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# Appendix 2: Module summaries, Pure Mathematics

## Most recent update: 24 August 2010

Level 1 modules
PMA1012, Numbers, Sets and Sequences (1st Semester) Prerequisite: At least A-level Mathematics at Grade C. This module, together with its companion module PMA1014, acts as a link between school mathematics and degree-level work in Pure Mathematics and in other mathematical disciplines. In sixth-form mathematics, the primary emphasis is on applying techniques and on getting correct answers. University level mathematics goes a step further and aims at understanding the structure of a problem by concentrating on the essential or "universal" aspects rather than only on specifics. This abstraction allows us to deal with a variety of more complicated problems and lies at the very heart of modern mathematics. Generally speaking, the aim of this module is to understand the nature of mathematical arguments and to be able to analyse and, even more importantly, to construct proofs of mathematical statements. To this end, you will be introduced to the very basics of mathematical language and methodology. This includes familiar subjects like number systems (integers, rationals) and elementary combinatorics, and these will be discussed throughout using the all-important language of set theory. Attending lectures is not enough to develop understanding of mathematics. It is even more important to apply mathematics and to solve problems. This will be encouraged by weekly homework exercises, offering the opportunity for independent work. Exercises will be discussed in weekly tutorials. Exercises and tutorials form an integral part of the module. Syllabus Content: Elementary logic and set theory, number systems (including integers, rational numbers, real numbers), sequences of numbers, convergence, completeness, basic combinatorics. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. PMA1014, Analysis & Linear Algebra (2nd Semester) Prerequisite: At least A-level Mathematics at Grade C. The distinction between calculus and analysis is roughly this: calculus deals with differentiation and integration and focuses largely on techniques of calculation; analysis is wider in its scope (it includes, for example, sequences and series) and is concerned with the precise formulation of definitions, results and proofs. Students

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Level 2 modules
PMA2002, Analysis (2nd semester) Prerequisite: PMA1014, Analysis and Linear Algebra. The main topics are:

SEQUENCES AND SERIES: Supremum and infimum, Cauchy sequences, convergent sequences. The Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem. Infinite series, convergence tests. LIMITS AND CONTINUITY: Limit of a function at a point. Continuity. Intermediate value theorem. Bounds of a continuous function on a bounded closed interval. DIFFERENTIATION: Definition of derivative. Basic results on the derivative. Rolles theorem. Mean value theorems. LHpitals rule. Taylors theorem. Local maxima and minima. RIEMANN INTEGRATION: Definition of the Riemann integral and study of its main properties. Differentiation of the indefinite Riemann integral.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Books: R.G. Bartle and D.R. Sherbert, Introduction to Real Analysis (Wiley & Sons) R. Haggarty, Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis (Addison-Wesley) K.E. Hirst, Numbers, Sequences and Series (Arnold) P.E. Kopp, Analysis (Arnold) K.G. Binmore, Mathematical Analysis (Cambridge University Press) PMA2003, Complex Variables (1st semester) Prerequisite: PMA1014, Analysis and Linear algebra. In the sixteenth century, problems involving the solution of algebraic equations naturally gave rise to imaginary numbers, now called complex numbers. Though they were originally viewed as rather mysterious, the theory of complex numbers and functions was given a sound foundation in the nineteenth century by the four great mathematicians Cauchy, Gauss, Riemann and Weierstrass. The theory of complex variables is one of the most beautiful and useful branches of mathematics, containing striking theorems which have no counterpart in the theory of real variables. The main topics are: Complex numbers and functions. Differentiable functions, elementary functions, bilinear maps, CauchyRiemann equations, harmonic functions, open, closed, bounded sets, domains. Complex integration, estimation of integrals, fundamental theorem of integration, Cauchy's theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville's theorem, fundamental theorem of algebra.

Taylor's theorem, logarithms, expansion of log(1+z), zeros of a regular function. Laurent's theorem, residues, singularities, Cauchy's residue theorem, evaluation of real integrals. Rouch's theorem, location of roots of equations, maximum modulus principle.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Books: The module is not based on any one book, but useful references are R.V. Churchill, Complex variables and applications (McGraw-Hill) M.R. Spiegel, Theory and problems of complex variables (Schaum Publ. Co.) H.A. Priestley, Introduction to complex analysis (Oxford University Press) P.L. Walker, An introduction to complex analysis (Adam Hilger) PMA2007, Linear Algebra (1st semester) Prerequisite: PMA1014, Analysis and Linear Algebra. The emphasis throughout this module will be on developing a rigorous approach to Mathematics. This involves precise definitions (you need to understand what they say and what they don't say), logical proofs, solving problems and communicating the solutions. You will also learn techniques and when they may be used. The content follows on from and develops the linear algebra component of the prerequisite module. The provisional syllabus comprises: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The dimension theorem for linear mappings, basic matrix theory and the connection with linear mappings. Systems of linear equations, solutions and consistency, elimination. Determinants, especially their connections with matrix inverse. Inner product spaces, orthonormal bases (including the Gram-Schmidt process), special associated classes of matrix. Eigen-behaviour.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Books: Almost any text on linear algebra should cover the material of this module. In particular: Grossman, Elementary Linear Algebra, (Wadsworth) PMA2008, Group Theory (2nd semester)

Prerequisites: PMA1012, Algebra (Numbers, Sets and Sequences) and PMA1014, Analysis and Linear Algebra. Equivalence relations, binary operations, groups, examples and properties, groups of maps, countability, homomorphisms, subgroups, equivalence relations, permutation groups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, structure of finite abelian groups, composition series and solvable groups. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. PMA2009, Geometry (2nd semester) Prerequisite: PMA1012, Algebra (Numbers, Sets and Sequences). This module aims to examine the legacy of Euclids work as a style of argument and as a body of factual information. The outline programme is: (i) (ii) (iii) to use Book 1 of Euclids Elements as an extended introduction to axiomatic reasoning, to some extent within its historical context; to examine a selection of later but still classical results such as the nine-point circle and the Euler line; to illustrate the impact of the Cartesian treatment of geometry, incorporating some discussion of conic sections.

Assessment: 90% by three-hour written examination with some choice of questions, 10% by presentations to the class [two per student] of short prepared sections of geometric material. PMA2010, Elementary Number Theory (1st semester) There is no specific prerequisite for this module. The great mathematician C.F. Gauss stated that Mathematics is the Queen of the Sciences and the Theory of Numbers is the Queen of Mathematics. The distinguished mathematician G.H. Hardy wrote: The elementary theory of numbers should be one of the very best subjects for early mathematical instruction. It demands very little previous knowledge; its subject matter is tangible and familiar; the processes of reasoning which it employs are simple, general and few; it is unique among the mathematical sciences in its appeal to natural human curiosity. Number theory is an attractive subject partly because it contains many propositions which are easy to state but very difficult to prove. Among the conjectures which have so far defied proof are those that every even number is the sum of two primes and that there is an infinite number of twin primes (i.e. primes which differ by two: 3, 5; 11, 13; 41, 43; etc.) Topics treated in the module will include: Divisibility, greatest common divisors. Primes: the existence of infinitely many primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (unique prime factorization). The arithmetic functions tau and sigma. Linear Diophantine equations. Linear congruences: the Chinese remainder theorem.

Wilsons theorem and its converse. Polynomial, especially quadratic, congruences: criteria of Dirichlet and Euler for solvability of quadratic congruences. Fermats theorem that a prime p divides ap-a for any integer a. Eulers phi-function: Eulers generalization of Fermats theorem. Legendre symbols: the law of quadratic reciprocity.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Some books are, in approximately decreasing order of relevance: The theory of numbers, A. Adler and J. E. Coury (Jones & Bartlett) Elementary number theory and its applications, Kenneth H. Rosen (Addison-Wesley) Introduction to number theory with computing, R. Allenby & E. Redfern (Edward Arnold) Elementary number theory, Donald M. Burton (Allyn & Bacon) A concise introduction to the theory of numbers, Alan Baker (C.U.P.) In addition, the Libraries contain books with titles similar to those above, most of which include at least some relevant material.

Level 3 modules
The Department of Pure Mathematics is a small one, and staff losses (retirements, resignations or illness) can adversely affect our ability to offer modules at higher levels (3 and 4) as we often only have one member of staff who can teach a particular high level module. Although we will do all that we can to put on the modules listed, we cannot guarantee to do so. You will be notified of any unavoidable changes as soon as we know of them. PMA3008, Computer Algebra (1st and 2nd Semesters) Because of demand, this module is taught in both semesters. Students may only obtain credit for passing it once. If you enrol for the first semester version and disenrol after the fifth week of the module then you may not subsequently enrol for the second semester version. Even though the module is offered in both semesters, the demand in the second semester is so high that it may be necessary to refuse to accept late enrolments into this module. When most people think of computers in the context of mathematics, they think of some numerical calculation being performed thousands of times in order to approximate something. There is much more to the mathematical use of computers than this. Apart from their use for sophisticated word-processing, access to databases and remote collaboration by electronic mail, their use to manipulate symbols is becoming increasingly important. There have been, for several decades, computer programs that can, for example, expand (1+x)(1+x2) to obtain the answer

1+x+x2+x3. More impressively they can evaluate the integral of (1+ x+x2)/(1+x+x2+x3) from 0 to 1 (using suitable notation) as /8+3 log(2)/4. Whilst any calculation that such a program can perform could also be done by a human, they can "remember" a large number of rules for you and not make silly mistakes in copying an expression from one line to the next. Those who want numerical answers should not feel left out either as these programs can evaluate numerical expressions to as many significant figures as you like (within physical limitations it is certainly possible to work with a thousand significant figures). These programs are finally becoming available to working mathematicians as the programs become more efficient and the computers needed to run them become cheaper. This module will provide a practical introduction to the use of such programs by teaching you to use one such program (Mathematica) in order to solve mathematical problems. Whilst some of the module will necessarily involve having the program demonstrated to you, the emphasis is on you using the program, so the module is very much practically oriented. You will be set assignments to carry out on a weekly basis, and the final examination consists of a three hour computer-based practical examination. The contents of the lectures in the first six weeks of the module are approximately as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Using Mathematica and numerical calculations. Pattern matching and manipulation of algebraic expressions. Graphics and calculus. Solving equations and conditional functions. Loops, multi-statement functions and more on functions. Vectors, matrices and enhancing graphics.

The remainder of the module consists of case studies from many areas of pure mathematics. The mathematical background needed for this module is approximately A-level mathematics. You should know what expanding or factorising an algebraic expression means, what the differential and integral calculus are all about, what vectors and matrices are etc. Recent practice at performing calculations in these topics is not needed as Mathematica will do that for you. This module is taught in 2 two hour sessions from 4pm to 6pm (Tuesday and Thursday in the first semester; Monday and Tuesday in the second semester). Three of these hours consist of lectures/demonstration whilst the fourth hour is a tutorial, going through work set the previous week. Assessment: This module is examined by means of a three-hour computer-based practical examination arranged by the department (usually this takes place immediately after the end of the lecture term). This examination will not appear on the university examination timetable. PMA3012, Ring Theory (1st Semester)

Prerequisites: PMA2007, Linear Algebra. The purpose of this module is to give a general introduction to the theory of rings, which is a subject of central importance in algebra. Historically, some of the major discoveries have helped to shape the course of developments of modern abstract algebra. Today, ring theory is a possible meeting ground for many algebraic subdisciplines such as group theory, representation theory, Lie theory, algebraic geometry, homological algebra, to name but a few. Main topics: Rings, subrings, ideals, quotient rings, homomorphisms, canonical factorisation, isomorphism theorems, integral domains, principal ideal rings, fields, simple rings, Noetherian rings, polynomial rings, Hilbert's basis theorem. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Books: J. Beachy, Introductory lectures on rings and modules, (London Math. Soc. Student Text No. 47, Cambridge University Press) T. W. Hungerford, Algebra, Springer GTM, 1971 PMA3014, Set Theory (1st Semester) Prerequisite: PMA2007, Linear Algebra. This module is a compulsory component of the MSci course in Pure Mathematics. Set theory is the language in which most of contemporary Pure Mathematics is most readily expressed. It is also a subject of study in its own right, whose techniques and insights find application across the entire discipline and whose unresolved/unresolvable issues compel us to question our 'intuitive expectation of certainty' in many areas. This module will seek to teach fluency in the language of elementary set theory, facility in the use of key techniques such as transfinite induction and maximality principles, and basic arithmetic of cardinal and ordinal numbers (the 'arithmetic of infinity'). It will also develop an axiomatic description of set theory to allow some discussion of the issues of completeness and consistency. The chapters and their approximate numbers of lectures are as follows: The language of sets and mappings [7 lectures] Construction of number systems [5 lectures] Cardinal numbers (cardinality, theorems of Schroeder-Bernstein and Cantor, elementary cardinal arithmetic) [5 lectures] Axiomatic set theories (an introduction to the Zermelo-Fraenkel approach and the axiom of choice, and to Zorns lemma and the well ordering principle) [5 lectures] Ordinal numbers (including their application to defining cardinality, and some uses of transfinite induction) [7 lectures] Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions.

Text Books: No prescribed text will be followed in detail. The following references may be of use: Lipschutz, Set theory and related topics, (Schaum). Simmons, Topology and modern analysis, (McGraw-Hill). Rotman and Kneebone, Theory of sets and transfinite numbers, (Oldbourne). Stewart, Foundations of Mathematics, (OUP). In addition, the first (or zeroeth!) chapter of almost any book on modern algebra, analysis or topology will provide some discussion of set theory. PMA3016, Convergence (1st Semester) Prerequisite: PMA2002, Analysis [or PMA2003 and appropriate summer reading]. Convergence of series of non-negative real numbers: tests for convergence including lim sup/lim inf versions of the ratio and nth root tests and the integral test. Convergence of general series of reals, including convergence of absolutely convergent series, alternating series test, power series and their radius of convergence. Bracketing and rearrangement of series. Product series. Pointwise and uniform convergence of a sequence of real-valued functions; uniform convergence of sequences of continuous, integrable and differentiable functions; Weierstrass' approximation theorem; uniform convergence of series; Weierstrass' Mtest; uniform convergence of power series; manipulation of power series. Taylors theorem. Convergence in other settings. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. PMA3017, Metric and Normed Spaces (2nd Semester) Prerequisite: PMA2002, Analysis. Definition and examples of metric spaces; open sets, closed sets, closure points, sequential convergence, compactness; completeness; continuous mappings between metric spaces; Banach's fixed-point theorem and applications; Baire category theorem and applications. Normed spaces; Banach spaces; finite dimensional normed spaces; subspaces and quotient spaces; linear operators; boundedness; compact operators; dual spaces. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. PMA3018, Algebraic Equations (2nd Semester) Prerequisite: PMA2007, Linear Algebra. The theory of algebraic equations is the study of solutions of polynomial equations.

Although the problem originates in explicit manipulations of polynomials, the modern treatment is in terms of field extensions and groups of ``symmetries'' of fields. The content includes: review of polynomial rings and characteristic of rings and fields, factoring polynomials, extension fields, construction of some extension fields, algebraic and transcendental elements, constructions with straight-edge and compass, splitting fields, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, groups of automorphisms of fields, separable, normal and Galois extensions, examples. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions.
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Level 4 modules
The Department of Pure Mathematics is a small one, and staff losses (retirements, resignations or illness) can adversely affect our ability to offer modules at higher levels (3 and 4) as we often only have one member of staff who can teach a particular high level module. Although we will do all that we can to put on the modules listed, we cannot guarantee to do so. You will be notified of any unavoidable changes as soon as we know of them. Note that in any given academic year the taught Level 4 modules that will be offered will depend on demand from intending Level 4 MSci students of Pure Mathematics as indicated by them during the preceding year. In the academic year 2010-2011 it is intended that all the listed Level 4 taught modules will be offered. The module PMA4008 (Rings and Modules) will be taught in the second semester during 2010-2011; on occasions it has been delivered instead in the first, to satisfy student preferences. This may happen again in future years. PMA4001, Double-module project (Both semesters) This project is a compulsory component of the MSci pathway in Pure Mathematics. Prerequisite: There is no specific prerequisite for this module, but the student will need enough Level 3 background in Pure Mathematics to undertake an extended project at this level in some area of Pure Mathematics for which supervision can be offered. This is an extended project designed to test the student's ability to work independently at a high level for a prolonged period of time with a restricted amount of supervision. This will give a taste of the kind of work expected of a mathematician in the commercial or academic world, unlike the relatively short bursts of work expected in most undergraduate modules. It will also provide an opportunity to develop those transferable skills that are sought by employers, including IT (both word-processing and data-base access), presentational and personal ones. The project takes place during the first two terms of Level 4. It will normally involve study and exposition of a piece of mathematical work beyond the normal undergraduate syllabus and which will probably not be available in easily assimilated form. Originality of exposition will be expected, but not necessarily much in the way

of original results. The main part of the assessment will consist of a word-processed report, but 20% of the marks for the project are awarded for an oral presentation of the work which will take place just after Easter. As preparation for this assessed oral presentation, the student will be expected to give two oral progress reports around the middle of each of the first two terms to a small group of staff and any other students undertaking this module. Constructive advice on these presentations will be provided after each one. Near the beginning of the first semester, there will be computer-based workshops for students taking this module. These will cover topics including the use of LaTeX (the internationally accepted standard language for mathematical typesetting which is accepted by the majority of mathematical publishers) and using the internet to access sources of mathematical information (including the use of MathSciNet, the on-line version of Mathematical Reviews which reviews almost every published paper in Pure Mathematics). Students intending to take this module should seek advice and think about their choice of project during the summer. The selection of a project should be finalized no later than the start of the academic year, and it would be helpful to all involved if students actually did this even earlier. Assessment: 80% by final word-processed report, 20% by oral presentation. PMA4002, Functional Analysis (1st semester) Prerequisites: PMA3017, Metric and Normed Spaces and PMA3014, Set Theory. Functional analysis arose in the early twentieth century when the need became apparent to study whole classes of functions rather than individual ones. For example, differential equations may be regarded as concerning maps from a set of functions into itself and (after some reformulation) looking for a solution of a differential equation is asking for a function that is left fixed under the action of a certain map. The proof that, in certain circumstances, such a function always exists also shows how to approximate such a function numerically when an analytic solution cannot be found. Further impetus to the development of functional analysis came when quantum mechanics was found to be describable within its ambit. This has been an active area of research ever since and remains so to this day. To some extent you can regard linear functional analysis, to which this module is restricted, as an attempt to place linear algebra on a firm foundation within an infinite-dimensional context. The module will emphasize the topological tools (metric and non-metric ones) which are necessary for this. Familiarity with the Level 4 module Topology is desirable. The topics will be chosen from: A characterisation of finite-dimensional normed spaces. The Hahn-Banach theorem with consequences. The bidual and reflexive spaces. The open mapping theorem, the closed graph theorem, the uniform boundedness principle and the Banach-Steinhaus theorem. Weak topologies and the Banach-Alaoglu theorem. Spectral theory for bounded linear operators.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. PMA4003, Topology (1st semester) Prerequisites: PMA3017, Metric and Normed Spaces and PMA3014, Set Theory. Topology (rather like Algebra or Analysis) is not so much a single branch of mathematics but a loose confederation of subject areas differing widely in their origins, techniques and motivation but united by sharing a common core of basic concepts and constructions. Problems of a topological nature include: how can we describe and classify knots? how can we describe and classify surfaces? to what extent is it possible to extend the ideas of analysis into sets that don't have metrics defined on them? what can be meant by saying that two objects are "fundamentally the same shape", and how do we decide whether they are or not? what "models" are available to describe certain aspects of theoretical computer science? Rather than attempting to supply answers to any such major questions, this module will concentrate on developing enough of the "common core" to allow students to begin to appreciate how such issues can be tackled topologically. Ordered Sets: Partial order, maximal and maximum, minimal and minimum, upper and lower bounds, infima and suprema, lattices. Topological Spaces: Topologies, open set, closed set, neighbourhood, base, subbase, lattice of topologies, subspaces. closure,

Continuity and Sequential Convergence: Continuous functions between topological spaces, composites, homeomorphism, topological invariants, contractive and expansive invariants. Convergence of a sequence in a topological space; the inadequacy of sequential convergence in topological spaces, contrasting with the adequacy of sequential convergence in metric spaces. First-countable spaces, separable spaces, second-countable spaces. Separation Axioms: T0-spaces, T1-spaces, Hausdorff or T2-spaces, regular or T3-spaces, normal or T4-spaces. Every second-countable T3-space is metrizable and separable. Compactness: Open covers, compact subsets, KC-spaces, a compact T2space is T4, maximal compact and minimal T2-spaces. Connectedness: Connected spaces, connected subsets, components, totally disconnected spaces, locally connected spaces.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Books: The libraries contain several texts on topology which include sections relevant to this module, but be aware that a lot of them are written at postgraduate level. More accessible are: Mansfield, M.J., Introduction to topology, (Van Nostrand).

Mendelson, B., Introduction to topology, (Allyn & Bacon). Moore, T.O., Elementary general topology, (Prentice Hall). Simmons, G.F., Introduction to topology and modern analysis, (McGraw-Hill). Lipschutz, S., General Topology, (Schaum). PMA4004, Integration Theory (2nd semester) Prerequisites: PMA2002, Analysis and PMA3014, Set Theory. The theory of integration, developed by Lebesgue in the early part of the twentieth century in the context of the real line and subsequently extended to more general settings, is indispensable in modern analysis. The Lebesgue theory allows a very wide class of functions to be integrated and includes powerful convergence theorems which are not available in Riemann integration. In this module the theory is developed in the context of a general -algebra of sets. Special attention is given to the case of Lebesgue measure on the reals, and some applications of the integral to Fourier series are given. Contents: -algebras of sets, measurable spaces, measurable functions. Measures. Integrals of non-negative measurable functions: properties including Fatou's lemma and monotone convergence theorem. Integrable functions: Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem. Lebesgue integral on intervals: comparison with Riemann integral. Lp-spaces: inequalities of Hlder and Minkowski; Fourier series in L2. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Book: R.G. Bartle, The elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure, Wiley 1995. PMA4008, Rings and Modules (2nd semester) Prerequisite: PMA3012, Ring Theory. Historically, ring theory as we know it was born with the classification result (due to Wedderburn) of certain finite-dimensional algebras over fields. This was later extended by Artin to classify the so-called semisimple rings, and it is one of the most fundamental results (and one of the nicest too) that will keep us occupied for the first part of the module. In order to develop this theory, techniques arising from the need to generalize certain aspects of Linear Algebra such as the concept of a module will be introduced. The second part of the module follows the historical path of developments. We will study the Jacobson radical, introduced by Jacobson in 1945. This is a tool that has proved fundamental in the development of the theory, e.g. of Artinian rings, primitive rings, local and semilocal rings. Our approach will be pedestrian in nature, and we will therefore focus on a number of examples in order to motivate the different concepts that will be used. Contents: Basics: rings and modules, definitions and examples. Direct sums and short exact sequences. The structure of semisimple rings. Radicals: the Jacobson and the prime radicals. Structure of primitive rings. Local and semilocal rings.

Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. Text Books: There are a number of books that can be used for an introductory module such as this. The basic bibliography upon which the lecture notes will be based is: T. Y. Lam, A First Course in Noncommutative Rings (2nd ed.) GTM 131, SpringerVerlag, 2001. T. Y. Lam, Exercises in Classical Ring Theory, Problem Books in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, 1995. R. Pierce, Associative Algebra, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, 1982. PMA4010, Algebraic Topology (2nd Semester) Prerequisite: PMA4003, Topology. Topological spaces, compact and connected spaces; continuous maps, homeomorphisms, retractions; product topologies; examples (spheres and disks, tori, Moebius strip); main problems in algebraic topology: invariance of domain, invariance of dimension, retractions, distinguishing between non-homeomorphic spaces; example: is S1 homeomorphic to D2 ? Is S1 a retract of D2 ?; connected and path connected spaces, path components, 0 (X); homotopy of maps, homotopy as equivalence relation, 0 (X) the set of homotopy classes [pt, X]; contractible spaces; homotopy equivalences; 0 as a functor; applications to non -homeomorphic spaces; [S1, S1] = Z; application: fundamental theorem of algebra; pointed sets and spaces, pointed homotopies, 0 (X)=[S0, S1] as pointed set; pointed contractions and homotopy equivalences; fundamental group 1(X) for X=S1, X=Q, X=contractible; 1 as a functor; application: S1 is not a retract of D2, Brower fixed point theorem for D2. Assessment: One 3-hour written examination, with some choice of questions. PMA4013, Mathematical Investigations (2nd Semester) This module is a compulsory component of the MSci course in Pure Mathematics. It is not available for students who have taken module 210PMA204 or PMA2004 or 210PMA313 or PMA3013. The way in which we teach mathematics, whether in schools, universities or anywhere else, is only very distantly related to the way mathematicians actually do creative work. Creative need not only mean high-level research, any attempt to do a standard tutorial question is likely to be creative. In general we are set a question which reads "Find the value of..." or "Prove that..." and are expect to give an answer which sets out a polished final exposition of the result but not including any indication of how you reached that final result. For a discussion of the false starts that a mathematician has made in the solution of a problem, of what examples finally led to a solution or of what impossible feature of a sought-for counter-example eventually led to a proof you must look, not in mathematical text books or research papers but in the few books where mathematicians have tried to analyse their own creative