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ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................ 2

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 3

A.

OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................................... 3

METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................................... 3

B.

1.

Apparatus .................................................................................................................................. 3

2.

Procedures ................................................................................................................................. 4

3.

Theory ........................................................................................................................................ 5

TABLES ......................................................................................................................................... 5

C.

1.

Results ........................................................................................................................................ 5

2.

Calculations ............................................................................................................................... 6

3.

GRAPH ...................................................................................................................................... 6

D.

DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................ 7

E.

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 7

F.

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 8

Table 2: Calculations ............................................................................................................................... 6

Graph 1: Ho vs Q ............................................................

ORIFICE DISCHARGE

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment is to study the coefficient of discharge through a circular

orifice cut into a vertical riser pipe. Perforated riser pipes are a popular outlet control

structure for storm water detention basins. These basins are used to store and release storm

water runoff from impervious areas of developed sites The discharge through the orifice was

determined by measuring the rate of change of the water level in the tank versus time. The

experiment determined that the discharge coefficient increased with decreasing head values.

Basically the orifice discharge experiment consists of the time taken for a liquid in a tank to

reach a new level while there is a constant flow of a liquid into the tank through an orifice

This experiment consists of calculating the coefficient of contraction through other

coefficient. The coefficient of discharge CD is the ratio of actual discharge by theoretical

discharge, the product of the coefficient of velocity Cv and the coefficient of contraction Cc.

The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena

contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. The theoretical

velocity may be calculated Bernoullis equation.

A. INTRODUCTION

An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. Orifices may

have any shape, although they are usually round, square, or rectangular, but for this

experiment a round orifice was used. For mechanics of fluid, a fluid passing through an

orifice constriction will experience a drop-in pressure across the orifice. With the time

recorded for the required level in the volumetric tank to rise from 2 to 14litres, and then with

the measurement of the diameter of the orifice, the pressure drop can then be used to

calculate the flow rate of the fluid. This experiment allows us to detect effect of friction on

water flow. In determining the performance of water through a jet and the effect of friction on

performance, the coefficient of discharge (Cd), coefficient of velocity (Cv) and coefficient of

contraction (Cc) are needed. These three coefficients allow us to understand the effect of the

friction on water flow more clearly. Each of these coefficients is a ratio of the

actual performance to ideal performance as related to discharge, velocity and contraction. All

of the three coefficients are also measures of pressure loss. From this experiment, it is evident

that the energy loss in the system can be directly related to the difference in head levels

between ideal and actual conditions.

OBJECTIVE

To measure the extend of the reduction in flow, contraction of the stream and energy

loss, as water discharge from a sharp edged orifice.

B. METHODOLOGY

1. Apparatus

Collector tank

Tube manometer

Discharge tank

Water pump

Adjustable valve

3

Figure 1: Apparatus

2. Procedures

1. After ensuring that the pipes were properly connected, water was allowed to flow

through the pump into the tank.

2. When the water level reached the height of the overflow pipe, the inflow of water was

regulated so that a small steady discharge was obtained from the overflow.

3. The coefficient of drag was then obtained by the collection of a known weight of

water from the orifice, which in this experiment was taken as 12 litres and

simultaneously the time taken was recorded as well.

4. The corresponding values of Ho and Hc were also recorded.

5. Next, the diameter of the water flow through the orifice was recorded by calculating

the difference in reading using a micrometer.

6. The inflow to the tank was then reduced to lower the level in the tank in stages.

7. The discharge from the orifice was measured for five different stages where the flow

rates shall be calculated to establish the relationship between discharge and head on

the orifice.

3. Theory

Discharge (Q) =

Area of orifice =

= m3/s

Coefficient of contraction =

C. TABLES

1. Results

H01/2 (m1/2)

Hc

2.28

0.545

287

265

2.11

0.515

284

61.03

224

1.97

0.473

230

12

64.82

191

1.82

0.437

179

12

77.40

121

1.55

0.348

127

Diameter

Quantity

Time (T)

Ho (mm)

(mm)

(Litres/L)

(s)

10.47

12

52.59

297

10.21

12

56.88

10.06

12

9.99

9.75

Q (m3/s)

10-4

2. Calculations

Area of

Vo

Vc

Cv

Qo

CD

-4

orifice

10

Coefficient

of

10-5

contraction

8.60961

2.413947

75.03959

31.08585

8.18731

2.280197

74.64637

32.7368

7.94851

2.096397

67.17589

32.0435

7.83828

1.935825

59.26196

30.61328

7.46619

1.540786

49.91733

32.39733

Table 2: Calculations

3. GRAPH

Ho vs Q

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Ho vs Q

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

Graph 1: Ho vs Q

0.00025

D. DISCUSSION

From the graph above, we can say that the experiment was successful as H01/2 (m1/2) and Q

are almost proportional where most of the values are consistent. Moreover, it can be observed

that as the diameter of the orifice increases, the coefficient of contraction decreases.

On the other hand, the diameter of the orifice is found to increase when the level of water in

the tank - which is denoted by the head of orifice, Ho - increases. This leads us to the

conclusion that the diameter of the orifice is directly related to the pressure acting upon by

the volume of water in the tank.

In other words, the increase in depth of water creates a greater difference in pressure which

leads to a greater force which acts on a specific area. In this case, the force acts upon the

sharp edged orifice which ultimately causes a higher flow rate value.

The higher the pressure, the greater will be the diameter of the orifice. Hence, the higher will

be the flow rate.

Some errors, such as parallax error, may have been produced when the readings of Ho were

taken due to the fact that the volume of water kept on altering and hence a proper accurate

value was most of the time difficult to obtain.

Secondly, the diameter of the water flow couldn't be measured accurately due to the

spreading of the water, making it difficult to determine the initial and final boundary values

of the flowing water.

E. CONCLUSION

From all the five experimental values calculated above, along with the graph, it clearly shows

that the head of orifice is directly proportional to the discharge where the flow rate values

increase as the level of water in the tank rises.

F. REFERENCES

http://www.cussons.co.uk/education/products/mechanics_of_fluids/basic_flow_experi

ments_bench/p6223_and_p6224_orifice_experiments.asp accessed on 29th March

2013

2013

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