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Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Irrigation Engineering

MODULE- 71A
Duty, delta, estimation of Evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements.

Irrigation: Duty delta estimation of Evapo transpiration, crop water. Crop period or base period (B) sowing to harvesting in days is crop period and first watering to last watering is base period. Crop period is slightly more than base period. Use in similar meaning. Delta: The total depth of water (in cm) required by a crop come to maturity is called delta ( ) Duty: ( D ) Area (hectares) irrigated per cubic m/sec of discharge running base of B days B 246060 = D hectors (cm) = 864 .

Duty will reduce in upstream due to losses The duty at the head of water course is called outlet discharge factor. Crop seasons: Rabi: Kharif: October April to march (written) September. (Hot)

Kharif- Rabi ratio or crop ratio: The area irrigated in kharif to Rabi. It is approximately 1:2. Palio irrigation: watering before sowing. Kor - watering: The first water after sowing. It is maximum watering Crop rotation: Change of crops subsequently. Optimum water depth: The quantity of water at which the yield is maximum, is called optimum water depth. Efficiency of water conveyance: water delivered / water supplied Efficiency of water application: stored at root size / water delivered Efficiency of water storage: stored in root zone / water needed in root zone.(filed capacity exits m.c) Efficiency of eater use: water beneficially used/water delivered. Uniform coefficient or Water distribution efficiency:

JH ACADEMY

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering =( ) D = mean depth of water stored

Topic : Irrigation Engineering

D = average of the abs. values of deviation from mean. Consumptive use or Evapo transpiration ( ): Total amount of water used by the plant in transpiration (building of plant tissues etc.,) and evaporation from adjacent soils or from plant leaves in any specified time. Effective rainfall : Rainfall during the growing period of a crop that is available to meet the Evapo transpiration needs of the crop is called effective rainfall Consumptive irrigation requirement: (CIR) CIR = NIR = = = K .f K = crop factor t = mean monthly t p . P = monthly % of annual day light hours that occur during the period. Hargreaves classes ClassA pan evaporation method. . . Net irrigation requirement (NIR) + water lost as percolation in satisfying other needs such as leaching. p [1.8t+32] where f = [1.8t+32] Blarney - Criddle formula:

Christiansen formula :

= 0.459. R. .

Field capacity: water content of a soil after free drainage has taken place for a sufficient period. Field capacity = F= wt of wat r r tain d in unit ar a of soil Volume .of water retained in unit area = A total water storage capacity in m = d d d m

Permanent wilting point: water content at which plant can no longer extract sufficient water for its growth and wilts up. Available moisture: Difference in water content between the field capacity and permanent wilting point.

JH ACADEMY

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Irrigation Engineering

Readily available moisture: it is the portion of the available moisture which is most easily extracted by the plants and is approximately 75 to 80% of the available moisture. Soil moisture deficiency: The water required to bring the soil moisture content of a given soil to its field capacity. Equivalent moisture : water retained by a saturated soil after being centrifuged for 30 minutes by a centrifuged force of 1000 times of that of gravity.

JH ACADEMY

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