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Contents

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................ 2
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 3

A.

OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................................... 3
METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................................... 3

B.
1.

Apparatus .................................................................................................................................. 3

2.

Procedures ................................................................................................................................. 4

3.

Theory ........................................................................................................................................ 5
TABLES ......................................................................................................................................... 5

C.
1.

Results ........................................................................................................................................ 5

2.

Calculations ............................................................................................................................... 6

3.

GRAPH ...................................................................................................................................... 6

D.

DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................ 7

E.

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 7

F.

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 8

Figure 1: Apparatus ................................................................................................................................. 4

Table 1: Lab results ................................................................................................................................. 5


Table 2: Calculations ............................................................................................................................... 6

Graph 1: Ho vs Q ............................................................

ORIFICE DISCHARGE

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this experiment is to study the coefficient of discharge through a circular
orifice cut into a vertical riser pipe. Perforated riser pipes are a popular outlet control
structure for storm water detention basins. These basins are used to store and release storm
water runoff from impervious areas of developed sites The discharge through the orifice was
determined by measuring the rate of change of the water level in the tank versus time. The
experiment determined that the discharge coefficient increased with decreasing head values.
Basically the orifice discharge experiment consists of the time taken for a liquid in a tank to
reach a new level while there is a constant flow of a liquid into the tank through an orifice
This experiment consists of calculating the coefficient of contraction through other
coefficient. The coefficient of discharge CD is the ratio of actual discharge by theoretical
discharge, the product of the coefficient of velocity Cv and the coefficient of contraction Cc.
The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena
contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. The theoretical
velocity may be calculated Bernoullis equation.

A. INTRODUCTION
An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. Orifices may
have any shape, although they are usually round, square, or rectangular, but for this
experiment a round orifice was used. For mechanics of fluid, a fluid passing through an
orifice constriction will experience a drop-in pressure across the orifice. With the time
recorded for the required level in the volumetric tank to rise from 2 to 14litres, and then with
the measurement of the diameter of the orifice, the pressure drop can then be used to
calculate the flow rate of the fluid. This experiment allows us to detect effect of friction on
water flow. In determining the performance of water through a jet and the effect of friction on
performance, the coefficient of discharge (Cd), coefficient of velocity (Cv) and coefficient of
contraction (Cc) are needed. These three coefficients allow us to understand the effect of the
friction on water flow more clearly. Each of these coefficients is a ratio of the
actual performance to ideal performance as related to discharge, velocity and contraction. All
of the three coefficients are also measures of pressure loss. From this experiment, it is evident
that the energy loss in the system can be directly related to the difference in head levels
between ideal and actual conditions.

OBJECTIVE
To measure the extend of the reduction in flow, contraction of the stream and energy
loss, as water discharge from a sharp edged orifice.

B. METHODOLOGY
1. Apparatus

Collector tank

Tube manometer

Micrometer to determine the jet diameter

Discharge tank

Plexiglass tank with overflow

Water pump

Adjustable valve
3

Figure 1: Apparatus

2. Procedures
1. After ensuring that the pipes were properly connected, water was allowed to flow
through the pump into the tank.
2. When the water level reached the height of the overflow pipe, the inflow of water was
regulated so that a small steady discharge was obtained from the overflow.
3. The coefficient of drag was then obtained by the collection of a known weight of
water from the orifice, which in this experiment was taken as 12 litres and
simultaneously the time taken was recorded as well.
4. The corresponding values of Ho and Hc were also recorded.
5. Next, the diameter of the water flow through the orifice was recorded by calculating
the difference in reading using a micrometer.
6. The inflow to the tank was then reduced to lower the level in the tank in stages.
7. The discharge from the orifice was measured for five different stages where the flow
rates shall be calculated to establish the relationship between discharge and head on
the orifice.

3. Theory

Discharge (Q) =

Area of orifice =

Ideal Velocity (Vo) =

Actual Velocity (Vc) =

Coefficient of velocity (Cv) =

= m3/s

Theoretical Discharge (Qo) = AoVo

Actual Discharge (Qc) =

Coefficient of Discharge (CD) =

Coefficient of contraction =

C. TABLES
1. Results
H01/2 (m1/2)

Hc

2.28

0.545

287

265

2.11

0.515

284

61.03

224

1.97

0.473

230

12

64.82

191

1.82

0.437

179

12

77.40

121

1.55

0.348

127

Diameter

Quantity

Time (T)

Ho (mm)

(mm)

(Litres/L)

(s)

10.47

12

52.59

297

10.21

12

56.88

10.06

12

9.99
9.75

Q (m3/s)
10-4

Table 1: Lab results

2. Calculations

Area of

Vo

Vc

Cv

Qo

CD
-4

orifice

10

Coefficient
of

10-5

contraction

8.60961

2.413947

75.03959

31.08585

2.08 1.097910919 0.035318673

8.18731

2.280197

74.64637

32.7368

1.87 1.130076527 0.034520066

7.94851

2.096397

67.17589

32.0435

1.67 1.179990532 0.036824649

7.83828

1.935825

59.26196

30.61328

1.52 1.220071202 0.039854315

7.46619

1.540786

49.91733

32.39733

1.15 1.347717867 0.041599663

Table 2: Calculations

3. GRAPH

Ho vs Q
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

Ho vs Q

0.2
0.1
0
0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

Graph 1: Ho vs Q

0.00025

D. DISCUSSION
From the graph above, we can say that the experiment was successful as H01/2 (m1/2) and Q
are almost proportional where most of the values are consistent. Moreover, it can be observed
that as the diameter of the orifice increases, the coefficient of contraction decreases.
On the other hand, the diameter of the orifice is found to increase when the level of water in
the tank - which is denoted by the head of orifice, Ho - increases. This leads us to the
conclusion that the diameter of the orifice is directly related to the pressure acting upon by
the volume of water in the tank.

In other words, the increase in depth of water creates a greater difference in pressure which
leads to a greater force which acts on a specific area. In this case, the force acts upon the
sharp edged orifice which ultimately causes a higher flow rate value.
The higher the pressure, the greater will be the diameter of the orifice. Hence, the higher will
be the flow rate.
Some errors, such as parallax error, may have been produced when the readings of Ho were
taken due to the fact that the volume of water kept on altering and hence a proper accurate
value was most of the time difficult to obtain.
Secondly, the diameter of the water flow couldn't be measured accurately due to the
spreading of the water, making it difficult to determine the initial and final boundary values
of the flowing water.
E. CONCLUSION
From all the five experimental values calculated above, along with the graph, it clearly shows
that the head of orifice is directly proportional to the discharge where the flow rate values
increase as the level of water in the tank rises.

F. REFERENCES

http://www.cussons.co.uk/education/products/mechanics_of_fluids/basic_flow_experi
ments_bench/p6223_and_p6224_orifice_experiments.asp accessed on 29th March
2013

http://www.engineeringcivil.com/flow-through-orifices.html accessed on 1st April


2013