salt forms. The compounds formed are all ionic, except beryllium chloride which is covalent. Group 2 oxide & water: In the reaction a hydroxide in this reaction. The reactivity increases down the group. Group 2 oxide & dilute acid: In the reaction a salt and water forms. It is a neutralisation reaction where the oxide is a base. The salt that forms will depends on the acid used. With sulphuric acid a sulphate forms, with nitric acid a nitrate forms. Group 2 hydroxide & dilute acid: In this reaction a salt and water also forms, in the same sort of neutralisation reaction. The hydroxide also acts as a base (alkaline).

Trends in solubility
The solubility of hydroxides increase down the group. The solubility of sulphates decreases down the group.

Flame tests
The flame tests are caused by the heat exciting the electrons up to higher energy levels, from the ground state. When the atoms returns to the ground state, they have to emit the energy they gained as a photon of light. Colours: Sodium (orange), Lithium (red), Potassium (liliac), Barium (green), Strontium (red), Calcium (red-yellow)

Thermal stability
The thermal stability of group 1/2 nitrates and carbonates increases down the group. This is because the atomic radius of the cation increases down the group, which means that the charge density decreases. Therefore the polarising effect of the cation on the carbonate decreases, so more heat is required to decompose them. Nitrates: Group 1 nitrates (exc. lithium nitrate) decompose to form a nitrite and oxygen. Lithium nitrate and the other group 2 nitrates decompose to form an oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. Carbonates: Both group 1 and 2 carbonates decompose to form an oxide and carbon dioxide.

Section 6: Group 7
Halogen reactions
Halogens in water: Halogens are non polar and water is polar. Therefore two layers form as they are immiscible. Halogens in hydrocarbon solvents: Halogens and hydrocarbons are non polar so different coloured precipitates form. Bromine turns orange. Iodine turns purple. Chlorine turns green. Reaction with metals: Halogens react with metals to form chloride salts. They usually form ionic compounds. Reaction with non-metals: Halogens react with non-metals to form covalent compounds. Reaction with iron: If you react chlorine or bromine with iron(II), it forms iron(III). With iodine iron(III) does not form. Iron(II) is green and iron(III) is brown. Hot and Col alkali - here are two examples of the disproportion reactions that take place: Cl2 + 2KOH => KCl + KClO + H2O (Cold) Cl2 + 6KOH => 5KCl + KClO3 + 3H2O (Hot)

Potassium/sodium halides with sulphuric acid


The stronger the reducing agent that reacts with the sulphuric acid, the more oxidised the halogen is. Chlorine is a weak reducing agent, so it is not oxidised much. The strength of the reducing agent increases down the group. Reaction with chlorine: NaCl + H2SO4 => HCl + NaHSO4 Reaction with bromine: NaBr + H2SO4 => HBr + NaHSO4 2HBr + H2SO4 => SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O Reaction with iodine: NaI + H2SO4 => HI + NaHSO4 2HI + H2SO4 => SO2 + I2 + 2H2O 4HI + H2SO4 => H2S + 2I2 + 2H2O The HX that forms in the first reaction can be reacted with ammonia to form white dense fumes of NH4X

Halide reactions
Halides with silver nitrate: The halides form different coloured precipitates when they react with silver nitrate. Silver chloride is a white precipitate. Silver bromide is a cream precipitate. Silver iodide is a yellow precipitate. Silver halides in sunlight: The silver halides turns grey in the sunlight, as they begin to decompose. Silver halides in ammonia: The silver halides have different levels of solubility in ammonia. Silver chloride is soluble. Silver bromide is slightly soluble. Silver iodide is insoluble. Making hydrogen halides: Hydrogen reacts with chlorine explosively in sunlight, and slowly in the dark. Hydrogen reacts with bromine and iodine using a catalyst and 300oC. Hydrogen halides and ammonia: When the hydrogen halides react with ammonia they form an ammonium salt. The ammonium salt maybe NH4Cl, NH4Br or NH4I. They all form white dense fumes. Hydrogen halides and water: Hydrogen halides are acidic gases. They form acids when dissolved in water, because they donate H+ ions to the solution.

Section 7: Kinetics
A number of factors affect the rate of reaction. These include temperature, pressure, concentration, surface area and a catalyst

Temperature: Increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules means that more will have more energy than the activation energy, so they are more likely to overcome the activation energy. This means that more molecules will collide successfully. Pressure: Increasing the pressure forces the molecules closer together, so that they are more likely to collide, and hence they are more likely to react. Concentration: Increasing the concentration of the molecules means that there are more molecules in the same space, so they are more likely to collide and so more likely to react. Surface area: Increasing the surface area increases the number of solid particles exposed to other reactants. Therefore they are more likely to collide and therefore more likely to react. Catalyst: A catalyst provides an alternative reaction pathway, that has a lower activation energy. This means that more particles will have enough energy to successfully react. The collision theory states that particles must collide with enough energy and the correct orientation in order to successfully react.

Measuring the rate of reaction


Gas syringe: Measure the loss of gas from a reaction. (images) Measuring cylinder: Measures the loss of gas from a reaction. (cylinder.gif) Change in mass: (Reaction+of+marble+with+hydrochloric+acid_Mass.jpg) Change in colour: Using a photoelectric colorimeter to measure the change in the colour. (colorimeter_pc10.jpg)

Maxwell-Boltzmann model (maxwel2.gif)


This model shows the number of molecules that have a certain energy. A line is given which shows the activation energy. Any particles past this line will be able to successfully react. Only a small number of them have enough energy. Increasing the temperature means more particles have more energy than the activation energy. Using a catalyst moves the activation energy line further back, so more particles have more energy than the activation energy.

Section 8: Equilibria
A dyamic equilibrium is an equilibrium where the forward and reverse reactions are happening at equal rates. A number of factors affect the equilibrium position. Temperature: When the forward reaction is exothermic, decreasing the temperature will shift the equilibrium to the right. Therefore the reverse reaction will be endothermic, so increasing the temperature will shift the equilibrium to the left.

Pressure: When you increase the pressure, you increase the reaction which has less gaseous particles, so the equilibrium will shift to this side. Concentration: Increasing the concentration of the reactants will mean that more products are made. Increasing the concentration of the products will mean that more reactants are made.

Examples
Methane hydrate: Methane hydrate becomes methane and water in a reaction, and the reverse of this is also possible. The forward reaction is endothermic, which means that increasing the temperature shifts the equilibrium to the right. Nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetraoxide: Dinitrogen tetraoxide turns into nitrogen dioxide. Nitrogen dioxide is brown, and dinitrogen tetraoxide is pale yellow. The forward reaction is endothermic. Iodine chloride: Iodine can be reacted with chlorine to become iodine(I) chloride. When iodine chloride reacts with chloride, iodine(I) chloride becomes iodine(III) chloride. The reversible reaction occurs between iodine(I) chloride and iodine(III) chloride.

Haber process
N2 + 3H2 <=> 2NH3 The Haber process has to have compromise due to the rate of reaction and the yield. Temperature: The forward reaction is exothermic. This means that if you decrease the temperature, you get more ammonia. However, the yield would rate of reaction would also decrease when the temperature is decreased. Therefore a compromise of 450o is used. Pressure: There are less moles of gas in the products, so increasing the pressure would increase the yield of ammonia. However, a high pressure is very expensive, so a compromise of 1 atomic pressure is used. Catalyst: An iron catalyst is used. Ruthenium is better, but it is more expensive. However it is not used because high temperatures are required, which would decrease the yield too much.

Section 9: Alcohols
Primary: The OH is attached to a carbon atom which is only attached to one other carbon. Secondary: The OH is attached to a carbon atom which is attached to two other carbon. Tertiary: The OH is attached to a carbon which is attached to three other carbon.

Reactions
Combustion: When alcohols are burnt in a good supply of oxygen, it will burn with a clean blue flame, to form carbon dioxide and water. Sodium: Sodium will dissolve into the alcohol, and fizz as hydrogen gas is produced. The sodium will react with the alcohol to form sodium alkoxide. For example butan-1-ol, will form sodium butoxide (C4H9Na+O-). The longer the carbon chain, the slower the reaction due to increased Van der Waal's forces. Substitution: The OH can be replaced with a halide ion in a substitution reaction. PCl5 can be reacted with the alcohol, but lots of other products (HCl, POCl3 and chloroalkane). KCl can be reacted with sulphuric acid, which will form HCl. HCl can also be reacted with alcohol to make a chloroalkane. KBr can form HBr when reacted with sulphuric acid. This HBr can then be reacted with the alcohol, to form a bromoalkane. KI can be reacted with phosphoric acid. It is not reacted with sulphuric acid, because sulphuric acid is a too stronger oxidising agent, and only little HI forms. HI can react with the alcohol to form an iodoalkane.

Oxidation
Alcohols can be oxidised by potassium or sodium dichromate. Tertiary alcohols do not oxidise because there are no hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon (which is bonded to the OH). Primary alcohols can be partially oxidised to form an aldehyde by immediate distillation. They can also be completely oxidised to form a carboxylic acid using reflux under heating (in a vertical reflux condenser) followed by distillation. Secondary alcohols can only be oxidised to ketones, by distillation. Distillation apparatus: Reflux apparatus:

Section 10: Halogenoalkanes


Primary halogenoalkane: These are halogenoalkanes where the carbon which is bonded to the halogen atom is also bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms, and one other carbon atom. Secondary halogenoalkane: These are halogenoalkanes where the carbon which is bonded to the halogen atom is also bonded to one hydrogen and 2 carbon atoms. Tertiary halogenoalkane: These are halogenoalkanes where the carbon which is bonded to the halogen atom is also bonded to no hydrogen and 3 carbon atoms.

Uses for halogenoalkanes


Refrigerants: They have a high enthalpy of vaporisation so they can change from the gas to liquid phase and back again very easily. They are also non-toxic which is helpful when people have the fridges in their homes. Flame retardants: They have a very low boiling point, which means that they form a heavy gas when subjected to flames. They can also be woden into fabrics to make flame retardant clothing. They are also used to stop circuit boards igniting, which would happen due to the nature of circuit boards. Pesticides: Halogenoalkanes are non-toxic, which means that they can be put on foods without it harming people. Anaesthetics: Again the non-toxic properties of halogenoalkanes means that they will not harm people when given to patients. They are also non-flammable which is helpful.

Reactions
Potassium hydroxide: When halogenoalkanes are reacted with potassium hydroxide, two reactions can take place. In the aqueous solution a subsitution reaction takes place, where the OH replaces the halogen atom, forming an alcohol. This is an example of nucleophilic substitution. The OH acts as a nucleophile in this reaction. In the ethanolic solution an elimination reaction takes place, where the halogen is removed from the halogenoalkane, forming an alkene. The OH acts as a base in this reaction. Ammonia in ethanol: When ammonia reacts with halogenoalkanes an alkylamine forms. The reaction occurs because ammonia has a lone pair of electrons, which allows the reaction to continue happening. If bromobutane were to react then butylamine and HBr would be the product. Silver nitrate: When halides react with silver nitrate it forms silver halides. These halides form different coloured precipitates. Chloride forms a soluble white precipitate of silver chloride. Bromide forms a slightly soluble cream precipitate of silver bromide. Iodide forms an insoluble yellow precipitate of silver iodide. Hydrocarbon and halogens: Halogens are non polar which means that they dissolve in non polar solvents. They therefore dissolve in any hydrocarbon. They dissolve into them to form different coloured solutions. Chlorine forms a green solution. Bromine forms an orange solution. Iodine forms a purple solution. Preparing a halogenoalkane:

CFCs
CFCs are also known as chlorofluorocarbons.

These deplete the ozone layer because the C-Cl bonds in the structure break, forming chlorine free radicals. The chlorine free radicals react with the ozone (O3) forming oxygen and ClO free radicals. These then further react to make more chlorine free radicals. More and more chlorine free radicals are made in the reaction, so chlorine acts as a catalyst. The ozone depletion leads to holes in the ozone layer. This means more UV light gets through, because the ozone absorbs most of the UV light. The Montreal protocol was set up to phase out the use of CFCs. HCFCs are an alternative, but they still pose a risk to the ozone layer.

Section 11: Mechanisms


Types of reactions
Elimination Addition Substitution Polymerisation (condensation polyermisation or addition polymerisation) Condensation Hydrolysis Redox (Reduction/Oxidation)

Types of bond breaking


Heterolytic: Uneven bond breaking where two of the electrons in the bonding pair go to one atom in the bond, and no electrons go to the other bonding pair. Homolytic: Even bond breaking where one electron from the bonding pairs goes to each of the atoms in the bond.

Types of reagents
Nucleophile: These are electron rich species which are attracted to electron deficient areas, and donate electrons to electron deficient species. Electrophile: These are electron deficient species which are attracted to the electron rich areas, and receive electrons from electron rich species. Free radical: These are highly reactive species with a lone pair of electrons.

Reaction mechanisms (click on links below to see mechanisms)


Nucleophilic substitution - sN1.jpg Nucleophilic substitution - sN2.jpg Free radical addition.jpg

Free radical substitution.jpg Electrophilic addition.jpg

Section 12: Mass spectrometry


Ionisation: This is where the compounds/elements are turned into anions, when they are bombarded by electrons. Acceleration: The ions are accelerated to the same speed in the electric field. Deflection: The ions are deflected by the magnetic field, by different amounts, depending on the mass of the ion. Detection: The ions that pass through the magnetic field are detected and recorded.

Organic compounds
Organic compounds are fragmented by the ionisation stage, which means that the large molecules break up into smaller ones. The relative abundance vs. mass/charge ratio graph shows the different fragments are peaks. The peak with the largest mass/charge ratio value is the parent ion, or whole molecule. The most common peak is the tallest peak. It is called the base peak. Here is an example of a graph: 2-pentanol_edited.gif

Uses for mass spectrometry


Space missions: To detect substances in the soils and atmopshere in other planets, which can determine whether they have life or not. Detecting leaks: In space they need to detect leaks from space suits, or in the ISS. Sports drug cheating: By testing the ratio of hormones in the urine of athletes. Pharmacy: To test whether a substance would make a useful medication.

Section 13: IR spectroscopy


Some substances absorb infra-red radiation they vibrate, causing them to either bend or stretch. When there are two atoms in the molecule, only stretching can occur. With more atoms there can be assymetrical stretching, symmetrical stretching and bending. The amount of energy needed to make molecules vibrate will depend on the mass of the atoms, the length of the bond and the strength of the bond. Stronger bonds will need more IR to make them vibrate.

What can absorb it?


Only some substances can absorb IR. Only molecules that change their polarity when they vibrate will be able to absorb it. The spectrometer will determine how much IR is absorbed based on how much IR manages to pass through the substance, and is detected on the other side. The rest is absorbed. The spectrometer works by passing an amount of IR (of a certain frequency) through the substance. The amount put in is known, and the amount that is detected is recorded. The difference between these values is what has been absorbed. If there is a solution, then a reference cell is used to determine what absorption was caused by the solute and what was caused by the solvent.

Graph
The graph shows the percentage transmission against the wavenumber (frequency). The graphs shows a series of peaks. The stronger the absorption the larger the peak. If the bond absorbs it over a wide range of frequencies, then the peak will be broad (fat). Here is an example of the graph: ir_ethanol.gif