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# Guide for electrical design engineers

Power Quality

Krzysztof Piatek
AGH-University of Science & Technology

## Voltage drop calculation: permissible level

of voltage fluctuations for a motor

## Supply system 400 V

line
Lz
Z PPC

UN
Tr
ZL
U PPC
PPC 400 V

line
L1 Zr
Power Quality

M
Power Quality
http://www.leonardo-energy.org

Problem
An industrial customer plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system as shown in the
diagram.

Supply system
Power supply system parameters:
- feeder line Lz impedance (at 0.4 kV level): ZLz =1.55 + j1.66 mΩ
line
- supply line L impedance: ZL = 25 + j 60 mΩ, ZL = 65 mΩ Lz

Transformer data:
- rated power SN =1MVA
- short-cir cuit voltage u% =5% Tr
- reactance to resistance ratio X R =5

PPC 400 V
Motor data:
- rated voltage: UN = 400 V line
- rated power: PN =75 kW L1
- starting power factor: PFr = 0.3
- starting overload coefficient: kr =7 kVA/kW
M

Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations as a criterion, determine whether the motor should be installed.
For the planned number of 20 starts per hour the voltage change: Kmax = 3%

Solution
First, calculate the motor impedance during start then, employing Kirchhoff voltage law, find the voltage drop during
start. The voltage drop value relative to the rated voltage at PCC is the sought coefficient; it has to be compared with
the coefficients given for 20 starts per hour.
The apparent power during start

## The motor impedance during start

UN2
Zr = (cos ϕr + j sin ϕr )
Sr
where ϕrozr is the phase shift angle during start, and cosϕr = PFr is the starting power factor. Thus we obtain
0.4 2
Zr = (0.3 + j 0.954 ) = 91.43 + j 290.74 mΩ
525
The voltage drop at PCC is calculated from the voltage divider in the figure. The voltage at PCC is
Z r + ZL
UPPC = UN
Zr + ZL + ZPPC

2
Voltage drop calculation:
permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor
http://www.leonardo-energy.org

400 V
U ZΣ
ku = PPC =
UN Z Σ + ZPPC

## where Z Σ = Zr + ZL =116.43 + j 350.74 mΩ

Z PPC
The power system impedance at PCC equals the sum of the feeder
line Lz and the transformer Tr impedances
ZPPC = Z Tr + ZLz UN
The transformer impedance
Z Tr = Z Tr (cos ϕ Tr + j sin ϕ Tr ) ZL
where
U PPC
u% UN2 0.4 2
Z Tr = = 0.05⋅ = 8 mΩ
100 SN 1
whereas the angle ϕ Tr can be determined from the X/R ratio
Zr
X
tan ϕ Tr = = 5, ϕ Tr = 78.69
R
Inserting the calculated values to the transformer impedance
formula, we obtain
Z Tr = 8 (0.196 + j 0.98 ) =1.57 + j 7.84 mΩ
Summing up with the feeder line Lz impedance, we obtain
ZPPC = 3.12 + j 9.5 mΩ
Inserting the calculated impedances to the voltage divider formula, we obtain
116.43 + j 350.74 369.56
ku = = = 0.9736 , ku = 97.3
36%
119.55 + j 360.24 379.56
The relative voltage change coefficient is defined as
ΔU
K u = PPC
UN
where ΔUPPC is the voltage drop at PCC during starting. It can be determined directly as

## ΔUPPC = UN − kuUN = 400 (1− 0.9736 ) =10.56 V

and, finally:
10.56
Ku = = 0.026 , K u = 2.6%
400
Since this coefficient does not exceed the limit value of 3% the motor can be directly connected to the network.

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