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HYDRAULICS

COMPONENTS IN HYDRAULICS SYSTEM

COMPONENTS

COMPONENTS LAYOUT
Basic components: Tank hold and cooling the hydraulic oil. Filter filtering hydraulic oil from dirt. Pump suck and distribute oil throughout the system. Accumulator - keep the system pressure, absorb vibration and stabilize the system pressure. Valve - regulate pressure in the circuit and control the direction of oil flow. Cylinder produce power to do the work for straight motion. Motor - produce power to do the work for rotational movement.
CYLINDER

Flow control valve Direct controlled valve Relief valve

Accumulator

Check Valve
Pump

Motor Filter Tank

Tank
Filtered Breather Cap Sight Gauge Capacity of 2-3 Times Pump Flow Return Line Filter Large Surface Area for Cooling Fluid Level Above Pump Inlet Clean-out Plate Pump Inlet Line Baffles to Separate Return Line from Outlet Line Figure 5.2

Magnetic Drain Plugs at Low Point(s) Baffle plate controls direction of flow in tank

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Uses of Tank/Reservoir
1. 2. 3. 4. a place to store hydraulic fluid Remove air trapped in the fluid any sludge can be deposited Accommodate any leakage in the system 5. Prepare the surface to cool the fluid.

Pump
to circuit to circuit Outlet Outlet

Atmospheric Pressure

Inlet Atmospheric Pressure

Inlet

Inlet Phase Figure 15-3 Positive displacement pump


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Output Phase

Types of hydraulics pump


Gear - cheap, durable, simple. Less efficient, because they are constant (fixed) displacement, and mainly suitable for pressures below 20 MPa (3000 psi). Vane - cheap and simple, reliable. Good for higher-flow low-pressure output. Piston - many designed with a variable displacement mechanism, to vary output flow for automatic control of pressure Screw - used for high flows and relatively
low pressure (max 100 bar).

EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP


Outlet

Volume on this side decreases as gear teeth mesh

Driven Gear

Idler Gear

Volume on this side increases as gear teeth unmesh

Inlet Figure 15-9 External gear pump

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INTERNAL GEAR PUMP

VANE PUMP
Increasing Volume Inlet side Decreasing Volume Outlet side

Figure 15-13

Eccentricity between rotor and cam ring

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A rotary vane pump is a positive-displacement pump that consists of vanes mounted to a rotor that rotates inside of a cavity. In some cases these vanes can be variable length and/or tensioned to maintain contact with the walls as the pump rotates.

Vane

Cam Ring Rotor

Figure 15-12

Basic pumping elements of a vane pump


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SCREW PUMP
Screws pumps (fixed displacement) are pump with two screws used in one body. The advantage of the screw pumps is the low sound level of these pumps; the efficiency is not that high.

The major problem of screw pumps is the hydraulic reaction forces which is transmitted axially opposed to the flow direction.

PISTON PUMP

Stroke

Stroke

Stroke

Inlet

Inlet

Inlet

Outlet

Outlet

Outlet

Figure 15-41

Pump displacement is based on swash plate angle


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Piston pump have the advantage of being more compact in design. The pumps are easier and more economical to manufacture.
The disadvantage is that they are more sensitive to oil contamination.

Cylinder Block Case Drain Swash Plate

Outlet

Rotation Inlet Spherical Washer Shoe Retractor Plate Piston Pre-Load Spring

Figure 15-32

An in-line piston pump

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5 Ways To Move the Valve

Valve

Way To Control the Valve


1. Non-Return /Check Valves Check Valves are simply valves which provide reasonably unrestricted flow in one direction and stop the flow in the other direction. A light spring is generally used to retain the valve to a closed position on near zero flow.

Check Valve
Symbol

Outlet Port

Inlet Port

Spring

Poppet
19

Check Valve
Symbol

Outlet Port

Inlet Port

Free Flow
20

Check Valve
Symbol

Outlet Port

Inlet Port

No Flow
21

2. Relief Valves
Relief valves are generally spring loaded valves which include a plug over a discharge port which is lifted against an spring force if the system pressure exceeds a certain value This opens the flow to the discharge port relieving the pressure. The pilot operated version enables more accurate control of the setting and a lower relief setting can be accommodated

3. Flow Control Valves


The control of the flow is simply by restricting the flow such that the pressure drop across the valve increases resulting in a reduced flow. However for hydraulic systems based on positive displacement pump any restriction in flow will cause a high rise in pressure which has to be limited by including a relief valve upstream of the flow control valve

4. Directional Control Valves


Direction valves are the important hydraulic controls which enable the motion of an actuator to be started, stopped and reversed. There are three main types of directional control valves - sliding-plate valves - rotational and linear. - poppet valves - spool valves.

Accumulator
Gas Valve Nitrogen Gas Bladder

Anti-Extrusion Valve

Shell

Port Figure 17-6 Bladder-type accumulator

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Accumulator
An inert gas above the diaphragm is compressed when hydraulic fluid is forced into the space below the diaphragm. The compressed gas represents potential energy that can be reconverted into hydraulic energy when needed.
For example, the stored energy can be used for emergency powering of power brakes or power steering during engine failure.

Accumulator

1000 500 0 1500 2000 500 0

1000 1500 2000 500 0

1000 1500 2000

psig

psig

psig

System Pressure Less Than pprecharge Figure 17-7

System Pressure at pmax Bladder accumulator operation

System Pressure at pmin

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Actuator
Hydraulic systems are used to control & transmit power. A pump driven by prime mover (electric motor) creates flow of fluid An actuator is used to convert the energy of the fluid back into mechanical power Amount of output power developed depends upon the flow rate, pressure drop across the actuator & its overall efficiency There are TWO types of actuator 1. Linear actuators (hydraulic cylinder) 2. Rotary actuators (Hydraulic motors)

Linear Actuators

Linear Actuators

Cylinder actuators provide a fixed length of straight-line motion. The piston is attached to a rod that extends from one end of the cylinder to provide the mechanical output. The double-acting cylinder has a port at each end of the cylinder to admit or return hydraulic fluid. A four-way directional valve functions to connect one cylinder port to the hydraulic supply and the other to the return, depending on the desired direction of the power stroke.

Properties of Linear Actuators


The cylinders have to be good quality steel with close tolerances. There have to be good sealing both at the piston rod and at the cylinder.

With time dirt may come in and damage the surfaces. This has to be possibly reduced.
In this case, the leakage will increase all the time.

Rotary Motor Actuators


Gear Motors Piston Motors

Vane Motors

Limited Rotation Actuator

Gear Motor
1. External Gear Motor
2 rotating gears, the area of the gear teeth is where the pressure acts to create force Both gears turn Simultaneously One gear is connected to the output shaft and the other is an idler.

2. Internal Gear Motors


Direct drive gerotor, works much like a rotary engine. Two gears, an inner and an outer. The pressure pushes them around a center point, turning a shaft

Vane Motor
Spring loaded vanes are connected to a rotor The rotor turns inside a cam ring (elliptical hole) The vanes slide in and out of the slots in the rotor to make contact with the cam wall.

Piston Motor
Many different types of piston motors 1. In-line Piston Motor 2. Radial Piston Motor 3. Bent Axis Piston Motor All of them use the same basic principles Much like a cylinder, only turns a shaft like the cylinders in your car engine. Generally the most efficient High power, high speed, high pressure

1. In-line Piston Motor


Simple construction Low cost Used in low torque high speed applications, such as machine tools

2. Radial Piston Motor


High Torque Low speed Possible application could be a roller.

3. Bent Axis Piston Motor


Is one example of variable displacement motor. The angle is altered to change the displacement.

Limited Roatation Actuator


Also sometimes called a oscillator. Has limited movement High torque

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

ASSIGNMENT
Draw and Explain the advantages and disadvantages of hydraulic systems basic circuit: Opened cynosure system Closed cynosure system

Submission Date: 05 Oktober 2013 (Friday) before 5.00pm

Pure Hydraulic
Design of hydraulic circuit to control the operation of cylinder follow the sequence

A+ B+ B- A-.
1. 2. 3. 4. Cylinder Rod A moves out Cylinder Rod B moves out Cylinder Rod B moves in Cylinder Rod A moves in

Pure hydraulic circuit

B
2

1
4

PRESSURE AND FLOW CONTROL ONACTUATORS ACTUATORS HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

PRESSURE AND FLOW CONTROL ON-ACTUATORS ACTUATORS HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Cylinder rod speed control depending on the requirements of a job. Circuit that controls the speed of the rod depends on the position of the flow control valve in a hydraulic circuit. There are 3 ways to control speed of rod when it is out: Metering Out Metering In Metering Off

Metering Out
The control valve is mounted on the circuit at the output of hydraulic oil from the actuators. When the pressure of cylinder achieve the maximum pressure, oil will flows into the tank. As the load decreases or small, back-pressure is greater than the pump output pressure.
Metering Out

Metering In
Flow control valve mounted on the circuit at the input of hydraulic oil to the actuator. When the cylinder pressure to achieve maximum pressure, hydraulic oil will flow into the tank.

Metering In

Bleed Off
Adjustable flow control valve on this circuit is installed at the inlet of the hydraulic oil between the direct control valve and cylinder. Speed can be controlled by adjusting the flow control valve. If all the oil drain back into the tank, cylinder rod will not move due to the system pressure drop.
Metering Off