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!"#\$%&\$ ()*+ ,-./012 (3/-.%425%-6

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!3.%-8\$
9:.%6; <-.&3=>-.?
o 2@ F = -kx
o A@ WP.E. = (.S)kx
2

o &@ T = 2! * sqit(mk)
! 1. Cutting a spiing in half uoubles its spiing constant
! 2. Thus, (u.S)(k) = u.7T
90.<2&3 B;.2C%5#D E2C3\$F 9"211-> E253.
o 2@ In shallow watei, velocity is ueteimineu by the meuium anu not the
chaiacteiistics of the wave (i.e. inuepenuent of wavelength)
o A@ v = sqit(gh)
90.<2&3 B;.2C%5#D E2C3\$F G33: E253.
o 2@ In ueep watei, suiface wave velocity is ueteimineu by the
piopeities of the wave
o A@ v = sqit(g"2!)
9%/:13 H2./-6%& (-5%-6 !3.%-8
o 2@ v = (sqit)(T); T = tension; = mass pei unit length
!368010/\$
o 2@ Peiiou is inuepenuent of mass
A@ Peiiou is inuepenuent of #
&@ T = 2! * sqit(Lg)
(2;635%& ,%318F )%.&012. (-5%-6 !3.%-8
o 2@ T = 2!i\$q\$B

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IJ025%-6\$ %6 (-5%-6

+.%26;13
o
9&212.
o 2@ Physical quantity with magnituue but no uiiection

2
2
K3&5-.
o 2@ Physical quantity with magnituue anu uiiection
9:338
o 2@ Bistancetime
K31-&%5#
o 2@ Bisplacementtime
+.26\$125%-621 (-5%-6F *LL (M9+ H*KI )NO9+*O+ *))ILIP*+QNO
o 2@ x = xo + vot + (.S)at
2

o A@ vf = vo + at
o &@ v
2
= vo
2
+ 2a%x
o 8@ vavg = (vo + v)2
K31-&%5#R *&&313.25%-6
o 2@ vavg = %u%t
o A@ Aavg = %v%t
!.-S3&5%13 (-5%-6
o 2@ veitical velocity, vy = vsin#
o A@ Boiizontal velocity, vx = vcos#
o &@ peak height: vosin# = sqit(2gh)
o 8@ Range = vtcos#
o 3@ As # incieases fiom u to 9u, the iange incieases to a maximum at
4S anu then uecieases
M6%<-./ &%.&012. /-5%-6F
o 2. Fc = mac = mv
2
i
o A@ Centiipetal foice points towaius the centei of the ciicle
ciicumsciibeu by the motion of the object
o &. Ac = v
2
i
).-\$\$ !.-80&5
o 2@ vpiouuct = v1v2sin#
o A@ The new vectoi will point peipenuiculaily to both of the oiiginal
two vectois, anu the magnituue of the new vectoi is the piouuct of the
magnituue of the oiiginal vectois times the sine of the angle between
them
K3&5-. )-/:-6365\$
o 2@ vx = vcos#
o A@ vy = vsin#
o &@ v = sqit(vx
2
+ vy
2
)
o 8@ tan# = vyvx
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,-.&3\$ 268 +-.J03
O3>5-6T\$ L2>\$ -< (-5%-6
o 2@ ,%.\$5F the law of ineitia; an object in a state of iest oi in a state of
motion will tenu to iemain in that state unless it is acteu upon by a net
foice

S
S
o A@ 93&-68: When an object is acteu upon by a net foice, the change in
that object's state of motion will be inveisely piopoitional to the mass
(m) anu uiiectly piopoitional to the net foice (F) acting on it.
o &@ +"%.8: Foi evei action theie is an equal anu opposite ieaction. The
thiiu law foices nevei act on the same system.
+-.J03 ,-.&3\$
o 2@ L1 = F1 x i1 (CCW + vE)
o A@ L2 = F2 x i2 (CW - vE)
o &@ Equilibiium: &fx,y = u
o 8@ Equilibiium: %L = u
o 3@ FLfoice = mgLweight
o <@ Toique = foice x levei aim
,-.&3
o 2@ F = ma
,-0. ,0682/36521 ,-.&3\$ %6 O250.3
o 2@ Stiong nucleai foice
o A@ Weak nucleai foice
o &@ uiavitational foice
o 8@ Electiomagnetic foice
! U@ Chaigeu object
! V@ Nagnetic object
,.%&5%-621 ,-.&3F
o 2@ F = N
o A@ s ' k (always)
W.2C%5#
o 2@ Foice: Fu = u(m1m2i
2
)
o A@ Potential eneigy (local): 0 = mgh
o &@ Potential eneigy (geneial): 0 = -(uNmi); i = aibitiaiy uistance
o 8@ Note: The giavitational foice eveiywheie insiue a unifoimly uense
spheie oi iing, uue to that spheie oi iing, is zeio, but any object
within that iing can still feel foices fiom othei iings
Q6&1%638 !1263\$F
o 2@ F = mgsin# (g + N)
o A@ F = mgcos# (N)
9:.%6; <-.&3=>-.?
o 2@ F = -kx
o A@ WP.E. = (.S)kx
2

o &@ T = 2! * sqit(mk)
!->3. B!D
o 2@ P = %W%t
o A@ Instantaneous P = Fvcos#
o &@ 0nits: Watts (W)

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E-.? 268 I63.;#

4
4
E-.? BED
o 2@ W = Fucos#
o A@ E X <8&-\$# X ;/8 X /;" X B@YD/C
V
X JC B6-6!K >-.?D
o &@ W = %K + %0 + %E(no heat)
o 8@ W = %K + %0(no heat, no fiiction)
o 3@ u = %K + %0(conseivative foices only; no heat)
o <@ %E = q + w
o ;@ 0nits = }
I63.;# &-6\$3.C25%-6
o 2@ Ef = Ep + Ek
o A@ E = mc
2
(mass uefect)
o &@ P.E. = mgh
o 8@ K.E. = (.S)mv
2

+"3./-8#62/%&\$
o 2@ Q = NC%t
o A@ Q = mL
W%AA\$ ,.33 I63.;#
o 2@ %u = %B - T%S
o A@ %u = -RTlnKeq B952682.8 \$5253 &-68%5%-6\$D
)-6\$3.C25%C3 <-.&3
o 2@ If the woik uone by the foice on an object moving fiom one point to
anothei uepenus only on the initial anu final positions anu is
inuepenuent of the paiticulai path taken
o A@ The net woik uone by the foice on an object moving aiounu any
closeu path is zeio
)-6\$3.C25%C3 ,-.&3\$
o 2@ uiavitational foice
o A@ Elastic spiing
o &@ Electiic foice
O-67&-6\$3.C25%C3 ,-.&3\$
o 2@ Fiictional foices
o A@ Aii iesistance
o &@ Tension
o 8@ Noimal foice
o 3@ Piopulsion of a motoi

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(-/3650/
(-/3650/ B:D
o 2@ p = mv
o A@ p = ft
o &@ Stopping foice ( Nomentum (mv)
o 8@ Notion change ( Ineitia (m)
o 3@ Rotational ineitia ( mass

S
S
o ;@ If two balls have the same mass anu iauius, but one is hollow anu
one is soliu, the hollow one will have gieatei iotational ineitia.
Q/:01\$3 BZD
o 2@ } = %p = %mv = F%t = Favg%t
I12\$5%& )-11%\$%-6\$
o 2@ P.E.i = P.E.f
o A@ K.E.i = K.E.f
o &@ Bouies uo not stick togethei
o 8@ Nomentum is conseiveu
o 3@ v1,f = |(m1 - m2)(m1 + m2)jvo
o <@ v2,f = |(2m1)(m1 + m2)jvo
o ;@ (m1v1a) + (m2v2a) = (m1v1b) + (m2v2b)
Q6312\$5%& )-11%\$%-6\$
o 2@ P.E.i = P.E.f
o A@ Kinetic eneigy is not conseiveu uue to theimal anu sounu
uissipation
o &@ Bouies stick togethei tempoiaiily, oi peimanently if completely
inelastic
o 8@ Nomentum is conseiveu
o 3@ vf = (m1v1,i + m2v2,i)(m1 + m2)
)3653. -< (2\$\$
o 2@ Single bouy: X = )miximtotal
o A@ Two bouies: X = (m1x1 + m2x2)(m1 + m2)

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,10%8\$
*%. P3\$%\$526&3
o 2@ Suiface aiea: laigei suiface aiea incieases aii iesistance because it
allows foi moie collisions with aii molecules; %6&.32\$3 <-.&3 -< 2%.
.3\$%\$526&3
o A@ Shape: Stieamlineu objects with smooth suifaces expeiience less
aii iesistance than iiiegulaily shapeu, iough objects; %6&.32\$3 <-.&3
-< 2%. .3\$%\$526&3
o &@ velocity: Incieaseu velocity = incieaseu aii iesistance. Special case:
because incieaseu velocity incieases aii iesistance, shooting a bullet
in the aii will expeiience an inciease in time on the way up (uue to aii
iesistance) that is gieatei than the inciease in time on the way uown
(uue to aii iesistance); %6&.32\$3 <-.&3 -< 2%. .3\$%\$526&3
o 8@ Nass: Boesn't change the foice of aii iesistance, but it uoes change
the path of the piojectile expeiiencing the aii iesistance; laigei
masses expeiience less ueceleiation uue to aii iesistance because
they aie less affecteu by the same foice of aii iesistance; 8-3\$ 6-5
%6&.32\$3 <-.&3 -< 2%. .3\$%\$526&3
)-65%60%5# -< <10%8\$
o 2@ volume flow iate (constant): Q = Av

6
6
! 1. v = velocity
o A@ Nass flow iate (constant): I = *Av
! 1. v = velocity
Q8321 <10%8\$
o 2@ No viscosity - a fluiu's tempoial iesistance to suifaces not
peipenuiculai to it's suiface
o A@ Incompiessible
o &@ No tuibulence; it expeiiences !"#\$%"&, oi steauy, flow. That is, all
fluiu flowing thiough any fixeu point will have the same velocity
o 8@ Iiiotational: no object floating in the fluiu will iotate about it's axis
as it flows, but will continue to point in one uiiection iegaiuless of
flow
o 3@ Flow iate is constant
o <@ Boesn't necessaiily go fiom high " low piessuie
G36\$%5#
o 2@ * = massvolume
o A@ *B20 = 1gcm
S
= 1u
S
kgm
S

o &@ 1um B20 = 1 atm
!.3\$\$0.3
o 2@ P = FoiceAiea
o A@ P = *g%y ("y" is 6-5 aibitiaiy but iathei the uistance below the
suiface of a fluiu)
o &@ %P = QR (Q = Av; R = iesistance to flow)
o 8@ uauge piessuie is aibitiaiy (check this one)
o 3@ Absolute piessuie: auu P atm to piessuie
9:3&%<%& W.2C%5#
o 2@ Su = *substance*B20
o A@ Su = fiaction of object that is submeigeu
[0-#265 ,-.&3
o 2@ FB = v*g = mg
o A@ FB = weight, not volume, of uisplaceu fluiu
o &@ The volume of the fluiu uisplaceu = the volume of the object
o 8@ Appaient weight = Actual weight - buoyant foice
o 3@ Appaient weight loss = buoyant foice
o <@ Appaient weight equation: (*objectvobjectg)Actual weight -
(*B20vB20g)buoyantfoice
o ;@ Stiategy:
! U@ The appaient weight loss is uue to the buoyant foice
! V@ The buoyant foice is equal to the weight of the fluiu
uisplaceu
! \@ The volume of the fluiu uisplaceu is equal to the volume of
the object
! ]@ (actual weightbuoyant foice aka appaient weight loss) x
(Su of fluiu) = Su of object
[3.6-011%T\$ !.%6&%:13 B^,10%8 %6 /-5%-6_D

7
7
o 2@ K = P + *gh + (.S)*v
2
("h" is an aibitiaiy uistance)
o A@ Nultiply by volume = units of eneigy
o &@ Biviue by specific weight = meteis
,10%8 %6 (-5%-6
o 2@ Ranuom Tianslational Notion: contiibutes to fluiu piessuie at iest
(think K.E. = S2R.T.)
o A@ 0nifoim Tianslational Notion: Shaieu by all molecules in a given
1-&25%-6R 6-5 5%/3R anu uoes 6-5 contiibute to piessuie anu uoes 6-5
contiibute to K.E. via S2R.T.
!-%\$30%113T\$ L2>
o 2@ Q = *!i
4
8+L (+ = viscosity)
o A@ 0seu foi ieal fluius, 6-5 iueal fluius

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9-1%8\$
L%632. I`:26\$%-6 B9-1%8\$R %5D
o 2@ L = Lo(1 + ,%t)
K-10/3 I`:26\$%-6 B9-1%8\$R %5D
o 2@ v = vo(1 + -%t)
o A@ - = S,
*.32 I`:26\$%-6 B9-1%8\$R %5D
o 2@ X = Xo(1 + .%t)
95.3\$\$
o 2@ Stiess = Foiceaiea
95.2%6
o 2@ Stiain = %uimensionoiiginal uimension
(-8010\$ -< I12\$5%&%5#
o 2@ N.o.E. = Stiessstiain
o A@ Young's Nouulus (E) = (FA)(%hho); tensile iesistance /!0
o &@ Sheei Nouulus (u) = (FA)(%xho); sheei iesistance 1!2
o 8@ Bulk Nouulus (B) = (%P)(%vvo); compiession ! oi expansion !

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E2C3\$ 268 !3.%-8%& (-5%-6
E2C3\$
o 2@ Tiansfei of momentum anu eneigy
o A@ Electiomagnetic, mattei anu mechanical waves, the last of which
iequiies a meuium to piopagate
o &@ Tiansveise: the meuium is uisplaceu peipenuiculaily to the
uiiection of wave piopagation (ex: wave on a stiing)
o 8@ Longituuinal: the meuium is uisplaceu paiallel to the uiiection of
wave piopagation (ex: sounu)
)-6\$5.0&5%C3 Q653.<3.36&3
o 2@ When two tiansveise waves occupy the same space anu the sum of
theii uisplacements iesults in a gieatei uisplacement

8
8
G3\$5.0&5%C3 Q653.<3.36&3
o 2@ When two tiansveise waves occupy the same space anu the sum of
theii uisplacements iesults in a smallei uisplacement
90.<2&3 B;.2C%5#D E2C3\$F 9"211-> E253.
o 2@ In shallow watei, velocity is ueteimineu by the meuium anu not the
chaiacteiistics of the wave (i.e. inuepenuent of wavelength)
o A@ v = sqit(gh)
90.<2&3 B;.2C%5#D E2C3\$F G33: E253.
o 2@ In ueep watei, suiface wave velocity is ueteimineu by the
piopeities of the wave
o A@ v = sqit(g"2!)
,.3J036&#
o 2@ v = "
o A@ T = 1 (time foi 1 wave)
o &@ = numbei of wavesunit time; measuieu in Beitz (Bz);
inuepenuent of amplituue
o 8@ " = length fiom one ciest (oi tiough) to the next ciest (oi tiough)
o 3@ v = inuepenuent of intensity anu amplituue (because fiequency is)
E2C3 Q6536\$%5# BQD
o 2@ Intensity: tiansfei of eneigy
o A@ Incieases piopoitionally with squaie of amplituue anu squaie of
fiequency foi all waves
o &@ I = P4!i
2

o 8@ 0nits: Wm
2
, but is measuieu in uB because it is moie closely
ielateu with the iange of human sounu peiception
K31-&%5# -< 9-068 E2C3\$ %6 W2\$
o 2@ The velocity of sounu waves in gas incieases piopoitionally with
tempeiatuie
o A@ Incieases inveisely piopoitionally with uensity
o &@ Nean squaie ioot of gas molecules is a limiting factois in the speeu
of sounu waves in a gas
K31-&%5# %\$ G%&52538 A# 5"3 (38%0/
o U@ Neuium's iesistance to change in shape (oi elasticity); velocity
incieases piopoitionally with Bulk Nouulus
o V@ Neuium's iesistance to change in motion (oi ineitia); velocity
inveisely piopoitional to uensity
o \@ v = (sqit)(T); T = tension; = mass pei unit length
o ]@ Length of stiing = uiiectly piopoitional to velocity anu wavelength
o Y@ Length of stiing = inveisely piopoitional to fiequency
o I`: Although watei is moie uense than aii (slows uown waves), it has
a much highei Bulk Nouulus (not compiesseu as easily) anu thus
piopagates waves fastei than aii
K31-&%5# %\$ ON+ 8%&52538 A#F
o 2@ %" oi % in a nonuispeisive meuium; v iemains unchangeu

9
9
o A@ The speeu of the souice, i.e. sounu waves coming fiom a moving jet
engine aie the same speeu as my voice
E2C3\$ 268 )"26;%6; (38%0/\$
o 2@ When a wave tiansfeis fiom one meuium to anothei, the
>2C3136;5"R " changes anu the <.3J036&#R stays the same, meaning
the velocity of the wave can inciease oi ueciease
o A@ 0piight Reflection: wave hits a lightei meuium anu is ieflecteu back
the same way ("above the line")
o &@ Inveise Reflection: wave hits a heaviei meuium anu is ieflecteu
back the same way but ieveise ("upsiue uown" oi "below the line")
o 8. Refiaction: change in velocity (speeu "%' uiiection.) uue to a
tiansfei to a new meuium
o 3@ Reflection: is a change in uiiection aftei iebounuing with a new
o meuium
+.26\$<3..%6; 5- G36\$3. (38%2
o U@ Light benus towaius the noimal
95268%6; E2C3 BO-83\$ a *65%6-83\$D
o 2@ Noues: Bon't move when two equal waves tiaveling in opposite
uiiections colliue
o A@ Antinoues: Bo move when two equal waves tiaveling in opposite
uiiections colliues
9%/:13 H2./-6%& (-5%-6F O-83\$
o 2@ L = N"n2, (N = 1, 2, S.)
o A@ Foi pipes open at A-5" enus oi closeu at A-5" enus, oi foi stiings
tieu at A-5" enus oi loose at A-5" enus; wheie eveiy enu is acting as a
6-83
o &@ The uiffeience between any two consecutive fiequencies must be
equal to the fiist fiequency
9%/:13 H2./-6%& (-5%-6F *65%6-83\$
o 2@ L = N"n4, (N = 1, S, S.)
o A@ Foi pipes open at -61# -63 enu oi closeu at -61# -63 enu, oi foi
stiings tieu at -61# -63 enu oi loose at -61# -63 enu; wheie eveiy
enu is acting as an 265%6-83
o &@ The uiffeience between fiequencies: the 2
nu
, 4
th
, etc haimonics
uon't exist, so you just auu the fiist one twice (see pioblem 712)
9%/:13 H2./-6%& (-5%-6F *&&313.25%-6
o 2@ Acceleiation is uiiectly piopoitional to the uisplacement of the
system A05 opposite in sign
o A@ Acceleiation 268 uisplacement aie uiiectly piopoitional to the
squaie of the fiequency
o &@ Acceleiation: at any uistance is the piouuct of the uisplacement anu
squaie of the fiequency; *&&313.25%-6 X %`b
V

o 8@ Acceleiation, peiiou, anu fiequency (all ielateu) aie inuepenuent of
mass
9%/:13 H2./-6%& (-5%-6F !3.%-8

1u
1u
o 2@ Explanation (T = peiiou; t = tension)
! U@ v = "
! V@ = v"
! \@ T = 1
! ]@ T = "v
! Y@ v = sqit*(t)
! c@ 1 = T 1; = T 2; t1 = T2; t2 = T1
o A@ All peiious of SBN = uiiectly piopoitional to squaie ioot of an
ineitial component, e.g. mass oi
o &@ All peiious of SBN = inveisely piopoitional to squaie ioot of an
elastic component, e.g. k, spiing constant oi t, tension
!368010/\$
o 2@ Peiiou is inuepenuent of mass
A@ Peiiou is inuepenuent of #
&@ T = 2! * sqit(Lg)
!%5&"
o 2@ Aveiage of two fiequencies
[325\$
o 2@ Two waves of slightly uiffeient fiequencies aie supeiimposeu; at
one time constiuctive inteifeience, at anothei time uestiuctive
inteifeience
o A@ Besciibes a change in intensity
o &@ Peiiou (T): the change in time between maximum intensities
o 8@ Beats = \$%\$
G3&%A31\$
o 2@ uB = 1ulog1u(IIo)
o A@ Becibels iepiesent a iatio anu uo not have SI units
o &@ Factoi 1u inciease in wave intensity is uetecteu by human eai as
+1uuB inciease, e.g. SuW (1uuB) " SuuW (2uuB) " SuuuW (SuuB)
o 8@ 0i, intensity can be changeu by the squaie of iauius because of I =
P4!i
2

o 3@ That is, if iauius goes up by a factoi of S, then powei goes uown by a
factoi of ~1u anu thus uB ueciease by ~1u
G-::13. I<<3&5F 9-068
o 2@ o = s (v vo)(v vs)
! Bistance 2: +vo anu -vs
! Bistance 1: -vo anu +vs
o A@ Inuepenuent of the wavelength of the wave; that is, long anu shoit
wavelengths aie affecteu iuentically
o &@ 0se this equation when factoiing in winu:
G-::13. I<<3&5F 9-068 B\$%/:1%<%38D
o 2@ (%s) = (vc); % = \$o - s\$
o A@ (%""s) = (vc); " = \$"o - "s\$
o &@ Note: "c" = velocity of wave is piobably, but not necessaiily:
! U@ L%;"5: equal to the speeu of light, S x1u
8
ms

11
11
! V@ 9-068F equal to the speeu of sounu, S4u ms
o 8@ "c" must be much gieatei than the velocity of the obseivei anu
souice foi the above equations to woik.
o 3@ Effect on light:
! Noving closei = appeais blue
! Noving away = appeais ieu
o <@ The souice moving towaius the obseivei at velocity v will cieate a
gieatei incieaseu fiequency in the obseiveu sounu than the obseivei
moving towaius the souice at velocity v; see question 7Su
G-::13. I<<3&5F L%;"5
o 2@ ' = (1 uc)
! U@ u = ielative speeu
! V@ ' = obseiveu fiequency
o A@ "'" = 1|1- (uc)j
G-::13. I<<3&5F L%;"5 C\$@ 9-068
o 2@ Sounu: iequiies a meuium
o A@ Light: uoes not iequiie a meuium
o &@ Sounu: obseivei moving towaius a souice expeiiences an inciease
in sounu; obseivei expeiiences no change in sounu if souice moves
towaiu him
o 8@ Light: Inuepenuent of the souice anu obseivei

777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
I13&5.-\$525%&\$ 268 (2;635%\$/
I13&5.%& ,%318R I
o 2@ Electiostatic foice pei unit chaige
o A@ 0nits: NC oi vm
I13&5.%& ,%318F L%63\$
o 2@ Lines of foice point in the uiiection of the fielu, oiiginating at
positives anu teiminating on negatives
o A@ Closely spaceu = stiong fielu
o &@ Lines can nevei inteisect
o 8@ Equipotential suifaces iepiesent the same voltage
I13&5.%& ,%318F I13&5.%& G%:-13\$
o 2@ Cieateu by two opposite chaiges with equal magnituues
o A@ Points in the opposite uiiection of the electiic fielu
o &@ Electiic Bipole Noment: p = qu
o 8@ Net foice insiue a capacitoi = u
I13&5.%& ,%318\$F G03 5- 2 !-%65 )"2.;3d Q5T\$ ;.280211# 8%\$\$%:25%6;R 1%?3 5"3
"325 <.-/ 2 &2/: <%.3 %6 2 <%318
o BUF ID ! 25 2 G%\$526&3 "
! 2@ E = k(qi
2
)
! A@ 0nits: NC oi vm
! &@ The cieateu electiic fielu is conseivative (unlike moving
magnetic fielu-ueiiveu electiic fielus)

12
12
! 8@ Neaiby chaige = lines woulu be uiveiging
! 3@ Bistance chaige = lines neaily paiallel
o BVF ,D ,-.&3R B)-01-/AT\$ L2>D
! 2@ F = k(q1q2i
2
)
! A@ The attiaction oi iepulsion between two paiticles
! &@ 0nits = N
o B\F KD !-%65 )"2.;3F I13&5.%& !-5365%21 e<-. >-.?f
! 2@ v = k(qi)
! A@ 0nits = v
o B]F MD !-%65 )"2.;3F I13&5.%&21 !-5365%21 I63.;# BMD
! 2@ 0 = k(q1q1i) = %woik = (%P.E) = %K.E.
! A@ 0nits = }
Q6 )-6\$5265 I13&5.%& ,%318\$d Q5T\$ 2 \$35 5"%6; A35>336 5>- :-%65\$R 1%?3 2
"325%6; A126?35
o BUD 9:3&%21 )2\$3F Q< 2 &"2.;3 %\$ \$"-5 0: <.-/ 26 313&5.%& <%318 268
2&&313.253\$ A2&? 8->6
! 2@ v = sqit(2Eqhm)
! A@ Bownwaiu acceleiation = Eqm
o BVF ,D ,-.&3 N6 2 )"2.;3
! 2@ F = qE
! A@ 0nits: N
o B\F KD I13&5.%& !-5365%21 e,-. >-.?f
! 2@ v = Eucos# (PPC; u = uistance between plates)
! A@ 0nits: v
o B]F MD I13&5.%&21 !-5365%21 I63.;#
! 2@ 0 = qEu = woik
! A@ 0 = qv
! A@ 0nits: }
I13&5.%& ,%318\$F G%\$50.A26&3 %6 26 I13&5.-/2;635%& ,%318
o 2@ u = vt (v = speeu of light)
I13&5.%& ,%318\$F !-%65 )"2.;3 268 (2;635%\$/
o 2@ A stationaiy point chaige uoes not cieate a magnetic fielu
o A@ A stationaiy point chaige uoes cieate a conseivative electiic fielu
I13&5.%& C\$@ (2;635%&
o 2@ Electiic fielu's uo not exist within the mateiial but oiiginate anu
teiminate on its' suiface
o A@ Nagnetic fielus nevei teiminate anu thus peimeate, anu exist in, the
mateiial
(2;635%& ,%318
o 2@ Changing a magnetic fielu cieates a nonconseivative electiic fielu
o A@ Constant magnetic fielu = no electiic fielu
(2;635%& ,%318\$F ).325%6; I13&5.%& ,%318\$ A# )"26;%6;F
o 2@ Stiength of magnetic fielu
o A@ Biiection, iathei than magnituue, of magnetic fielu
o &@ 0iientation of a coil in a constant magnetic fielu

1S
1S
o 8@ Cioss-sectional aiea of the coil
(2;635%& ,%318F G%.3&5%-6
o 2@ Runs fiom magnetic noith (geogiaphic south) to magnetic south
(geogiaphic noith)
(2;635%& ,%318F P%;"5 H268 P013 <-. (2;635%& \$%"&'
o 2@ Right Banu Rule: Put iight siue of palm in the uiiection of cuiient,
benu fingeis towaius magnetic fielu, anu keep thumb stiaight up foi
foice
o A@

o &@ Biiection of Nagnetic Fielu:
! U. The uiiection oui fingeis aie wiappeu
! 2. Is a wiue iange of angles
! S. 0nlike magnetic fielu aiounu a wiie, which has to be
peipenuiculai
o 8. Biiection of Foice:
! U. The uiiection of oui thumb, because foice is uiiectly
peipenuiculai to both cuiient anu magnetic fielu
! V. A negative chaige moving in the \$2/3 uiiection will have
foice, A05 6-5"%6; 31\$3, face the opposite uiiection of oui
thumb
! \. A chaigeu paiticle moving paiallel to magnetic fielu lines
expeiiences no foice; 5"0\$F 6- 2&&313.25%-6 268 5"3 C31-&%5#
%\$ &-6\$5265
! ]. No woik is evei uone, only centiipetal foice
(2;635%& ,%318F P%;"5 H268 P013 <-. (2;635%& \$(')*
o 2@ Right Banu Rule: uiab wiie with thumb in uiiection of cuiient, anu
fingeis wiappeu aiounu the wiie

14
14
o A@
o &@ Biiection of Nagnetic Fielu:
! U. The uiiection oui fingeis aie wiappeu
! V@ Q\$ :3.:368%&012.
! \@ M61%?3 /2;635%& <%318 %6 -:36 \$:2&3R >"3.3 %5 &26 A3 2
>%83 .26;3 -< 26;13\$
o 8. Biiection of Foice:
! U. The uiiection of oui palm, because foice is uiiectly
peipenuiculai to both velocity anu magnetic fielu
! V. A negative chaige moving in the same uiiection will have
foice, A05 6-5"%6; 31\$3, face the opposite uiiection of oui palm
! \. A chaigeu paiticle moving paiallel to magnetic fielu lines
expeiiences no foice; 5"0\$F 6- 2&&313.25%-6 268 5"3 C31-&%5#
%\$ &-6\$5265
! ]. No woik is evei uone, only centiipetal foice
(2;635%& ,%318F (2;635%& ,10` X ,-.&3 N6 2 )"2.;3 B+3./\$D
o U@ F = Foice = uiiectly peipenuiculai to velocity anu magnetic fielu;
thus, it uoes no woik (W = Fucos#) anu only acts as centiipetal foice
o V@ # = Angle = angle between the wiie anu the magnetic <%318, 6-5
magnetic <-.&3
o \@ q = Chaige
o ]@ v = velocity 6-5 voltage
o Y@ B = magnetic fielu
o c@ L = length of the wiie
(2;635%& ,%318F (2;635%& ,10` X ,-.&3 N6 2 )"2.;3
o 2@ F = \$q\$vB = m*v
2
i = path of the paiticle
o A@ F = \$q\$vBsin#
o &@ F = iLBsin#
(2;635%& ,%318F g3.- O35 ,-.&3 (-C3/365
o 2@ A paiticle can move thiough an electiic fielu anu a magnetic fielu
with zeio net foice.

1S
1S
o A@ Foice uue to Electiic Fielu: F = qE
o &. Foice uue to Nagnetic Fielu: F = qvB
o 8. Zeio Net Foice Novement: v = EB
(2;635%& ,%318F )%.&012. (-5%-6
o 2@ Centiipetal foice: Fc = mv
2
i
o A@ Set equal to magnetic fielu foice: mv
2
i = \$q\$vB
o &@ Rauius of ciiculai oibit: i = mv\$q\$B
o 8@ Implications of iauius:
! U@ Incieases uiiectly piopoitionally with BUD velocity anu BVD
mass
! V@ Incieases inveisely piopoitionally with BUD chaige of the
paiticle anu BVD stiength of the magnetic fielu
(2;635%& ,%318F )%.&012. (-5%-6 !3.%-8
o 2@ T = 2!i\$q\$B
(2;635%& ,%318F */:3.3T\$ L2>
o 2@ Relates the magnetic fielu along a closeu path to the electiic cuiient
encloseu by the path
o A@ Calculateu: )BII%L = uIencloseu
! U@ BII = Paiallel magnetic fielu
! V@ %L = stiaight line segments of path
! \@ u = peimeability of fiee space
(2;635%& ,%318\$F L-6; E%.3\$
o 2@ Nagnetic fielu stiength uecieases inveisely with the uistance fiom
the wiie foi long wiies
o A@ If cuiient uoubles, the magnetic fielu uoubles
o &@ If the uistance fiom the wiie uoubles, the magnetic fielu halves
o 8@ B = uI2!i
o 3@ 0nits: Tesla, T
(2;635%& ,%318\$F 9"-.5 E%.3\$
o A@ Shoit wiies: magnetic fielu stiength uecieases inveisely with the
squaie of the uistance fiom the wiie
(2;635%& ,%318F ,-.&3 N6 2 )0..3657)2..#%6; E%.3
o 2@ F = iLBsin#
(2;635%& ,%318F ,-.&3 N6 2 )0..3657)2..#%6; E%.3 eG3.%C38f
o 2@ Biift speeu of electionsF
! U@ velection = L%t
! V@ %t = Lv
o A@ Amount of chaige that flows thiough the wiie in this time
! U@ q = I%t = ILv
o &@ Thus:
! U@ F = qvBsin# = (ILv)vB sin#
! V@ Cancel v
(2;635%& ,%318F ,-.&3\$ [35>336 )0..3657)2..#%6; E%.3\$
o 2@ F = I2LB = I2L(uI12!u)
o A@ F = (u I1I22!u)L

16
16
o &@ Foice is towaius the othei wiie
o 8@ Wiies with paiallel cuiients attiact one anothei anu vice veisa
(2;635%& ,%318F (2;635%& ,%318 !.-80&38 A# 2 )%.&012. L--: -< P28%0\$ +
268 -< , +0.6\$
o 2@ B = NuI2R
o A@ B = uiiectly piopoitional to the cuiient in the loop
o &@ B = inveisely piopoitional to the iauius of the loop
o 8@ Attiaction: loops with iuentical cuiients
o 3@ Repulsion: loops with opposite cuiients
(2;635%& ,%318F +-.J03 I`3.538 -6 2 P3&526;012. L--: -< *.32 *
o 2@ 3 = IABsin#
o A@ # = angle between the plane of the loop anu the magnetic foice, 6-5
magnetic fielu, exeiteu on each siue of the loop
o &@ # = angle between the noimal anu the magnetic fielu, 6-5 the
magnetic foice
o 8@ # = max when magnetic fielu is paiallel, zeio when peipenuiculai,
to plane of the loop
o 3@ 0nits: }oule = N*m
(2;635%& ,%318F +-.J03 I`3.538 -6 2 W363.21 L--: -< *.32 * 268 ,
+0.6\$
o 2@ 3 = (IABsin#
o A@ 0nits: }oule = N*m
(2;635%& ,%318F (2;635%& (-/365
o 2@ Nagnetic moment = NIA
o A@ 0nits: A*m
2
= piopoitional to the amount of toique a given loop can
exeit
(2;635%& ,%318F (2;635%& ,%318 -< 2 9-136-%8
o 2@ B = u(NL)I = u%I
o A@ % = NL
o &@ B = inuepenuent of cioss-sectional aiea
o 8@ 0nit: Tesla, T
(2;635%& ,%318F L364T\$ L2>
o 2@ The cuiient will flow in a loop of wiie to oppose the changes in
magnetic fielu insiue the loop (see Lectuie 7 pioblem 167).
o A@ That is, an inuuceu cuiient always flow in a uiiection that )**)+,+
the change that causeu it
o &@ The magnetic flux equivalent of Le Chateliei's Piinciple
(2;635%& ,%318F L2:12&3T\$ L2>
o 2@ uvq(Bsin#) = IuL(Bsin#)
o A@ RB iule

777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
I13&5.-6%& )%.&0%5\$
+#:3\$ -< 950<<
o U@ )%.&0%5

17
17
! 2@ Cyclical pathway foi moving chaige
o V@ )-680&5-.
! 2@ Allow elections to move fieely
o \@ P3\$%\$5-.
! 2@ Tiy to holu elections in place
o ]@ [2553.#
! 2@ Auus eneigy to a ciicuit by incieasing the voltage fiom one
point to anothei
o Y@ )2:2&%5-.
! 2@ 0seu to tempoiaiily stoie eneigy in a ciicuit
o c@ 9#/A-1\$
! 2@
)%.&0%5
o 2@ Cyclical pathway foi moving chaige
o A@ Conuucts cuiient
o &@ Because it moves chaige, it cieates a magnetic fielu
G.%<5 K31-&%5#
o 2@ When cuiient goes thiough a wiie, all fiee elections '&\$-. in the
opposite uiiection with a velocity of ~ 1u
-S
cms
o A@ In a conuuctoi, election movement is similai to gas molecules in
aii.
[2553.#
o 2@ Auus eneigy to a ciicuit by incieasing the voltage fiom one point to
anothei
o A@ Real batteiies have inteinal iesistance (piobably not on the NCAT)
o &@ To account foi inteinal iesistance, uiaw a batteiy anu put a iesistoi
of equal iesistance behinu oi in fiont of it
o 8@ Inteinal iesistance is piopoitional to cuiient
h%.&""-<<T\$ ,%.\$5 L2>
o 2@ Fiist: The amount of chaige flowing into a noue (an inteisection of
wiies) must be the same amount that is flowing out
o A@ &i = u (at a noue)
h%.&""-<<T\$ 93&-68 L2>
o 2@ Seconu: the voltage aiounu any path in a ciicuit must sum to zeio
o A@ The voltage between two points in a ciicuit is inuepenuent of the
path chosen to measuie it
o &@ &%v = u (in a ciicuit)
)0..365F G%.3&5 )0..365 BG)D )%.&0%5\$
o 2@ Elections moving in one uiiection
)0..365F P(9 C-152;3 268 &0..365 B*) &%.&0%5\$DF

18
18
o 2@ Election's oscillating back anu foith in simple haimonic motion anu
5"0\$ "2\$ 2 \$%63 >2C3.
o 2@ Iims = Imaxsqit(2) -. Imax = sqit(2)*Iims
o A@ vims = vmaxsqit(2) -. vmax = sqit(2)*vims
o &@ Remembei: 'ims' voltage in 0S = 12u volts = 17u volt maximum
)0..365
o 2@ i = Qt
o A@ Cuiient = moving chaige (thus cieates a magnetic fielu)
o &@ Causeu by the flow of elections anu flows in the uiiection of positive
chaige (opposite of elections)
o 8@ 0nits: Amps (A) = Cs
)-680&5-.
o 2@ Allow elections to move fieely
o A@ Ex: metals
P3\$%\$5-.
o 2@ Tiy to holu elections in place
o A@ Ex: netwoikeu solius, e.g. uiamonu anu glass
o &@ Note: as cuiient goes thiough a iesistoi, heat is
geneiateuuissipateu
P3\$%\$5%C%5# B*D
o 2@ Resistance to the flow of chaige
o A@ * = 4*m
o &@ Resistivity of a wiie incieases piopoitionally with the tempeiatuie
P3\$%\$526&3 BPD
o 2@ Quantitative measuiement of the iesistivity (*) of an object of
paiticulai size anu shape.
o A@ 0nits: ohms, 4
P3\$%\$526&3 -< 2 E%.3
o 2@ R = *lA
P3\$%\$526&3F I13&5.%& !->3.
o 2@ P = iv
o A@ P = i
2
R
o &@ P = v
2
R
o 8@ P = %Qv%t
P3\$%\$526&3F N"/T\$ L2>
o 2@ v = iR (cuiient x iesistance)
o A@ voltage, v = Electiomotive Foice (ENF)
P3\$%\$5-.\$ %6 93.%3\$
o 2@ Req = R1 + R2 + RS .
o A@
o &@ Components lineu up in a iow anuoi any two components not
sepaiateu by a noue

19
19
o u. The iesistoi in seiies with the lowest iesistance will have the
smallest powei
o e. 0sually, iesistois in seiies will geneiate less powei than iesistois in
paiallel
P3\$%\$5-.\$ %6 !2.21131
o 2@ 1Req = 1R1 + 1R2 + 1RS .
o A@
o &@ Single components aie sepaiateu by a noue anu take alteinate paths
connecting them to the same noue
o u. Auuing moie iesistois in paiallel uecieases iesistance; because of v
= iR, anu v is not changing, i will inciease (anu so will powei)
o e. Resistois in paiallel will all expeiience the \$2/3 C-152;3 8.-:
(pioblem 817)
o <@ The iesistoi with the lowest iesistance will have the gieatest
cuiient, i.e. cuiient flows in the path of least iesistance, anu thus the
gieatest powei
o ;@ 0sually, iesistois in paiallel will geneiate moie powei than
iesistois in seiies
P3\$%\$5-.\$F !2.21131 C\$@ 93.%3\$
o U@ K-152;3 G.-:F
! 2@ Seiies = piopoitional
! A@ Paiallel = equal
o V@ )0..365
! 2@ Seiies = equal
! A@ Paiallel = piopoitional
)2:2&%5-.
o 2@ 0seu to tempoiaiily stoie eneigy in a ciicuit
o A@ It stoies it in the foim of sepaiateu chaige
o &@ Cuiient only flows thiough the capacitoi when it is chaiging oi
uischaiging
)2:2&%526&3
o 2@ The ability to stoie chaige pei unit voltage, i.e. something with high
capacity can stoie a lot of chaige at low voltage
o A@ C = Qv
o &@ C = capacitance; v = voltage; Q = chaige
)2:2&%5-.\$ %6 93.%3\$
o 2@ 1Ceq = 1C1 + 1C2 + 1CS .
)2:2&%5-.\$ %6 !2.21131
o 2@ Ceq = C1 + C2 + CS .
)2:2&%5-.F I13&5.%&21 I63.;# 95-.38
o 2@ WP.E. = (.S)Qv
o A@ WP.E. = (.S)Cv
2

2u
2u
o &@ WP.E. = (u.S)Q
2
C
)2:2&%5-.F W.2:" -< )"2.;%6; 268 G%\$&"2.;%6; 2 )2:2&%5-.
o 2@
! U@ O-53: the above giaph is immeuiately aftei the switch is
open oi closeu anu iepiesents C-152;3 C\$@ 5%/3
! V@ O-53: a voltage vs. chaige is a lineai inciease
o A@ If it is in the uiiection of the cuiient, as voltage acioss the capacitoi
incieases, voltage acioss the iesistoi uecieases, loweiing the cuiient.
!2.21131 !1253 )2:2&%5-.F K-152;3
o 2@ v = Eu
o A@ voltage = uiiectly piopoitional to uistance
!2.21131 !1253 )2:2&%5-.F )2:2&%526&3
o 2@ C = KA5o u (K = uielectiic constant 6 Coulomb's constant)
o A@ Capacitance = inveisely piopoitional to uistance
o &@ Capacitance = uiiectly piopoitional to aiea
!2.21131 !1253 )2:2&%5-.F I13&5.%& ,%318
o 2@ E = (1QA5o)
!2.21131 !1253 )2:2&%5-.F G%313&5.%& )-6\$5265R h
o 2@ Refeis to the substance between the plates of a capacitoi
o A@ Insulatoi = iesists flow = builus up chaige = anu thus capacitance
on each plate
o &@ Resists (to a uegiee) = the cieation of an electiic fielu
o 8@ Resists (to a uegiee) = the cieation of voltage
!.-&3\$\$
o 2@ )0..365F Finu effective iesistance " uiviue into volts " total
cuiient " bieak uown into inuiviuual iesistois foi inuiviuual cuiient
" must be conseiveu
o A@ K-152;3F take initial voltage " bieak uown foi each iesistoi "
must be zeio at full loop

21
21
o &@

Q680&38 I(,F (2;635%& ,10`
o 2@ 7 = BAcos#
o A@ 7 Nax = B = peipenuiculai to suiface
o &@ 7 zeio = B = paiallel to suiface
o 8@ 0nit: 1 Wb
Q680&38 I(,F ,2.282#T\$ L2> -< Q680&5%-6
o 2@ 5 = -N%7b%t = -N(7final - 7initial )(tfinal - tinitial)
o A@ Negative sign = inuuceu emf opposeu magnetic flux
o &@ That is, the inuuceu electiic fielu uue to a moving magnetic fielu is
uue to flux
o 8@ Inuuceu electiic fielu is uiiectly piopoitional to the &"., of change
of flux
o 3@ Pioblem 88u: a bai moves at constant velocity, thus the aiea of the
loop incieases at a constant iate, anu thus flux incieases at a constant
iate, thus cuiient is constant with time.
Q680&38 I(,F ,2.282#T\$ L2> -< Q680&5%-6F (2;6%5083 -< Q680&38 I(,
o 2@ \$5\$ = \$-N%7%t \$ = \$-N(7final - 7initial )(tfinal - tinitial)\$
Q680&38 I(,F (-5%-621 I(, iP-8 (-C%6; *1-6; 2 )%.&0%5 +".-0;" 2
(2;635%& ,%318
o ).32538 I(,
! 2@ \$5\$ = N\$%7%t \$ = Bvl%t%t = Bvl
! A@ Because: %7 = B%A = Bvl%t
o ).32538 I13&5.%& ,%318
! 2@ 5 = Bv

22
22
! A@ Because: 5 = Bvl
! &@ Remembei: v = El
! 8@ Set equal to each othei foi (a)
o ).32538 )0..365
! 2@ I X \$5\$R = BvlR
o (2;635%& ,-.&3
! 2@ F X IlB = (BvLR)(l)(B) = B
2
vl
2
R
o (3&"26%&21 !->3.
! 2@ Pmechanical = Fv = (B
2
vl
2
R)v = B
2
v
2
l
2
R
o I13&5.%&21 !->3.
! 2@ Pelectiical = I
2
R = (BvlR)R = B
2
v
2
l
2
R
! A@ Iuentical to mechanical
Q680&38 I(,F I(, !.-80&38 A# 2 P-525%6; )-%1 B*153.625%6; )0..365D
o 2@ 5 = NBA8sin8t
Q680&38 I(,F G3<%6%5%-6 -< Q680&526&3R -
o 2@ L = N\$%7%I \$
o A@ Beiiveu fiom:\$5\$ = N\$%7%t \$ = L\$%I%t \$
o &@ 0nit: 1 Beniy, B
Q680&38 I(,F Q680&526&3 -< 2 9-136-%8
o 2@ L = u(N
2
l)A = u%
2
Al
o A@ Remembei:
! U@ L = inuuctance
! V@ l = length
! \@ % = Nl
o &@ Bouble tuins = quauiuple inuuctance
o 8@ Inuuctance piopoitional to volume, v = Al
Q680&38 I(,F )"2.2&53.%\$5%& +%/3 <-. 26 PL )%.&0%5
o 2@ 3 = LR
Q680&38 I(,F )0..365 <-. 26 PL )%.&0%5
o 2@ I = (5R)(1 - e
-tRL
)
I63.;# 95-.38 %6 2 (2;635%& ,%318F
o I(, P3J0%.38 5- Q6&.32\$3 5"3 )0..365 %6 26 Q680&5-.
! 2@ 5 = L(%I%t) = LIT
o *C3.2;3 !->3.
! 2@ Pav = (.S)(I5) = (.S)LI
2
T
o I63.;# 95-.3\$ %6 26 Q680&5-.
! 2@ 0 = (u.S)(LI
2
)
! A@ 0nit: }oule, }
! &@ Note: similaiity to eneigy stoieu in a capacitoi, 0 =
(.S)(C)(v
2
)
o (2;635%& I63.;# !3. K-10/3 BG36\$%5#D
! 2@ 0B = Nagnetic eneigyvolume = B
2
2u
+.26\$<-./3.\$F K-152;3 P3125%-6
o 2@ vpvs = NpNs
+.26\$<-./3.\$F )0..365 268 K-152;3 P3125%-6

2S
2S
o 2@ IsIp = vpvs = NpNs
+.26\$<-./3.\$F 90//2.#
o 2@ If a tiansfoimei incieases voltage by X, it uecieases cuiient by X

7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F I13&5.%& ,%318 95.36;5" )-6\$5265F 5
o

o 2@ 5o
o A@ 8.9 x1u
-12
C
2
*Nm
2

I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F (2;635%& ,%318 95.36;5" )-6\$5265F
u

o 2@ u = 4! x 1u
-7
T*mA
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F I13&5.%& ,%318 I63.;# G36\$%5#
o 2@ 0E = (u.S)5oE
2

I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F (2;635%& ,%318 I63.;# G36\$%5#
o 2@ 0B = (u.S)B
2
u
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3 I63.;# G36\$%5#
o 2@ 0 = 0B + 0E = (u.S)5oE
2
+ (u.S)B
2
u
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3 ./'"01' I63.;# G36\$%5#
o 2@ 01av = (u.S)5oE
2
RNS
o A@ 02av = B
2
RNS2u
o &@ 0av = 01av + 02av
o 8@ Because sinusoiually behaving waves have an aveiage of zeio, you
have to use RNS velocities
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F P(9 950<<
o 2@ Eims = Emaxsqit(2) -. Emax = sqit(2)*Eims
o A@ Bims = Bmaxsqit(2) -. Bmax = sqit(2)*Bims
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F Q6536\$%5#
o 2@ I = B
2
(c2u) + (u.S)c5oE
2

o A@ Iavg = c5oE
2
RNS
o &@ Iavg = cB
2
RNSu
o &@ Iavg = Poweiavg Aiea
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F (-/3650/
o 2@ p = 0c
o A@ 0 = total eneigy absoibeu = (aveiage electiomagnetic wave
eneigy)(aiea)(speeu of light)(time elapseu) = (0av)(A)(c)%t)
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F P28%25%-6 !.3\$\$0.3
o 2@ Piessuieavg = Iavgc
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F +.26\$/%5538 Q6536\$%5# <-. 2 2%)0"(3'* [32/
^L2> -< (210\$_
o 2@ I = Iocos
2
#
o A@ # = u; intensity unchangeu
o &@ # = 9u; intensity is zeio

24
24
o 8@ The tiansmitteu beam of light is no longei polaiizeu in its oiiginal
uiiection; it is now polaiizeu in the uiiection of the polaiizei
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3\$F +.26\$/%5538 Q6536\$%5# <-. 2 456%)0"(3'* [32/
o 2@ I = (u.S)Io
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
L%;"5 268 W3-/35.%&21 N:5%&\$
L%;"5
o 2@ c = "
o A@ " = hmv
o &@ c = 1sqit(u5o)
o 8@ c = EB
!"-5-6
o 2@ Repiesents one electiomagnetic wave
I13&5.-/2;635%& E2C3 P28%25%-6
o 2@ Acceleiateu chaiges iauiate electiomagnetic waves
I63.;# -< -63 !"-5-6
o 2@ E = h = joules
o A@ E = 124u" (in nanometeis) = ev
o &@ The eneigy of light is uepenuent on fiequency because B is constant
o 8@ In the case of a photon, if the -&,30,%45 is incieaseu by a factoi of
.6), the ,%,&75 is incieaseu by a factoi of .6), because of E = h
Q6536\$%5# -< 2 9%/:13 H2./-6%& E2C3
o 2@ I = (.S)*8
2
A
2
v
o A@ In the case of a simple haimonic wave, if the -&,30,%45 incieases by
a factoi of .6)8 the \$%.,%+\$.5 ( 9 ,%,&75) of light incieases by a factoi of
-)0&
o &@ If two waves aie a half a wavelength (18u) out of phase,
uestiuctive inteifeience causes = u Intensity
o 8@ If two waves aie peifectly in phase = constiuctive inteifeience = 4x
Intensity because the "#*!\$.0', uoubles (see bullet A)
o 3@ Pioblem 9S2 - what.
)-1-.
o 2@ The coloi of an object is the coloi (wavelength) of light it ieflects
G021 O250.3 -< L%;"5
o 2@ Acts as both a paiticle anu wave
E2C3 O250.3 )"2.2&53.%\$5%&\$
o 2@ Biffiaction
o A@ Bispeision
o &@ Inteifeience
o 8@ Refiaction
o 3@ Polaiization
!2.5%&13 O250.3 )"2.2&53.%\$5%&\$
o 2@ Photon's uisplacing elections fiom metal (.)
[-5" !2.5%&13 268 E2C3
o 2@ Reflection

2S
2S
Q\$-5.-:%& L%;"5
o 2@ Light emanating fiom a point souice in all uiiections
!12637:-12.%438 L%;"5
o 2@ 0nly one paiticulai electiomagnetic fielu
o A@ PPL light has one half the intensity of isotiopic light
P3<.2&5%-6
o 2@ Sin#1Sin#2 = v1v2 = N2N1 = "1"2
P3<.2&5%-6F E2C3136;5"
o 2@ Light with longei wavelengths (slowei fiequencies) move fastei
anu :,%' !,++ uiamatically, with a 7&,".,& "%7!,, at the new meuia
inteiface
o A@ Light with shoitei wavelengths (fastei fiequencies) move slowei
anu benu moie uiamatically, with a smallei "%7!,, at the new meuia
inteiface
o &@ Pioblem 9S4
Q683` -< P3<.2&5%-6
o 2@ n = cv
o A@ The highei the inuex of iefiaction is foi a new (the one the wave is
enteiing) meuium, aftei iefiaction the wavelength becomes shoitei,
anu because the fiequency iemains the same, the speeu of light
uecieases, anu vice veisa.
o &@ Light benus towaius the noimal in a uensei meuia
96311T\$ L2>
o 2@ N1Sin#1 = N2Sin#2
o A@ Angle of Inciuence #1: is with iespect to the peipenuiculai of the
suiface between the two meuia 268 %\$ 3J021 5- 5"3 26;13 -<
.3<13&5%-6
o &@ Angle of Refiaction #2: is with iespect to the peipenuiculai of the
suiface between the two meuia
o 8@ Light will tiavel fiom point A to B the fasteu (in teims of time) way
possible
+-521 Q653.621 P3<13&5%-6
o 2@ Sin#C = N2N1
o A@ #C = sin
-1
(N2N1)
o &@ Ciitical Angle #C: is the angle of inciuence beyonu which .)."!
\$%.,&%"! &,-!,4.\$)% occuis.
o 8@ N1: The inuex of iefiaction foi the meuium in which the inciuent iay
is tiaveling
o 3@ Total inteinal ieflection noimally occuis when the initial meuium
has an inuex of iefiaction much gieatei than the seconu meuium
G%<<.2&5%-6
o 2@ When light enteis a small hole (the size of the wavelength oi
smallei), it benus outwaius
o A@ Biffiacting waves that unueigo 4)%+.&04.\$;, \$%.,&-,&,%4, iesult in
biight banus

26
26
o &@ Biffiacting waves that unueigo ',+.&04.\$;, \$%.,&-,&,%4, iesult in
uaik banus
o 8@ Some uiffiacting waves unueigo '\$+*,&+\$)% anu cieate colois
)".-/25%& 8%\$:3.\$%-6
o 2@ White light is composeu of all colois in the visible spectium anu is
split by a piism into saiu colois
(63/-6%&
o 2@ Thi)kei )entei )onveiges
+"3 +"%6 L36\$ IJ025%-6
o 2@ 1uo + 1ui = 1f
o A@ The focal length of the lens, f:
! U@ Positive = conveiging (concave miiioiconvex lens)
! V@ Negative = uiveiging (convex miiioiconcave lens)
o &@ The object uistance uo:
! U@ Positive = on siue of the glass fiom which light is coming,
"fiont, opposite of the eye, same siue as light souice" foi the
lens, "fiont, same siue of the eye, same siue as light souice" foi
the miiioi
! V@ Negative = opposite siue fiom which the light is coming,
"behinu, same siue of the eye, opposite siue of light souice" foi
the lens, "behinu, opposite siue of the eye, opposite siue of the
light souice" foi the miiioi
o 8@ The image uistance ui:
! U@ Positive = on same siue of the eye, "behinu, same siue of the
eye, opposite siue of light souice" foi the lens, "fiont, same siue
of the eye, same siue of light souice, " foi the miiioi
! V@ Negative = opposite siue of the eye, "fiont, opposite siue of
the eye, same siue of the light souice" foi the lens, "behinu,
opposite siue of the eye, opposite siue of the light souice" foi
the miiioi
o 3@ Nultiple lens system:
! U@ Recipiocal of the total focal length = sum of the iecipiocals
of the component focal lengths
L253.21 (2;6%<%&25%-6
o 2@ The iatio of the height of the image to the height of the object =
iatio of the uistance of the image |fiom the miiioilensj to the
uistance of the object |fiom the miiioilensj
o A@ m = hiho = -uiuo
o &@ ui anu hi change piopoitionally
o 8@ 0piight image, m = positive
o 3@ Inveiteu image, m = negative
o <@ N > 1 = image enlaigeu
o 3@ N < 1 = image uiminisheu
L253.21 (2;6%<%&25%-6 -< +>- L36\$
o 2@ N = m1m2
!->3. -< 2 L36\$

27
27
o 2@ P = 1f (inveisely ielateu to focal length)
o A@ P = 2i (inveisely ielateu to iauius)
o &@ P = #i|Nj (piopoitional to inuex of iefiaction)
o 8@ Neasuieu in '\$)*.,&+, m
-1

o 3@ Inciease in powei = ueciease in focal length
!->3. -< +>- L36\$
o 2@ Peff = P1 + P2
L36\$ (2?3. IJ025%-6
o 2@ 1 = (nLns - 1)(1i1 - 1i2)
o A@ nL = inuex of iefiaction of lens
o &@ ns = inuex of iefiaction of suiiounuings
o 8@ i1 = iauius of cuivatuie of the suiface of the lens facing the object
o 3@ i2 = iauius of cuivatuie of the suiface of the lens facing opposite the
object
*6;012. (2;6%<%&25%-6
o 2@ N0 = #i#np
o A@ NP = Neai point = closest anu object can be while in focus
,-&21 !-%65
o 2@ Wheie light focuses
o A@ Affecteu by the iefiaction of inuex of B0TB: the lens oi miiioi anu
the meuium suiiounuing the lens oi miiioi
,-&21 L36;5"
o 2@ Bistance between lens oi miiioi anu the focal point
o A@ Plane miiioi = infinite focal point
o &@ Plane miiioi (iules still apply) =
! U@ viitual images only behinu
! V@ Real images only in fiont
,-&21 L36;5" -< 2 9:"3.%&21 (%..-.
o 2@ F = (u.S)(i)
o A@ Foi a spheiical miiioi, the focal length is half of the iauius of
cuivatuie
L36\$
o 2@ Concave 9 (uiveiging)
o A@ Convex : (conveiging)
(%..-.
o 2@ Concave 9 (conveiging)
o A@ Convex : (uiveiging)
!7P2#\$
o 2@ Will always go paiallel, stiike the glass, then go thiough the focal
point. }ust apply accoiuingly
,7P2#\$
o 2@ Will always go thiough the focal point, stiike the glass, then go
paiallel. }ust apply accoiuingly.
)7P2#\$
o 2@ Bit it anu come stiaight back.

28
28
o A@ Like youi mom.
(7P2#\$
o 2@ uo thiough the centei of the lensmiiioi in a stiaight line
)-6C3` /%..-.
NAS3&5 1-&25%-6 Q/2;3 -.%36525%-6 Q/2;3 \$%43 Q/2;3 5#:3
Aibitiaiy 0piight ieuuceu viitual
)-6&2C3 /%..-.
NAS3&5 1-&25%-6 Q/2;3 -.%36525%-6 Q/2;3 \$%43 Q/2;3 5#:3
Beyonu 2f Inveiteu Reuuceu Real
2f Inveiteu Same as object Real
Between 2f anu F Inveiteu Enlaigeu Real
}ust beyonu F Inveiteu Appioaching
infinity
Real
}ust Insiue F 0piight Appioaching
infinity
viitual
Between miiioi
anu F
0piight Enlaigeu viitual

)-6&2C3 L36\$
NAS3&5 1-&25%-6 Q/2;3 -.%36525%-6 Q/2;3 \$%43 Q/2;3 5#:3
Aibitiaiy 0piight ieuuceu viitual
)-6C3` 136\$
NAS3&5 1-&25%-6 Q/2;3 -.%36525%-6 Q/2;3 \$%43 Q/2;3 5#:3
Beyonu f Inveiteu Reuuceu oi
enlaigeu
Real
}ust beyonu f Inveiteu Appioaching
infinity
Real
}ust insiue f 0piight Appioaching
infinity
viitual
Between lens anu f 0piight Enlaigeu viitual

)-6C3.;36&3F )-6&2C3 (%..-.\$=)-6C3` L36\$
o 2@
o A@

29
29
o &@ Light is ieflecteu by miiiois anu iefiacteu by lens 5->2.8\$ the -)4"!
*)\$%.
o 8@ 92/3 \$%83 -< 3#3 ej,.-65T <-. /%..-.\$R jA3"%68T <-. 136\$fF Images
anu focal points on the same siue of the eye will be positive, ieal anu
inveiteu, Ik)I!+ when the object is in the focal uistance; negative,
viitual anu upiight
o 3@ N::-\$%53 \$%83 -< 3#3 ej[3"%68T <-. /%..-.\$R j<.-65T <-. 136\$f:
images anu focal points on the opposite siue of the eye will be
negative, viitual anu upiight
o <@ Concave Niiioi Ray Biagiam
o 3@ Convex Lens Ray Biagiam
o ?3#F 1 photon stiike the miiioi so that it's path can be tiaceu back
thiough the focal point; 2 photon goes thiough the focal point anu
ieflects off the miiioi; S hits the centei of the miiioi anu ieflects off
G%C3.;36&3F )-6C3` (%..-.=)-6&2C3 L36\$
o 2@
o A@
o &@ Light ieflecteu by miiiois anu iefiacteu by lens outwaiu <.-/ the
-)4"! *)\$%.
o 8@ 92/3 \$%83 -< 3#3 ej,.-65T <-. /%..-.\$R jA3"%68T <-. 136\$fF Images
anu focal points on the same siue of the eye will be negative, viitual
anu upiight anu aie smallei than the object. The object must be within
one focal length of the lens foi this to occui.

Su
Su
o 3@ N::-\$%53 \$%83 -< 3#3 ej[3"%68T <-. /%..-.\$R j<.-65T <-. 136\$fF
images anu focal points on the opposite siue of the eye will be
positive, ieal anu inveiteu
o <@ Convex Niiioi Ray Biagiam
o 3@ Concave Niiioi Ray Biagiam
o <@ ?3#F 1 photon stiike the miiioi so that it's path can be tiaceu back
thiough the focal point; 2 photon goes thiough the focal point anu
ieflects off the miiioi; S hits the centei of the miiioi anu ieflects off
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
P28%-2&5%C3 G3&2#

*1:"2 :2.5%&13
o 2@ 2
4
, oi 2
4
Be (2 piotons anu 2 neutions, oi helium nucleus)
[352 :2.5%&13
o 2@ --, -1- oi -1e
u
(election)
!-\$%5.-6
o 2@ +-, +1- oi +1e
u
(equal but opposite to election)
O305.%6-
o 2@ ; (viitually massless; 11u
6
mass of an election)
W2//2 .2#
o 2@ u
u
. (no mass, no chaige, just electiomagnetic eneigy)
G3&2# P253
o 2@ %m%t
*1:"2 83&2#
o 2@ Loss of 2 piotons anu 2 neutions
o A@ Ex: 92
2S8
0 " 9u
2S4Th
+ 2
4
,
[352 83&2#
o 2@ 1 neution " 1 pioton + 1 election + 1 neutiino
o A@ Ex: 9u
2S4
Th " 91
2S4
Pa + -1e
u
+ ;
!-\$%5.-6 3/%\$\$%-6
o 2@ 1 pioton " 1 neution + 1 position

S1
S1
o A@ Ex: 11
22
Na " 1u
22
Na + +1e
u

I13&5.-6 &2:50.3
o 2@ 1 pioton + 1 election " 1 neution + 1 gamma iay
o A@ Ex: 8u
2u1
Bg + -1e
u
" 79
2u1
Au + u
u
.
W2//2 .2# 266%"%125%-6 B^(2553. i *65%/2553. 266%"%125%-6_D
o 2@ 1 election + 1 position " 2 gamma iays
o A@ It is the annihilation of mattei to cieate puie eneigy in the foim of
light
o &@ It uoes not change the iuentity of the atom fiom which it is given off
o A@ Ex: +1e
u
+ -1e
u
" u
u
. + u
u
.
,0\$%-6
o 2@ 2 smallei nuclei " 1 laigei nuclei + eneigy; leaus to a moie stable
piouuct
,%\$\$%-6
o 2@ 1 laigei nuclei " 2 laigei nuclei + eneigy; leaus to a moie stable
piouuct
)"2.5 -< \$52A%1%5#
o 2@ Both want to go to Fe-S6

7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
)-6\$5265\$
9:338 -< 1%;"5
o 2@ S x 1u
8
ms
o A@ c = "
o &@ c = 1sqit(u5o)
o 8@ c = EB
!126&?T\$ )-6\$5265
o 2@ B = 6.626u68 x 1u
-S4
m
2
*kgs = }*s
W.2C%525%-6 )-6\$5265R W
o 2@ u = 6.67 x 1u
-11
N*m
2
kg
2

I13&5.%& ,%318 95.36;5" )-6\$5265F 5o
o 2@ 5o
o A@ 8.9 x1u
-12
C
2
*Nm
2

!3./32A%1%5# -< ,.33 9:2&3 B(2;635%& ,%318 95.36;5"D
o 2@ u

S2
S2
o A@ u = 4! x 1u
-7
T*mA
)-01-/AT\$ )-6\$5265R h
o 2@ 9 x 1u
9
N*m
2
C
2

o A@ 1C = amount of chaige in 6.2S x 1u
18
piotons oi elections
I63.;# -< -63 !"-5-6
o 2@ E = h = joules (supei small numbei)
o A@ E = 124u" (in nanometeis) = ev (piobably whole numbei, coulu
be uecimal)
)"2.;3 -6 N63 I13&5.-6
o 2@ 1.6 x 1u
-19
C
I63.;# -< N63 I13&5.-6
o 2@ Ev = 1.6 x 1u
-19
}
(2\$\$ -< N63 I13&5.-6
o 2@ 9 x 1u
-S1
kg
*C-;28.-T\$ O0/A3.
o 2@ 6.u22 x 1u
2S

,2.28
o 2@ 96,Suu Cmol
(2;635%& ,%318 -< 5"3 90.<2&3 -< 5"3 I2.5"
o 2@ S x 1u
-S
T
+3\$12
o 2@ T = 1u
4
gauss
W.2C%525%-6 2&&313.25%-6
o 2@ 1u ms
2

K31-&%5# -< 9-068
o 2@ v = S4u ms
Q683` -< P3<.2&5%-6 <-. *%.
o 2@ n = 1
Q683` -< P3<.2&5%-6 <-. E253.
o 2@ n = 1.S
Q683` -< P3<.2&5%-6 <-. W12\$\$
o 2@ n = 1.S
K%\$%A13 L%;"5 9:3&5.0/
o 2@ |IRjR0YuBIv|0vj
E2C3136;5" -< K%-135 L%;"5
o 2@ Lambua ~ 4uunm
o A@ Bighei fiequency
o &@ By E = h, moie eneigy
E2C3136;5" -< P38 L%;"5
o 2@ Lambua ~ 7uunm
o A@ Lowei fiequency
o &@ By E = h, less eneigy
)-\$ 268 9%6F l
o 2@ Cos = 1.u
o A@ Sin = u

SS
SS
)-\$ 268 9%6F \l
o 2@ Cos = u.8S
o A@ Sin = u.S
)-\$ 268 9%6F ]Y
o 2@ Cos = u.7
o A@ Sin = u.7
)-\$ 268 9%6F cl
o 2@ Cos = u.S
o A@ Sin = u.8S
)-\$ 268 9%6F ml
o 2@ Cos = u
o A@ Sin = 1
)-\$ 268 9%6F Unl
o 2@ Cos = -1.u
o A@ Sin = u
)-\$ 268 9%6F Vol
o 2@ Cos = u
o A@ Sin = -1

7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
M6%5\$
[%; O%63
o U@ C = vF
o V@ C = As
o \@ } = Nm
o ]@ } = Ws
o Y@ } = Cv
o c@ } = F4
o o@ N = TAm
o n@ v = A4
o m@ W = vA
,-.&3
o 2@ Newton
o A@ N = kg*ms
2

K%\$&-\$%5#
o 2@ +
o A@ + = N*sm
2

I63.;#
o 2@ }oule (})
o A@ } = N*m = kg*m
2
s
2

!->3.
o 2@ Watt (W)
o A@ W = }s = ?;b/
V
=\$
\

H-.\$3 !->3.
o 2@ BP = 7S6 W

S4
S4
I13&5.%& !-5365%21=I(,
o 2@ volt
o A@ v = }C
)"2.;3
o 2@ Coulomb (C)
o A@ C = A*s
)2:2&%526&3
o 2@ Faiau (F)
o A@ F = Cv
)0..365
o 2@ Ampeie
o A@ A = Cs
P3\$%\$526&3
o 2@ 0hm
o A@ 4 = vA
E-.?
o 2@ Caloiie (Cal)
o A@ 1 Cal = 1uuu cal = 4,184 }
H325
o 2@ Btu
o A@ S.97 Btu = 4,184 }
L0/%6-\$%5#
o 2@ Canuela (c)
(2;635%\$/
o 2@ Tesla (T)
o A@ T = NA*m = N*sm*C
E3A3.
o 2@ Wb
o A@ 1 Wb = 1 T*m
2

H36.#
o 2@ B
o A@ 1 B = 1 v*sA
!.3\$\$0.3
o 2@ Atmospheie (Atm)
o A@ 1 Atm = 76u toii = 76u mmBg = 1u1,Suu Pa (Pascals) = Nm
2

I13&5.-67K-15
o 2@ 1 ev = 1.6 x 1u
-19
}
W%;2
o 2@ uB = 1u
9

(3;2
o 2@ N = 1u
6

h%1-
o 2@ k = 1u
S

)365%
o 2@ c = 1u
-2

SS
SS
(%11%
o 2@ m = 1u
-S

(%&.-
o 2@ u = 1u
-6

O26-
o 2@ n = 1u
-9

*6;\$5.-/
o 2@ A = 1u
-1u

!%&-
o 2@ p =1u
-12

,3/5-
o 2@ f =1u
-1S