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JAZZ GUITAR LESSONS

1.- SCALES
1.1.- Jazz Guitar Scales: The M !es
Jazz scales are not really different from scales used in other music, it's the way they are played that makes the sound and feel that is so typical to jazz. The modes as we use today were formalized around 1675 and as far as I know there were not so many jazzers around ack then. !ou pro a ly ha"e all played modes efore, ut may e without realizin# you were playin# them. $an you play a major scale% Then you know the first mode, the Ionian mode. The $ Ionian mode &aka $ 'ajor (cale) contains no sharps or flats. The num ers 1 to 7 make up the "scale formula", a theoretical way to represent a scale*

CDEFGAB 1 2 34 5 6 7

C Ionian Mode (= C Major Scale)

+ow we start the $ major scale on the second note to #et the ne,t mode the Dorian mode. The -rd and 7th note are a half step ehind compared to the Ionian mode.

D Dorian Mode
D E F 1 2 b3 G A B C 4 5 6 b7

Each mode has its own unique sound. This sound depends on how the inter"als are mapped across the scale. .lthou#h the notes in oth scales are e,actly the same, the sound of the scale is completely different ecause the tonal center has chan#ed. In the $ Ionian mode, the tonal center is $. In the / /orian mode, the tonal center is /. 0ach mode has a related chord. 1e can find that chord y stackin# thirds on the first note of the mode. 2et's do this for the $ Ionian mode* $ 0 3 4. The result is a Cmaj7 chord &if this is $hinese to you, please ha"e a look at the jazz #uitar chord theory tutorial)*
D 1 2 E 3 F 4

If we uild a chord on the first note of the Dorian mode we #et a /min7*

D 1

F b3

A 5

C b7

5ere's an overview of the 7 modes for $ major, their scale formulas and correspondin# chord * I II III I7 7 7I 7II Ionian /orian 6hry#ian 2ydian 'y,olydian .eolian 2ocrian 18-9567 18 -956 7 1 8 -95 6 7 1 8 - ;9 5 6 7 18-956 7 18 -95 6 7 1 8 -9 5 6 7 $/0:3.4 /0:3.4$ 0:3.4$/ :3.4$/0 3.4$/0: .4$/0:3 4$/0:3. $maj7 /m7 0m7 :maj7 37 .m7 4m7 5

!ou should memorize the names of the modes < the formula. 5ere's a mnemonic trick to help you remem er the names* I Don't Play Like y !unt Lucy.

1.".- The M !e Charts


+ow we'll see how the modes are played on the "uitar. =se all of your senses when learnin# #uitar scales* use your ears &most important), your eyes &reco#nize the pattern on the fret oard), your intellect &memorize the "uitar scale formulas) and the feelin# in your fin#ers. Le"end*

* represents the root or 1 of the #uitar scale. The letter inside the o, is the note name.

* represents a #uitar scale note.


1. ".1.- I #ia# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - 9 5 6 7 >elated chord * $maj7 =se * on major chords

1.".".- $ $ ria# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - 9 5 6 7 >elated chord * /m7 =se * on minor chords

1.".%.- E &hr'(ia# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - 9 5 6 7 >elated chord * 0m7 =se * on minor chords &this one has a (panish fla"or and is one of the #uitar scales fre?uently used in flamenco)

1.".).- * L'!ia# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - ;9 5 6 7 >elated chord * :maj7 =se * on major chords

1.".+.- G Mi, l'!ia# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - 9 5 6 7 >elated chord * 37 =se * on dominant chords. The 'i,olydian scale is one of the scales that is often used in jazz lues.

1.".-.- A Ae lia# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - 9 5 6 7 >elated chord * .m7 =se * on minor chords

1."...- / L cria# M !e

:ormula * 1 8 - 9 5 6 7 >elated chord * 4m7 5 =se * on half diminished chords

".- The /e0 1 Scale


David #a$er was the first one to come up with the term ' #e%op &cale' in his ook '5ow to 6lay 4e op', descri in# a techni?ue Charlie Par$er and $@ used to make those lon#, ne"er endin# e op lines. Today it's almost unthinka le for a jazz musician to not at least speak a it of the e op lan#ua#e and the e op scale is a #ood place to #et you started. The 4e op (cale is a and the %7) '(ol'dian &cale with a descendin" chromatic note %etween the root

G Mixolydian (reversed) G BeboP

FEDCBA

GGbFEDCBA

This 3 'i,olydian scale is the 7 of the C major scale. The 3 4e op (cale can e played on most chords that are diatonic to the key of $ major, ut not on the $ major chord itself ecause the : is an a"oid note for the $ major chord. The 4e op (cale is a dominant scale and has the same function in a key as the 'i,olydian scale. It can e played on the dominant and the su% dominant. Aur e,ample, the 3 4e op (cale, is the dominant of $ 'ajor and can e played o"er 37 and /m7, #i"in# us a #reat tool to play o"er II * I pro"ressions. !ou can also play the e op scale on halfBdiminished chords. The 3 e op scale can e played o"er a 4m7 5 chord. The 4e op (cale works est descendin". The ad"anta#es of the 4e op (cale *

.dds some chromatics. 1hen you start the e op scale on the eat and on the 1,-,5 or 7, there are nothin# ut chord tones on the %eats and tensions on the off eats. This is an effecti"e way to make lon" phrases. /on't start the e op scale on off eat's or tensions. .lways start on down eats and on chord tones. 5

5ere is the 3 4e op (cale on the fret oard * * represents the root or 1 of the #uitar scale. * represents a #uitar scale note.

These two positions are the %asic positions and are the est to #et you started. +eedles to say you can play the e op scale in any position you want. S 2e e,a21les 3 the 0e0 1 scale i# acti #

%.- Trit #e Ch r! Su0stituti # 4 The L'!ia# $ 2i#a#t Scale


Tritone C ;9 &or 5) inter"al . tritone su%stitution is the use of a dominant chord that is 6 half steps higher or lower compared to the original dominant chord. Tritone su stitutes are useful for oth chordal playin# and sin#le note impro"isation.
Ch r! Su0stituti #

Take for e,ample the 37 chord* 3 # / + The 8 most important notes of this chord are*

the - &#) the 7 &+)

&if you didn't know this already I su##est you read the #uitar chord tutorial first). The - and the 7 of a dominant chord are a tritone apart. . tritone is a symmetrical inter"al, it is precisely in the middle of the chromatic scale. This ein# the case we chan#e the - for the 7 and the 7 for the - and fill in the 1 and 5 to #et a new dominant chord. This chord would e / 7* / + . # &more precisely* / + . C%)

The tritone chord su stitution of 37 C / 7 (o compared to the 37 chord the # and + chan#ed places. Dnowin# that the + is the - and the # is the 7, it's easy to fill in the 1 and 5 &a#ain if you don't a#ree with me a out this ein# easy, read the #uitar chord tutorial first). The 1 is / and the 5 is . . >elati"e to the 37 this is a 5 and a E, so this means that the / 7 can su stitute an altered 37 chord.

%.1.-The L'!ia# $ 2i#a#t Scale


1hat scale would you play on the / 7. The first dominant scale that comes to mind is the mi,olydian scale &if this scale sounds like $hinese to you, read the tutorial a out #uitar scales). Pro%lem here is the , of the / mi,olydian scale* the 3 or :;. This note is the major 7 of 3, while we need a 7 for 3 dominant. 7

The solution* raise the 9 &:;) with a half step to the ;9 &3). . mi,olydian scale with a ;9 is called a 'l'dian dominant' scale. It's actually the 9th de#ree of an . melodic scale or the 5th de#ree of a 3 altered scale. / 2ydian /ominant / 1 >elati"e to 3 &3 altered scale) 5 0 8 1: 7 3 ;9 1 . 5 E 4 6 ;E $ 7 -

In the dia#ram a o"e you can see that / lydian dominant C 3 altered C . melodic. 5ere's the l'dian dominant scale on the #uitar neck*

The red dots are the chord roots. If you ha"e trou les findin# the other positions of this #uitar scale, try the #uitar scale finder. 5ere are some lydian dominant ideas*

).-The &e#tat #ic Scale


-he pentatonic scale is usuall' the first scale %e"innin" "uitarists $now and use for impro"isin#. The pentatonic and %lues pentatonic scales are used "ery fre?uently in rock, lues F pop music, ut you hear them less fre?uently in jazz music and when you hear them it is usually on a modal tune or a jazz lues, ut almost ne"er on standards. .fter we'"e learned the other scales that are useful for playin# jazz, we tend to for#et the pentatonic scale, ut it's actually a "ery #ood de"ice to add some variet' to your impro"isations. If after the followin# lesson you'd want to know e"en more a out pentatonic scales, I su##est you take a look in The Gazz Theory 4ook &it's the jazz theor' %i%le). 2et's start with the %asics of the pentatonic scale* . pentatonic scale is any scale that contains . notes. .ny scale that contains 5 notes can e called pentatonic, ut when people talk a out pentatonic scales they refer to the minor pentatonic scale or the major pentatonic scale. The major pentatonic scale consists of the 1, 8, -, 5 and 6 of the major scale. The $ major pentatonic scale for e,ample has the followin# notes*

C Major Pentatonic Scale

The minor pentatonic scale consists of the 1, -, 9, 5 and 7 of the natural minor scale &the aeolian scale). The . minor pentatonic scale has the followin# notes*

A Minor Pentatonic Scale

!ou mi#ht notice that the C major pentatonic scale en the ! minor pentatonic scale ha"e e,actly the same notes, just like the $ major scale &ionian mode) and the . natural minor scale &aeolian mode) ha"e the same notes. If you're not sure what modes are, you mi#ht want to check this other lesson* The 'odes. (ome advanta"es of the pentatonic scale*

the fin"erin" on the #uitar fret oard is simple. the pentatonic scale works well with techni?ues like pull offs and hammer ons. ecause the pentatonic scale has only 5 notes, it's quic$er to chan#e from lower to hi#her positions on the fret oard &or re"erse). the pentatonic scale can rin# some variet' in your sound, that is if you don/t overuse it. 9

(o, how do you use the pentatonic scale% The o "ious way of usin# pentatonic scales is playin# them on modal tunes or on a lues, ut they are also "ery useful to pla' over chord chan"es. 5ere's a list of what pentatonic scale you can play on what chord. 2et's do the first one to#ether so you can see how the list works*

The first entry in the list shows you which pentatonic scales you can use to impro"ise o"er major chords. /I/ means you can use the major pentatonic scale uilt on the root of the chord, which is pretty o "ious. An a $maj7 chord for e,ample, you can play the $ major pentatonic scale &C. minor pentatonic scale). /*/ means you can use the major pentatonic scale uilt on the 5th note &compared to the root of the chord). (o in case of a $ major chord that would e the 3 major pentatonic scale* 3 . 4 / 0 &5 6 7 E -).

Chord y!e Major

Chord ensions %&'

Major Pentatonic Scale I +

"ote #$nctions ( * ' b) (( b, (( ( b* 0 b, b% ' b() * ( b, ' % ) (( * ( * ) b, () ' ( ) , -(( * % ' % * b' ( 0 b) * ' % b, ( (( ( % ) , ( ' * ' () -' ' * ((

'&-(( Minor %&'&((

II bIII I+ b+II

Minor./ajor Do/inant

%&' '&() b'&-'&b*&b()

I+ I b+ I+ b+II

S$s 0

'&()

1al2 Di/inished

b%&((

b+I

+.-The Altere! Scale


The altered scale can e used to play o"er dominant chords that ha"e altered tensions & E, ;E, 5, 1-). 'ost of the time that would e dominant chords that #o to a minor chord. The altered scale is the 7th mode of the melodic minor scale, so the 3 altered scale has the same notes as the . melodic minor scale. It is also relati"e to the lydian dominant scale &the 9th mode of the melodic minor scale). altered scale 0 melodic minor scale up half a step 10

:or e,ample* the 3 altered scale C . melodic minor scale

G altered scale

G (

Ab b'

A-'

B )

Db b*

Eb b()

# b,

5ere's the scale chart for 1 altered. The red dots are the roots. If you ha"e trou les findin# the other positions of this #uitar scale, try the #uitar scale finder.

5a"e a look at the followin# altered scale ideas*

In the followin# e,ample I use 2 major triads that are found in the altered scale. In case of the 3 altered scale those triads are / &/ : . ) and 0 &0 3 4 ), so triads uild on the 5 and the 1- of the altered scale*

I told you that the altered scale is mostly used on dominant chords #oin# to minor chords. !ou can also use the altered scale on dominants "oin" to major chords, just look out for a clash with the one who's doin# the compin# ehind you &if he's #ood, he listens to you and plays altered tensions in his "oicin#s).

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-.-M !es O3 The Mel !ic Mi# r Scale


This "uitar scale lesson is a out the modes of the melodic minor scale. If this is the first you hear a out modes, you'd etter learn a out the modes of the major scale first. .ll the modes on this pa#e ha"e the . root, so you can hear the difference etween the scales.

-.1.- A Mel !ic Mi# r


.ka* Gazz 'inor (cale =se* on minHmaj chords

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

B 2

C b3

D 4

E 5

F# 6

G# 7

-.".- A $ ria# 0"


=se* on Esus9 chords

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

Bb b2

C b3

D 4

E 5

F# 6

G b7

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-.%.- A L'!ia# 5+
.ka* 2ydian au#mented scale =se* on maj7;5 chords

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

B 2

C# 3

D# #4

E# #5

F# 6

G# 7

-.).- A L'!ia# $ 2i#a#t


.ka* 2ydian 7, A"ertone scale =se* on 7&;11) chords, also see Tritone $hord (u stitution

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

B 2

C# 3

D# #4

E 5

F# 6

G b7

13

-.+.- A Mi, l'!ia# 0.ka* 'i,olydian 1- scale, 5indu scale =se* on dom7 1- chords

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

B 2

C# 3

D 4

E 5

F b6

G b7

-.-.- A Ae lia# 0+
.ka* 2ocrian ;8 scale =se* on m7 5 chords. .lso see 5alf /iminished $hords

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

B 2

C b3

D 4

Eb b5

F b6

G b7

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-...- A Altere! Scale


.ka* (uper 2ocrian scale, 2ocrian 9 scale, /iminished 1holetone =se* on dominant chords with altered tensions, also see The .ltered (cale

"otes Scale #or/$la

A 1

Bb b2

C b3

Db b4

Eb b5

F b6

Db b7

..-Jazz Guitar Scales * r The Mi# r /lues


In part 1 of this this jazz #uitar lesson we talked a out minor lues chord pro#ressions. In part 8 we'll talk a out the #uitar scales you can use to impro"ise o"er a minor lues. These scales are not meant to e a conclusi"e summary of all the scales one can use o"er these chords. Instead they are merely a startin# point to allow us to outline the different chords found in the standard minor lues chord pro#ression, without mo"in# your hands all o"er the neck.
/ars 1-% a#! .-6

This e,ample contains a common fin#erin# for the $ melodic minor scale &1 8 - 9 5 6 7), and for our purposes will e used o"er the $m7 chord found in ars 1B- of the asic minor lues pro#ression. Thou#h some instructional ooks ad"ise us to use the /orian mode o"er m7 chords within a jazz conte,t, the melodic minor scale is preferred y many jazz musicians when outlyin# a tonic minor chord. (ince the scale contains a raised se"enth, there is always a touch of the 77, 37, chord 15

heard within this scale, which allows us to ha"e a sense of tension and release within our lines without usin# su s or alternati"e scalesHmodes.

/ar )

The followin# scale can e used to outline the $7alt chord found in ar four of the minor lues pro#ression. This scale is often referred to as the altered scale &1 E ;E - 5 ;5 7), as it outlines all of the alterations that a dominant se"enth chord can take. (ince the altered scale is uilt off of the se"enth mode of the melodic minor scale, we can simply take the $ melodic minor scale from the first e,ample and shift it up y one fret to / , which outlines the $ altered scale. This allows us to play the first four ars of a minor lues while only mo"in# our frettin# hand up y one fret. $ altered scale C / melodic minor scale

/ars +--

1e can now mo"e onto ar fi"e of the minor lues, the :m7 chord, while keepin# our frettin# hand centered on the ei#hth fret. 5ere we can use the : /orian scale &1 8 - 9 5 6 7) o"er the :m7 chord. The use of the /orian scale instead of the : melodic minor scale helps to keep the :m7 chord linked to the tonic key of $ minor. (ince : /orian contains an 0 , the se"enth in : and the third in $, instead of the 0 natural found in the : melodic minor scale, it is more closely related to the tonic key and therefore is the preferential scale for this chord.

/ars 7-18

16

:or ars nine and ten we can use the 3 altered &C . melodic minor) scale to outline the minor iiB7 pro#ression. +otice that e"en thou#h this scale is lower on the neck than the pre"ious three had een, it uses the same fin#erin# that was found in the $ and / melodic minor scales that were used o"er the $m7 and $7alt chords.

/ars 11-1"

The last scale we will e,amine is the $ melodic minor scale startin# on the third fret of the fifth strin#, which is in the same position as the 3 altered scale listed a o"e. This scale can e used for the $m7 chord in ar 11 as it is in close pro,imity to the 3 altered scale which allows for a smooth transition etween these two ars.

3elated Lesson* 'inor 4lues $hord 6ro#ressions

6.-E, tic Guitar Scales


E(otic "uitar scales are #ood to add some new fla"ors to your music. 4elow is a selection of scales from different parts of the world. 0ach scale is in the key of . and comes with scale formulas and charts.

6.1.-Ara0ia# Guitar Scale


This .ra ian scale is an octatonic minor scale &it has I notes). It is the same scale as the diminished scale.

#or/$la

b3

#4

#5

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6.".-&ersia# Guitar Scale


'ajor scale.

#or/$la

b2

b5

b6

6.%.-/'za#ti#e Guitar Scale


'ajor (cale.

#or/$la

b2

b6

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6.).-Orie#tal Guitar Scale


/ominant scale.

#or/$la

b2

b5

b7

6.+.-Ja1a#ese Guitar Scale


This Gapanese scale is pentatonic. It's neither major or minor, the -rd is not included.

#or/$la

b6

6.-.-I#!ia# Guitar Scale


This Indian music scale is called the .sa"ari scale or ra#a .sa"ari. . ra#a is somethin# etween a scale and a composition, it is richer then a scale, ut not as fi,ed as a composition. It is more like a tonal framework for impro"isation and composition, just as chord chan#es and standards are for a jazz musician. 4esides a particular scale, ra#as also ha"e a specific melodic mo"ement, hierarchy in tones and specific intonation, ornamentation, stren#th and duration. I'm not #oin# into all the specifics of this ra#a, I'll only tell you that it is played differently ascendin# and descendin#. /escendin#, this scale is the same as the 6hry#ian scale, ascendin# it's the 6hry#ian scale minus the - and 7.

#or/$la Ascendin3

1 b2

4 5 b6
19

#or/$la Descendin3

1 b7

b6

5 4 b3

b2

6...-G'1s' Guitar Scale


This scale is the 5un#arian #ypsy scale &minor). $heck the second /jan#o >einhardt lick for an e,ample.

#or/$la

b3

#4

b6

6.6.-R 2a#ia# Guitar Scale


'inor (cale 20

#or/$la

b3

#4

b7

6.7.-Je9ish Guitar Scale


. dominant scale that's also known as the (panish #ypsy scale. The Gewish scale is an in"ersion of the harmonic minor scale &on the 5th note)* 0 Gewish C . harmonic minor.

#or/$la

b2

b6

b7

Origin Guitar Scale Formula Arabian ( 4 b) 0 -0 -* Gy!sy ( 4 b) -0 * ( 4 b) -0 * 5o/anian , Indian ( b4 0 * ( b4 b) 0 * , Persian ( b4 ) 0 b* By6antine( b4 ) 0 * ( b4 ) 0 b* 7riental , ( b4 ) 0 * 8e9ish , 8a!anese ( 4 0 *

% b% %

!"#e , /inor , /inor b /inor

b% ne$tral b% b /inor b% , /ajor b% , /ajor % b do/inant b% b% b do/inant ne$tral


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7.-A!:a#ce! Guitar Scales: ; riz #tal &la'i#(


In this lesson on "uitar scales we'll talk a out horizontal pla'in". 1hen we first start learnin# #uitar scales, we usually play the scale "ertical on the neck, from the lowest to the hi#hest note in a particular position. This is a necessary step, ut don't limit yourself to that ecause it's hard to see the connection etween the different positions that way. 6layin# horizontally is a more ad"anced method of playin# #uitar scales and means we start left on the #uitar neck and ad"ance to the ri#ht or the other way round. This can e done on two adjacent strin#s or three or four or with a skipped strin#, the possi ilities #o as far as your ima#ination #oes. I'll help you on your way with some e,amples. In this #uide we work with the $ major scale, ut remem er that $ major has the same notes as / /orian, 0 phry#ian, and so on &if you ha"e a pro lem remem erin# this, check out this tutorial on modes).

7.1.-&la'i#( Guitar Scales

# O#e Stri#(

This is a "ery #ood ear trainin" e,ercise. Think like a sitar player and play all #uitar scales on any of the 6 strin#s. /on't think a out where to place your fin#ers too much, ut pick a scale and work with your ears. This simple e,ample is the major scale played on the hi#h e strin#. .lso try other strin#s, other modes, the altered scale, diminished scale, ...

7.".-&la'i#( Guitar Scales

# T9

A!<ace#t Stri#(s

This first e,ample shows you how to play the scale of $ major on the top two strin#s*

The ne,t scales ta shows the major scale on strin#s 8 and -*

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I'm not #oin# to #i"e you the ta s for the other strin#s, you can fi#ure that out yourself. The e,amples I showed you are "ery strai#htforward, use your ima#ination to make these e,ercises a little more e,citin#. 5ere's an e,ample of the same techni?ue, ut with some "ariations*

Instead of usin# adjacent strin#s, you can also skip a strin#*

Instead of playin# the scales melodically &note y note) you can also play them harmonically &the notes to#ether, like a chord)*

7.%.-&la'i#( Guitar Scales

# Three A!<ace#t Stri#(s

(ame principle as a o"e, ut now we use three strin#s instead of two*

Try to use this techni?ue on all #uitar scales you know and you and your fin#ers will ha"e a much etter understandin# of the fret oard.

18.-$iss #a#ce= Res luti # 4 N te E#cl sure


A guitar improvisation lesson by Matthew Hart 23

Dissonance is the use of notes that fall outside of the key si#nature of the tune. In turn, resolution is the return to consonance, to rin# the melody ack home. $onsonant phrases can sound "ery #ood, in small doses, ut ?uickly ecome tedious o"er the len#th of an entire solo. The contrast etween dissonance and consonance, used at opportune moments in a solo, is what keeps oth yourself and the listener interested. 2ets take a look at some phrases, o"er the same chord pro#ression, ut this time take ad"anta#e of dissonance.

18.1.-$iss #a#ce 4 Res luti #


.ll e,amples in this #uitar lesson are played o"er a II * I in 1 major* | Am7 | D7 | Gmaj7 |% ||

5ere's the %ac$in" trac$* JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ Phrase 1 Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

#ar 4 has no dissonance, as indicated y the a sence of accidentals. 5owe"er, when we hit eat one of %ar two we are playin# a 4 flat, which is not in the key of 3. This tone is dissonant and creates tension in the melody. The last ei#hth note in ar two is : natural, this tone is also dissonant. The : natural appears to want to resolve to : sharp, which it does on the first eat of ar three. 0"en thou#h we are usin# notes outside the key si#nature, it still sounds #ood, ut why% The reason it works, is due to chord su%stitution. 1e won't #o into any depth on chord su stitution here, as it is a hu#e topic in itself, ut we can ha"e a look at what su stitute chords are ein# implied y this phrase. #ar one starts on a nonBchordal tone, relati"e to .m7. The note 4 is not part of the .m7 chord, ut it sounds #ood ecause it implies an !m5 chord. In eat three we hit the minor third of .mE &$), and mo"e up to 4 a#ain in the final note of ar one. This reBenforces the sound of the implied .mE.

The first note in %ar two is a 4 flat, implyin# the /E chord has een su stituted for a /E;5 chord. The 4 flat is ?uickly resol"ed to the ninth &0) to release that tension. 5oldin# a dissonant note for too lon# can often sound incorrect or unpleasantK

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The %est place to use dissonance in a chord pro#ression is the dominant chord. This is ecause the dominant is the least sta le chord and naturally wants to resol"e. "If 'ou hit a wron" note6 then ma$e it ri"ht %' what 'ou pla' afterwards)))" B Joe Pass Phrase 2 Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

There is an . flat on %ar 4 & eat 8), implyin# the su stitute chord of .m'aj7. The note . flat is the major se"enth. An %ar 2 & eat 1) we play an : natural to imply a /7;E. An the 'and' of eat -, we repeat the : natural efore resol"in# it to : sharp, in the form of a +ote 0nclosure.

18.".-N te E#cl sure


.s mentioned a o"e, phrase 1 and 8 oth utilize the note enclosure concept. ! note enclosure is a "roupin" of three tones6 usuall' includin" a dissonant tone6 that resolves to a tone %etween its two precedin" tones) (ounds confusin#, so lets look at some asic e,amples in 3 Ionian*

In %ar 4, we enclose the note 4 etween $ and 4 flat. The chromatic tone 4 flat, is played on the upB eat, the 'and' of the pulse. In %ar 2, we enclose : natural etween 3 and : sharp. 4oth e,amples fit perfectly o"er the 3maj7 chord, ecause they resol"e to the chord tones. +ote that ecause the dissonant &chromatic) tones are on the upB eat, there is no chord su stitution implied, ut it does add fla"or to a phrase. 25

This is the simplest form of note enclosure, usin# only a three fret ran#e, makin# it eas' to pla' without much thou#ht. 5ere is a hand' tric$ for #uitar that makes this type of note enclosure easy to use* .nywhere a scale has two notes that are one fret apart, the lower tone can e enclosed y one fret a o"e, and one fret elow. (o lookin# at ar one in the e,ample, the notes 4 and $, of the 3 Ionian mode, are one fret apart. The lower tone 4 can then e enclosed etween $ &one fret a o"e) and 4 flat &one fret elow). The se?uence of notes is then $, 4 flat, 4.

18.".1.-N te E#cl sure E,ercise 1


The followin# e,ercise is #ood practice for this type of note enclosure, and unlocks its full potential. 6ractice #roupin#s ased on the two e,amples a o"e, addin# a 9th note, within the key si#nature, to the end of the note enclosure. 5ere are some e,amples to #et you started*

6ractice endin# on different notes of the scale, especially the chord tones of the pro#ression. .lso try playin# the same #roupin#s at other parts of the fret oard. .s with the consonance e,ercise you will e"entually e a le to link these small #roupin#s to#ether to create some asic e op phrases. 5ere is a phrase e,clusi"ely usin# this type of note enclosure concept, o"er the 3 Ionian II 7 I pro#ression* JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

18.".".-N te E#cl sure ": I21l'i#( Su0stitute Ch r!s


26

The followin# e,amples show another form of note enclosure that is used to imply su%stitute chords. The dissonant tone is played on the downB eat. Take a look at the followin# #roupin#s*

#ars 7 and , are the same as %ars 4 and 2, ut played an octa"e hi#her in the . /orian position. 6layin# %ar 4 o"er an .m7 chord implies the su stitute chord of .m'aj7. #ar 2, when played o"er an .m7 chord implies the su stitute chord of .m7 5.

These implied su stitutions create a "ery effecti"e dissonance o"er the .m7. The #roupin#s can e played startin# on any down8%eat, or for more "ariety, any up8%eat. 6layin# them on an upB eat creates far less tension much like the pre"ious forms of note enclosure. The followin# phrase uses this form of note enclosure e,clusi"ely* JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

#ar 4 implies .m'aj7 #ar 2 implies /7;11 for two eats, followed y /7 E for two eats.

18.".%.-N te E#cl sure C 20i#ati #s


Ance you are comforta le with oth types of note enclosure you'll ha"e a hu#e impro"isational "oca ulary to play with. 2et's take a look at the note enclosure forms com ined into a sin#le phrase*

27

JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

The two note leadBin to %ar 4 is our first form of note enclosure. #ars 2 and 7 use the second form and you'll notice they are identical to the pre"ious e,ample a o"e. In %ar , we play two more note enclosures ased on the first form.

.s you can hear, the com ination of the forms can produce a much more diverse and interestin" phraseK

11.-Chr 2atics: Tur#i#( Scales I#t

Jazz

In this article we are #oin# to take a look at how we can take all of the scales and arpe##ios we ha"e learned o"er the years and turn them into LjazzyL soundin# phrases. This is a i# o stacle and one that not e"eryone will #et o"er. 5opefully y workin# throu#h this material we will e a le to use simple and comforta le material to hip up our lines. :or the purposes of keepin# thin#s simple all of the e,amples in this article will e written o"er top of a iim7 B 77 B I B 7I7 E chord pro#ression in the key of $ major*

: D/,

: G,

: C/aj,

: A,b'

::

11.1.-E,a21le 1
1e will now take a look at four different ways to add chromatic notes to the major scale. .ll of these riffs will e two eats &four ei#hth notes) lon# in order to #et them under our fin#ers ?uickly and transpose them easily. 28

The first ar of this e,ample uses what is normally referred to as the dominant e op scale, played o"er a major chord. It is normally used o"er a dominant chord, 37 in this key, ut it can also e used o"er any chord in the parent key, $ major. The second ar outlines a "ery common chromatic passa#e. This is where we start on the third, in this case 0, of the major scale and then play ;1, 8 and ack to -. Think of it as startin# on the third and playin# ack to the third usin# a chromatic approach to the 8 nd note, /, of the scale. The third and fourth ar are the same chromatic idea applied to two different scale tones. The est way to approach these licks is to think of it as connectin# the two half steps within the major scale. The first connects the 9th note, :, of the scale to the -rd note, 0, y way of two chromatic approaches from elow 0. The last e,ample is the same concept, only this time applied to the root, $ and the 7th , 4.

Ance you ha"e these under your fin#ers in the key of $ we are ready to mo"e on to e,ample -. !ou can practice punchin# them into scale fin#erin#s you already know, or treatin# them as separate entities and thinkin# of them as indi"idual units that you can mo"e around to different chords.

11.".-E,a21le "
5ere we ha"e a e op soundin# line written in the key of $ major usin# the patterns outlined a o"e. In the first ar there are the 1st and 8nd line &from e,ample 1), the second ar has the -rd and 9th line, the third ar has the 1st and 8nd lines and the last ar has the -rd line. 1e mi#ht notice that the line sounds like an e,ercise, and it should. .t this point we are tryin# to #et these shapes under our fin#ers and these sounds into our ears. Ance you ha"e them down it will e easier to de"elop more creati"e and musical lines. Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

11.%.-E,a21le %
29

+ow that we can apply these two eat ideas we can add some asic harmonic su stitutions to the chord pro#ression. The chords that we will e addin# will e one half step, one fret, a o"e the followin# chord. (o in this e,ample we ha"e added a / 7 that resol"es to the $maj7 in the ne,t ar &tritone su stitution). .#ain for the purposes of this e,ercise the line is written in ei#hth notes, once you ha"e this line down try chan#in# the rhythm to #ain more interest in the line.

11.).-E,a21le )
In this line we are now addin# an . 7 chord that resol"es to the 37 chord &tritone su stitution as well). 0"en thou#h we are steppin# further LoutL with this and the followin# lines, the fact that our two eat moti"es outline the harmony so well helps to keep the idea from fallin# apart.

11.+.-E,a21le +
1e are now at the limit of addin# chromatic approach chords with the 4 7 resol"in# to the .7 E. Ance we ha"e these su stitutions under your fin#ers and in our ears we can choose which ones we want to use and when we want to use them. >emem er just ecause we know all of these cool harmonies does not mean that we ha"e to saturate our lines with them. The i##est lesson to learn is that LoutL lines only work when they are played after or in etween LinL lines that #i"e them their contrast.

11.-.-E,a21le -

30

(ince the first four two note ideas ha"e een hi#hly chromatic and mostly descendin# in nature we can now look at three ways to play ascendin# and more LinsideL the scaleHchords. .s was mentioned a o"e, playin# out only works if we define what is in, so these three ideas are #reat ways to outline the harmony and help LsetupL our outside ideas. The first idea is what is commonly referred to as L18-5L, where each chord is outlined usin# the 1st , 8nd , -rd and 5th note of the scale or mode that corresponds to it. The second idea is the arpe##io, 1-57, on each chord in the pro#ression, and the last idea is the arpe##io with a chromatic approach tone elow the root. Thou#h these ideas ha"e een written out o"er the chords in the pro#ression, they can e used o"er any chord in the key we are playin# in. (o for e,ample in this pro#ression, in the key of $, we can outline $maj7, /m7, 0m7, :maj7, 37, .m7 and 4m7 5, all of the chords found in the key of $ major.

11...-E,a21le .
1e will now apply these three ideas to our chord pro#ression. In this e,ample we start out with a mi,ture of the new and old ideas. +otice how each ar starts off soundin# inside on the first two eats and then is led into a more chromatic sound in the last half of the ar efore resol"in# on the down eat of the followin# ar. This helps create a tension and release element to the line and makes the major scale that we are asin# our lines off of sound much more in the jazz idiom. Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

31

11.6.-E,a21le 6
In the ne,t line we will add the chromatic approach chord leadin# into the $maj7 chord in ar -. This idea is similar to what we ha"e already done ut notice how the arpe##io in the first half of the 8nd ar really sets up the su stitution nicely.

11.7.-E,a21le 7
5ere we are addin# a chromatic approach, . 7, to the 37 chord in ar 8.

11.18. -E,a21le 18
In this last e,ample we are addin# the 4 7 resol"in# to the .7 E in ar four. .s efore, now that we ha"e all of the chord su stitutions added we can choose which ones we would like to play at any #i"en time. (ometimes a really simple, well placed LoutsideL lick is much more effecti"e than a lon#er more comple, line that wea"es in and out a#ainst the harmony.

32

11.11.-Tu#e $ 9#
5ere is a solo written out o"er the chord chan#es to a famous 'iles /a"is tune, here it is called Tune /own, see if you can #uess the ori#inal name. Try and read throu#h the solo with a play alon# $/ or 4and in a 4o, to #et a sense of how each line sounds a#ainst the underlyin# harmony. Ance you ha"e these e,ercises under our fin#ers try playin# them in different keys, and if you ha"en't already, play them on different parts of the neck. 2earnin# to play a line from memory is only the e#innin# of the process, once we can manipulate a line, y chan#in# the rhythm, playin# it in different octa"es and different areas of the neck, we ha"e truly in#rained the concept.

33

". Ar1e((i s 4 Jazz &atter#s


1.-Jazz Guitar 181: Ar1e((i s
34

This is the first lesson in a series of jazz #uitar e#inner lessons. I'll e co"erin# all the asic uildin# locks needed to play jazz #uitar, a jazz #uitar 1J1. In this tutorial we'll e co"erin# how arpe##ios are used in jazz #uitar music and how to pla' arpe""ios on a "uitar. .n arpe##io is a roken chord, where the notes of the chord are played in succession. .rpe##ios are a #ood ase for impro"isation o"er chord pro#ressions. 4y playin# the chord tones in your #uitar solo you reflect the harmony of the tune in your solo, somethin# that makes your impro"isation interestin" to listen to. It's important that you know e"ery arpe##io in all positions of the #uitar neck. This can e a it dauntin# in the e#innin#, ut with re#ular practice you can play any arpe##io without thinkin#. In this tutorial we'll e startin# with some asic positions, no need to learn them all at once. .ll arpe##ios are of the mova%le type, I'll e,plain you at the end of this pa#e what that means.

" + 1 & siti # A

1e're #oin# to learn the asic arpe##ios y lookin# at some common chord pro"ressions. The most common chord pro#ression in jazz is the 8 5 1. In this e,ample we'll e workin# in the key of 1 major*
Am7 && D7 ' Gma$7 & %

To play o"er this kind of chord pro#ression, we'll need - kinds of arpe##ios* minor, dominant and major. 5ere's the arpe##io for the !m7 chord*

A/,
1

A b3

C 5

E b7

* represents the root or 1 of the #uitar chord. The letter inside the o, is the note name. * lue s?uares represent a chord tone other than the 1.

35

To practice this minor arpe##io, play it like this until it jumps out of your fin#ers without ha"in# to think a out it*

!ou can also practice it y first playin# the chord and then the arpe##io, a #ood e,ercise for your ears*

;e 3o on to the D7 c(or)< D,
1

D 3

F# 5

A b7

(tart y practicin# this dominant arpe##io like this*

2ike the minor arpe##io e,amples, you can also play the chord efore the arpe##io as an e,ercise. 36

.nd then we arri"e at the 1maj7 chord*

G/aj,
1

G 3

B 5

D 7

F#

6ractice this major arpe##io the way we did for the minor and dominant arpe##io &start on the root). Ak, we know the asic positions for the arpe##ios, now we're #oin# to com%ine them*

This is an e,ample of how you can com ine the arpe##ios. It's not ver' musical at this point, ut ein# a le to play them like this is a necessar' step in the learnin" process. 2et's ha"e a look at another e,ample, startin# from a different place*

+ow start improvisin" o"er these chord chan#es usin# only these arpe##ios. !ou can start on any note you want or use any rhythm you want, althou#h for educational purposes it's etter to play a lon# stream of IBnotes like in the e,amples. To make sure you chan#e chords at the ri#ht place you can use software like 4and in a 4o, &or you can do the hard work yourself and record the chan#es with a metronome). 1ood to $now* all arpe##ios are mo"a le. If you know the arpe##io for .m7 you can use that same 'shape' to find the arpe##ios for other minor chords. 2et's say you want to find the arpe##io 37

for 3m7. .ll we ha"e to do is slide the arpe##io for .m7 8 frets down. (o instead of startin# on the 5th fret in case of .m7, we start on the -rd fret for 3m7. This is the result*

!ou mo"e the root to the appropriate note on the strin# and play the shape from there. .nother e,ample* we know the arpe##io shape for /7, so it's easy to find 47*

3ood, we just touched the "ery asics of arpe##ios, of course there are other chord types, positions and techni?ues. (tay tuned for a ne,t episode comin# soonK

".-Jazz Guitar 181 &art ": Ar1e((i

Sha1es

:or this second part of .rpe##io 1J1, I listed the arpe""io shapes for the main chord t'pes* major, minor, dominant, m7 5 and diminished. 'emorizin# these arpe##io shapes can e a it of a hassle, ut it's important that you know them. /on't try to learn them all at once, #i"e yourself the time and take it easy.

The arpe##ios on this pa#e are compulsory knowled#e for e"ery jazz #uitarist. In the followin# list I #i"e you the arpe##ios for specific chords, e.#. .m7, ut remem er that the shapes are mo"a le &if this is not clear to you, read the end of .rpe##io 1J1 6art 1).

".1.- Ar1e((i

Sha1es 3 r Ma< r Ch r!s

* represents the root or 1 of the #uitar chord. The letter inside the o, is the note name. * lue s?uares represent a chord tone other than the 1. The num er under the arpe##io dia#rams is the fret num%er. $hord* 3maj7 38

(tartin# on the root or the 7*

(tartin# on the 7rd*

.lso startin# on the 7rd, ut #oin# in another direction*

(tartin# on the .th*

(tartin# on the 7 or the root*

39

.nd here are two additional dia#rams, where I play 2 notes per strin". These patterns fall "ery con"enient on the fret oard*

".".- Ar1e((i
$hord* .m7 (tartin# on the root*

Sha1es 3 r Mi# r Ch r!s

(tartin# on the 7rd* 40

(tartin# on the .th in two directions*

(tartin# on the %7*

.nd here are 8 additional 2 notes9strin" shapes*

41

".%.- Ar1e((i
$hord* 37

Sha1es 3 r $ 2i#a#t Ch r!s

(tartin# from the root*

:rom the 7rd*

:rom the .th* 42

:rom the %7*

.nd 8 additional 2 notes9strin" dia#rams*

".).- Ar1e((i
$hord* 4m7 5

Sha1es 3 r ;al3 $i2i#ishe! Ch r!s

(tartin# from the root*

43

:rom the %7*

:rom the %.*

:rom the %7*

.nd the two additional 2 notes9strin" dia#rams* 44

".+.- Ar1e((i

Sha1es 3 r $i2i#ishe! Ch r!s

There are only 8 shapes &< the additional 8 notesHstrin# shape) for diminished chords, that is ecause diminished arpe##ios are s'mmetrical* they are uilt e,clusi"ely with minor third inter"als. !ou can mo"e these arpe##ios 7 frets up and down the nec$ and you will still play the #ood notes. This means 3@7 C 4 @7 C / @7 C 0 @7, so you can start this arpe##io on the -rd, the 6th, the Eth or the 18th fret and you'll e playin# the same chord. $hord* 3@7 &C 4 @7 C / @7 C 0 @7)

.nd here's the 2 notes9strin" shape* 45

%.-The Ne:er E#!i#( Jazz Guitar Lic>


This #uitar lick is a #ood e,ercise to #et some common chromatic patterns into your fin#ers. It's a #ood idea to create and study licks like this one for all scales and on all places of the fret oard. (uch e,ercises deepen your knowled#e of the fret oard. 5ere's the audio* Normal Tempo JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ Slow Tempo

==<== . ==<==
5ere are the "uitar ta%s, the end not of the lick is the same as the e#in note, so you can play it in loop &like I do in the audio of the slow "ersion).

5ere's another ne"er endin# #uitar lick, it's the solo reak of Pat ethen''s LThird 1indL &from the al um (till 2ife &Talkin#). The lick is full of chromatism and pentatonic scales. 'ore 6at 'etheny 2icks...

46

.nd yet another ne"er endin# lick & y Pat 2icks 5ere

artino), mostly in the /orian mode. 'ore 6at 'artino

).-? ice Lea!i#(


1hen compin# you want your chords to flow smoothl' from one to another, instead of ouncin# around on the #uitar neck. 0ach note of a chord is a "oice. 7oice leadin# is mo"in# indi"idual chord "oices smoothly from one chord to the ne,t. 7oice leadin# is not only useful in compin# thou#h. In sin"le note improvisations "oice leadin# can function as a skeleton on which you can ase your lines on. 2et's ha"e a look at some e,amples for "oice leadn# in 8 5 1 chord pro#ressions. The first one is a possi le "oice leadin# for a 2 . 4 pro"ression in C major*

b)

b,

b,

There are 8 "oices in this e,ample* the lue one and the oran#e one*

The lue "oice starts on the - of /m7 4ecomes the 7 of 37 3oes to the - of $maj7. The oran#e "oice starts on the %7 of /m7 47

3oes to the 7 of 37 4ecomes the 7 of $maj7 .nd #oes to the : of $6.

:ill this e,ample in with some other chord tones and a it of chromatism and you #et this*

The ne,t e,ample starts on the 5 of /m7, #oes to the E of 37 and to the 5 of $maj7.

b'

5ere are some "oicin#s you can use with this "oice leadin#*

5ere's antoher e,ample, this time for a 2 . 4 pro"ression in 1maj. The "oice leadin# starts on the E of .m, #oes to the 1- of /7, to the E of 3maj and finally to the 7 "ia the 1.

'

b()

'

5ere are the "oicin#s for this "oice leadin#*

48

.ll e,amples until now had a descendin# "oice leadin#. Af course you can also make an ascendin" "oice leadin#. The followin# e,ample is in $ major a#ain and has 8 "oices.

'

b,

7oice leadin# #i"es your impro"isations more chartacter, it's like your lines ha"e a story to tell. +ow try to find some lines of your own.

+.-Jazz Guitar &atter#s +.1.-Ma< r Jazz Guitar &atter#s


An this pa#e you'll find "uitar patterns that work on major chords. Try them in different keys and fret oard positions. 1) The first pattern starts with a chromatic approach of the -rd. It ends on the 6th of $ major.

8) This pattern starts with a chromatic approach of the tonic and follows with a $ major triad arpe##io.

-) 5ere an 0 minor 7 arpe##io is used as a su stitute for $maj7. The 7 of the 0m chord sounds as a E for the $maj7 chord.

49

9) . chromatic line from the - to the 5 "ia the 6.

5) . lot of chromatism around a $maj6 arpe##io.

6) 6attern usin# an 0m triad.

+.".-Mi# r Jazz Guitar &atter#s =seful "uitar patterns you can play o"er minor chords. (tudy them in different keys and positions. 1) :rom the tonic to the - and ack. (ounds #ood on fast tempos.

8) 6attern with the notes of an : major triad.

50

-) /jan#o >einhardt kind of pattern.

5) 6attern in the / minor pentatonic scale

9) 6at 'etheny kind of pattern &. minor /orian scale).

+.%.-$ 2i#a#t Jazz Guitar &atter#s


An this pa#e you'll find "uitar patterns that you can play on dominant chords. Try them in different keys and fret oard positions. 1) 6attern in fifths.

8) $hromatic jazz cliche. .lso works for /m7. 51

-) 3 altered pattern.

0) helonio$s Mon> >ind o2 lic>& 9ith e/!hasis on the tri tone?

5) 6attern on a 37 arpe##io.

6) The 4e op scale in action.

7) .nother jazz cliche.

52

I) !et another cliche around a 3 triad.

+.).-;al3 $i2i#ishe! &atter#s


An this pa#e you'll find "uitar patterns that work well on half diminished chords &m7 5). Try the patterns in different keys and fret oard positions. 1) The first pattern in this article uses an +m idea o"er /m7 5. 4y doin# this, you are focusin# on the - to 7 triad, the triad uilt from the -rd of the underlyin# chord, which in this key is :m o"er /m7 5. .s well, there is one 3 note in this lick, the 11th of the chord, which we will see throu#hout this lesson as a #oBto note when soloin# o"er any m7 5 chord. Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

8) This pattern uses two different four8note arpe""ios o"er a /m7 5 chord*

In the first half of ar 1, there is an +m7 arpe""io ein# used, an e,tension of the first lick in this lesson. In the second half of the ar there is a #%7 arpe""io, which then resol"es to the note 3, the 11th, to finish the lick in the second ar.

&uperimposin" diatonic arpe##ios like this, :m7 and 4 7 o"er /m7 5, is a #reat way to play inside the chan#es, ut not just run the diatonic arpe##io at the same time.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==


53

-) 5ere, there is a chromatic passin# tone ein# added etween the -rd and 9th of the scale &3 ) to rin# a 4e op fla"or to this line. .ddin# chromatic notes to m7 5 runs can e tricky, as it is such a stron# chord sound, ut it can e done and here is an e,ample of just such a set of notes in action within an impro"ised line. Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

9) .s well as superimposin# fourBnote arpe##ios o"er m7 5 chords, you can also focus on triads in your soloin# o"er this common chord ?uality. In this line, you will find +m and 1m triads ein# used to outline a /m7 5 chord, a#ain usin# familiar shapes, the triad, in a new situation in order to outline a m7 5 chord in your lines and phrases. Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ

5) This final lick uses a triplet rh'thm to reak up the chord tones that are the asis for this phrase. (ometimes somethin# as simple as chan#in# the rhythms that you use o"er a chord is enou#h to reathe fresh life into your lines and phrases. Try e,perimentin# with different rhythms when soloin# o"er m7 5 chord to see where this approach takes you in your soloin# and impro"isations. Listen & Play JJ*JJ H JJ*JJ 54

%.-Jazz St'les
1.-Lati# Guitar
This is a short introduction to 2atin #uitar. 1e'll ha"e a look at two #uitar techni?ues used in 2atin music and a rhythmic pattern called the clave. The first techni?ue is a "uitar chord pattern in com ination with a ass line, the second techni?ue is called a montuno, a fre?uently used accompaniment techni?ue in 2atin music.

1.1.-/ ssa N :a Ch r! &atter#s


#ossa ;ova and sam%a ha"e a "ery typical ass line and chord rhythm. The ass line is played on the eat, while the chords are played mostly on the off eats. 5ere' s a first #uitar chord pattern that's used fre?uently in ossa and sam a. 6lay the pattern fin"er st'le and le"ato &let the notes flow into each other so the pattern doesn't sound ' roken'). The chord I used in this e,ample is a /mE, ut you can of course use any chord you like.

The ass line switches etween the 1 and the 5. This ass line can e used for e"ery chord e,cept for half diminished and diminished chords. Those chords ha"e a 5, so play the 5 in the ass instead of the 5. 5ere's the same chord pattern ut with the root of the /m on the 0 strin#*

55

5ere's another chord pattern usa le in latin music. This pattern alternates etween a mE and m6 chord & 7 to 6)*

1.".-M #tu#
. montuno is another accompaniment techni?ue used in latin music. It is usually played y the piano, ut can e adapted to the #uitar. !ou can define a montuno as a repeated pattern of notes or chords with syncopated moving inner voices and a differently syncopating bassline. 'ontuno's are typically 1, 8 or 9 ars in len#th. They can also e used as a "ehicle for impro"isation. 5ere's an e,ample of a montuno adapted for the #uitar*

This montuno #oes from 3m7 to $7 &II 7). The two lowest "oices contain the #uide tones of the chord pro#ression. 2et e"ery note sound as lon# as possi le and don't play laid ack, ut don't rush it either &the anticipations ask for a steady timin#).

1.%.-The Cla:e
The cla"e is a two measure lon# rh'thmic pattern and forms the rhythmic foundation of latin music. 2atin musicians don't think '1 8 - 9' like we do, they ha"e the cla"e as a reference for their music. The cla"e is often played y two wooden sticks, called the cla"es and functions as a time keeper. The cla"e is not always played, ut it is always implied throu#hout the music. There are 8 types of cla"es* the son clave and the rum%a clave. . cla"e has a weak ar &the one with 8 notes) and a stron# ar &the one with - notes).

Son Cla*e 4@) son clave<

56

)@4 son clave<

+umba Cla*e 4@) r$/ba clave

)@4 r$/ba clave

".-/e0 1 /asics 3 r Guitar


In the early 1E9Js a new jazz style emer#ed from the displeasure some jazz musicians had with the commercialism of swin# music. 6eople like alto sa,ophonist $harlie 6arker, trumpet player /izzy 3illespie, pianist Thelonious 'onk and other youn# jazz players reacted a#ainst the i# dance ands y playin# a kind of music characterized y ad"anced harmonies, frantic tempos, rhythmic intricacies and lon# impro"isations. They were more interested in de"elopin# the technical aspects of music and increasin# it's aesthetic ?ualities, rather than enlar#in# their audience and wallets. There is much to e learned out of e op today. 0"ery jazz musician should e familiar with it's lan#ua#e and techni?ues. In this tutorial we'll ha"e look at some licks and techni?ues that are typical for e op.

".1.-Outli#i#( the ;ar2 #'


4efore e op impro"isations were particularly ased on the melody of a tune. . e op impro"isation is ased on the chordal harmony of a tune with little or no reference to the ori#inal melody. . e op impro"iser should e a le to outline a tune's harmony in his solos. 1hen you listen to a e op impro"isation and you would take away the accompaniment, you can still hear the chords of the standard in the impro"ised lines. . way of doin# this is y puttin# emphasis on the chord tones. To e a le to do this you should know your chord arpe##ios "ery well in all positions on the neck. .nother thin# that can help you outline the harmony is "oice leadin#. 5ere's a e op cliche ased on a /mE arpe##io*

".".-Chr 2atics
57

$hromatism can e defined as melodic or harmonic use of half steps other then those that are in the diatonic scale . wider definition would e motion in half steps. $hromatic playin# is approachin# a note a half step up or a half step down from that note. The followin# transcription is a #ood e,ample of chromatic playin#. It is an e,cerpt of a /izzy 3illespie theme called 3roo"in' 5i#h.

.nother use of chromatism is transposin# a motif chromatically like in the followin# e,ample. This $harlie 6arker lick uses a chromatic descendin# minor 7 arpe##io.

".%.-The /e0 1 Scale


The e op scale is created y addin# either a major 7 to a 'i,olydian scale or a major - to a /orian scale.

".).-Use

3 the 0+

$ompared to earlier forms of jazz, e op uses a lot of dissonant harmonies. The flat 5 inter"al made it's entry and created #reat contro"ersy at that time. The 5 doesn't sound particularly stran#e to our modern ears, ut in the 1E9Js it was a reak from tradition. .n e,ample of the use of the 5 is in the intro of (haw '+uff. !ou can listen to it at the .mazon pa#e here* !ard ird (uite* The =ltimate $harlie 6arker. (croll down on the pa#e and #o to the 5th son# of disc 1. The 5 is in ar 88, just efore the piano reak &J.1I).

".+.-The Li#e Cliche


.nother fre?uently returnin# cliche in e op is the line cliche. The line cliche is a chromatic descendin# line #oin# from the 1 of a minor chord to the 6 of that chord. An an : minor chord this would e* f to e to e to d. This results in the followin# chords* :m :mHmaj7 :m7 :m6. 5ere's an e,ample of the line clichM. It's the first 9 ars of In 1alked 4ud, composed y Thelonious 'onk, a rilliant and "ery eccentric piano player and one of the pioneers of e op

58

.nother "ery well known son# that uses the line cliche is (tairway to 5ea"en from 2ed Neppelin.

%.- Rh'th2 Cha#(es


In 1E-J 1eor"e 1ershwin wrote a son# called "I Got Rhythm". (ince then countless jazz compositions ha"e een made that use the chord pro#ression of that tune in one of its many modifications. The chord pro#ression is known as Rhythm Changes. >hythm chan#es started to e popular in the swin# era, ut #ot e"en more popular in the e op era. 2ots of new themes were written o"er this chord pro#ression &a new theme makes a new tune, so no royalties had to e paid to 3ershwin). $ompositions like this are called contrafact or heads. 5ere are some e,amples of >hythm $han#es*

.nthropolo#y, 'oose the 'ooche &$harlie 6arker) The :linstones &5oyt $urtin) +o 'oe, Aleo &(onny >ollins) >hythmBaBnin# &Thelonious 'onk) (alt 6eanuts, (haw +uff &/izzy 3illespie) (e"en $ome 0le"en &$harlie $hristian) The Theme &'iles /a"is) (uspone &'ike (tern) /uke &=lf 1akenius) =nchan#ed >hythm &Goe /iorio)

>hythm $han#es are a -8B ar chord pro#ression in the ..4. form. They can e ?uiet dauntin# to impro"ise o"er ecause they are played "ery fast most of the time. 5ere's the asic pro#ression* 59

:Bb :Bb :Bb :Bb :D, :C, :Bb :Bb

G/, :C/, #, :Bb G/, :C/, #, : Bb, :Eb Eb/ :Bb G/, :C/, #, : G/, :C/, #, :Bb G/, :C/, Bb, :Eb Eb/ :Bb #, :Bb : : :G, :#, : : : #, : : : #, : :

G/, :C/, #, :Bb G/, :C/, Bb, :Eb Eb/ :Bb #, :Bb

%.1.-The A &art
The asic uildin# lock of the . part of a rhythm chan#es is a simple diatonic I B 7I B II B 7 pro#ression. In ar 5 the 4 7 introduces the I7 in the 6th ar. The I7 chan#es to a I7m. $hances are that the tempo in which you are playin# !hythm "hanges is "ery hi#h, so you may want to keep it asic. 5ere's how to keep it asic on the . part*

4 major scale : e op scale / minor pentatonic .rpe##io's 3uide tone lines

'ake sure you outline the harmony in the 5th and 6th ar. Important notes are the 7 of 4 7 and the - of the 0 m. There's a chromatic #uide tone line #oin# from the 4 to the 0 m that outlines what is happenin# harmonically &the oran#e notes in the followin# e,ample)*

5ere's a "ariation of the . part that was popular in the swin" era*

:Bb :Bb

BA, :C/, Bb,.D :Eb

C-A, :D/, G, :C/, #, EA, :Bb.# G,-* :C/, #,

: :

5ere's what happens*


The 3m7 in ar 1, - and 7 is su stituted y 37 4ar 1* the 37 is su stituted y 4@7 &C37 E) to #et the chromatic line to $m7 4ar -* the /m7 is the II of 37 60

4ar 8* the $;@7 is in fact .7 E &the 7 of II) and continues the chromatic line initiated in ar 1

5ere's an e,ample of a line that you can play o"er these chan#es. The chromatics are in oran#e &I lo"e oran#e)*

The followin# "ariation of the . part ecame popular in the %e%op era and is the "ersion that is used the most often today*

:Bb G,b' :C/, #,b' :D/, G,b' :C/, #,b' : :#/, Bb,b' :Eb/aj, Ab,-(( :D/, G,b' :C/, #,b' :

The diminished chords of the pre"ious "ersion are chan#ed for the chords they were su stitutes for, the dominants. The dominants are all altered or E There's more mo"ement in the 5th ar where the 7 of the I7 #ets its II &sounds like a soap) The . 7;11 in ar 6 is the tritone su stitute for /7, the 7 of 37 in ar 7.

5ere's an e,ample "oice leadin# for ars 5BI*

%.".-The / &art
+ow the 4Bpart of the >hythm $han#es. The rid#e is uild out of secondar' dominants &Cdominant of the dominant) . The tonality is 4 major, so the primary dominant is :7, the chord in the last 8 ars of the rid#e. 2et's start ack cyclin# from there* the dominant of :7 is $7, the dominant of $7 is 37 and that of 37 is /7, the first chord of the rid#e. (o if we sum that up, we come to this*

:D, :C,

: :

:G, :#,

: : :

The o "ious scales to play are*

/7* / 'i,olydian 61

37* 3 'i,olydianH 3 altered $7* $ 'i,olydian :7* : 'i,olydianH : altered

In the e op era they put the II in front of the 7 and we #et what we call a back cycle*

:A/ :G/,

:D, :C,

:D/, :C/,

:G, :#,

: :

5ere's an e,ample of what you can play o"er this chord pro#ression &sorry #uys and #irls, it seems that I am in chromaticBdescendin#B#uideBtoneBlines mood)*

In ar 6 I use an : minor harmonic scale. Af course we can also use the tritone su%stitution for all the dominants. Then we #et a chromatic rid#e like this*

:D, :C,

: :

:Db, :B,

: : :

.nd we can ha"e more fun y addin# the II*

:A/, :G/,

:D, :C,

:Ab/, :#-/,

:Db, :B,

: :

).-@es M #t( 2er'-St'le Ch r! S l s


Thinkin# a out addin# improvised <es ont"omer'8st'le chord lines to your arsenal% Technically, when considerin# the material that a performer plays, there are no mysteries* we can analyze, understand, transcri e, and e,plain e"erythin#. 1hat is not so easy to #et a #rasp on is 62

the part of the performance that has to do with creati"e flow, e"ol"ed personal style, and those thin#s that sprin# forth from the spiritual well. 1e mi#ht think of 1es 'ont#omeryOs impro"isation style as ein# concerned with Punit structureQ or PconstructionismQ. 0ssentially, melodic pieces are linked to#ether in phrases, creatin# a chain which uilds in e,citement and tells a kind of story. (ome of these melodic fra"ments stand alone and are not de"eloped, ut are rather simply melodic statements. Ather fra#ments may e repeated, uilt on, and de"eloped. (till other phrases make use of the lues "oca ulary and are riffBstyle in nature, possi ly with or without further de"elopment. This is part of the constructionist approach* one esta lishes a personal voca%ular' and drawsHimpro"ises phrases from that, in a fashion where these phrases, statements, riffs and motifs are all threaded to#ether in a cohesi"e way and fit the underlyin# chord chan#es of the son#. E(ample 4 demonstrates a fa"ored 1es de"ice* the parallel mo"ement of a diminished form, in the e,ecution of the lues scale sound. It resol"es to its tonic &:7).

1hen it comes to the chord lines techni?ue, I ha"e found it can only e learned throu#h years of transcri%in" chord patterns from those who did it successfully &especially 1es, $al $ollins, 4arney Dessel). 6ractice playin# chord line patterns o"er and o"er in as many keys as possi le and the art of linkin# the stock patterns to#ether o"er standard tunes. It is one of the most ad"anced of jazz #uitar techni?ues, and re?uires a lot of study in order to arri"e at a functional "oca ulary that also em odies the playerOs personal style. E(ample 2 elow shows how the tonal centers can e used for strin#in# to#ether phrases drawn from major and dominant 7 tonalities. 4roadly speakin#, when you practice for this techni?ue, you practice and memorize phrases that fit "arious harmonic situations*

6rases that are tonic I &major) in nature. 6hrases that are dominant 7 in nature &an area that includes interchan#ea le ii and 7 chords). 6hrases that are tonic i &minor) in nature. 6hrases that employ the lues tonality. 6hrases that fit diminished areas.

An a tune such as #ays of $ine and !oses, you can approach the chan#es as demonstrated in e,ample 8*

A"er the first :maj7 chord, you can apply a "ariation of stock phrases that ha"e a tonic I function. The 0 7 pro"ides an opportunity to apply "ariations of standard dominant 7 patterns. 63

The followin# /7 pro"ides two entire measures and can e a se?uence &the 0 7 pattern played down a half step). Ar, the /7 space pro"ides plenty of room to impro"ise afresh with the many stock phrases &in "ariation form) that ha"e een preBlearned which fit o"er dominant 7 chords

In order to spontaneously e,ecute this techni?ue, a player '=(T ha"e a methodolo#y for creatin# a line of chords. Atherwise, the player has only a concept for compin#, ut not creatin# a line. The techni?ue is all a out how a line of chords is constructed and then how the chord lines are connected o"er chan#in# tonal centersK

E(ample 7 shows a typical pattern that has a iiB7 function. It can also e used as a $ /orian type of center. This is e,emplary of a line that lends the ii and 7 chords.

E(ample , demonstrates a line that can function as a / dominant 7, ut usin# chromaticism &alternatin# etween 0 7 and /7).

64

ItOs a dauntin# task to de"elop this "oca ulary of chord lines, that is why so few players are "ersed in the techni?ueK The est place to start is in the keepin# of a musical journal. A"er many years I ha"e found the followin# to e helpful, with all the work kept in a note ook that I continually use for dail' practice*

Transcri in# the chord lines of the masters &this can e entire solos, or select phrases). Turnin# e op lines into chord lines. 6racticin# chord lines in their application in the road areas of tonic &especially major7 and minor7), dominant &the road area of iiB7 functions)R diminished, and lues phrases. 6racticin# linkin# these phrases to#ether o"er standard tunes. 1ritin# out entire chord solos. (in#in# e"erythin# that I practice. 6racticin# repetiti"ely the phrases I am tryin# to incorporate into my impro"isational "oca ulary.

The work is worth the effort. 6layin# lines of impro"ised chords adds a whole new, and e,citin#, dimension to your playin#S.and we collecti"ely ad"ance the craft of jazz #uitarK

+elate) ,e on <

;es Mont3o/eryBs G$itar Gear ;es Mont3o/ery Cic>s

+.-G'1s' Jazz Guitar: Mel !' 4 I21r :isati # A Gypsy Jazz Guitar Lesson by Steve Mac5eady
This lesson is an introduction on how to play "'ps' jazz "uitar. This style is most associated with the #ypsy #uitarist /jan#o >einhardt, who found fame in the 1E-JTs playin# his own uni?ue style of swin# music alon#side the "iolinist &tephane 1rappelli. Ather "'ps' jazz "uitarists include 4ireli 2a#rene, /iz /isley and Ian $ruikshank B I stron#ly recommend $ruikshankOs ook 'The 3uitar (tyle of /jan#o >einhardt and the 3ypsies' for any one interested in this style. 4ecause this is Gazz music, there is not one definitive scale or one distincti"e mode that characterizes the 3ypsy Gazz sound, howe"er a #ood knowled#e of arpe##ios is a useful way to start and a #reat way to enter into the spirit of this style.

+.1.-Ar1e((i s
.rpe##ios are the read and utter of #ypsy jazz #uitar. /jan#o would often use triads, here are 8 e,amples* E()4= >Chica"o?* this first e,ample is an :maj7 arpe##io that starts on the 7. +ote that while descendin#, the 7 is no lon#er played, only the : triad. 65

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

E() 2= >;ua"es?* 5ere's an e,ample from /jan#o's famous composition +ua#es. It starts with a simple $ triad that is repeated half a tone hi#her.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

In this "ideo /jan#o >einhardt plays +ua#es on electric &K) #uitar* It is not true that in order to create comple, melodic lines you ha"e to know your scales. I wouldnOt e"er put anyone off learnin# scales U ut e?ually /jan#o >einhardt often used nothin# more than simple arpe""ios to create lon"6 melodic lines. In the 3ypsy jazz style, chords can mo"e pretty ?uickly, often two chords to a ar. This easily allows melodic lines to e formed, pro"ided you know your arpe##ios well. 4elow are two e,amples of eautifully de"eloped lines, completely ased on arpe##iosK E()7= >;ua"es?* from an : triad to a 4 m triad and ack.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

66

E,.): AI ca#Bt Gi:e C u A#'thi#( /ut L :eD: starts with an 0m7 arpe##io, to a 4dim7 arpe##io o"er .7 and resol"es to the 7 of /m. >eco#nize the :maj7 chord shape played o"er /m. 4ar - opens with a / triad, the 7 is introduced on eat - efore #oin# to an 0 dim arpe##io and resol"in# to the - of 3.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

7ery often /jan#o will com%ine arpe""ios with the odd scale note* one "ery common lick, and an e,ample of this type arpe##ioHscale com ination, is a minor run that that can e played in any key and really e"okes the T3ypsy soundO when played fluently* E().= 3un in E minor* an 0 minor arpe##io with added E 67

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

E() := 3un in D minor* same as the pre"ious e,ample, ut in /

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

+.".-Lic>s 4 Tric>s
/jan#o had limited use of his left hand &it was adly urnt in a fire) and he de"eloped a uni?ue way of playin# chords runs and solos. $on"entional techni?ue was not an option to him and so he in"ented many tricks that ha"e now ecome standard #uitar techni?ues oth within and outside the 3ypsy Gazz style. Vuite simply, lon# flowin# lines ased on scales and modes are not a feature of /jan#o's style. 5is left hand style is "ery TchoppyO and full of staccato notes at faster temposR ut this is alanced y an amazin"l' a"ile ri"ht hand and /jan#o was a le to create wonderful effects as a result. (ome typical /jan#o patterns and tricks are shown elow.

E()7= Diminished 3un* this #uitar lick can e played o"er /7, :7, . 7 or 47. The first note of each chord is picked with an up stroke. The followin# notes are swept downwards creatin# a lo"ely ripplin# effect. The ri#ht hand needs to e "ery accurate while the left hand merely keeps the same shape throu#hout.

Listen & Play


68

==<== . ==<==

E()@= Chromatic &cale* Anly two fin#ers are used for this chromatic scale. :in#er one on the :, and the second fin#er for all the rest of the notes. 1hen played accurately this lick instantly e"okes the 3ypsy style. It is tricky at first ut well worth the effort. The key is to synchronize the pickin# ri#ht hand with the notes on the fretB oard as you slide up the neck.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

E()5= Dominant Chord Lic$ with two fin"ers* This lick is a humorous little tailpiece to a chord pro#ression. :or the most part it uses a distance of only two frets and only fin#ers one and two are needed. Typical /jan#o.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

here is more D$ango +ein(ar)t o$t there<

69

Djan3o 5einhardtBs Bio3ra!hy Djan3o 5einhardtBs G$itars Djan3o 5einhardt G$itar Cic>s -.- I#tr !ucti # t I#!ia# Classical Music 3 r Guitar

A Guitar Lesson by Pra>ash 1arry


This article #i"es an introduction to the Indian usic system and its core elements and pro"ides insi#ht into applyin# its #rammar and techni?ue on #uitar. $lassical Indian music and jazz may sound "ery different ut at least one factor is "ery important to oth styles of music* improvisation.

-.1.-The I#!ia# Music S'ste2 - I#tr !ucti #


The Indian music system's ori#ins date ack to the *edic period &8JJJB6JJJ years a#o). In this period, se"eral literary te,ts and "erses &7edas) were sun# in musical patterns which formed the ase of the Indian music system. In later years &19th B15th $entury ./), Indian music #ot roadly classified into two classical forms of music*

5industani music &+orth India) $arnatic music &(outh India)

This di"ide was mainly due to the difference in st'les) followin# the 6ersianH'u#hal in"asion of +orthern India, which rou#ht a lot of influence into 5industani 'usic. Thou#h 5industani and $arnatic 'usic share a lot of common aspects &phrasin# techni?ues, similar ra#as, etc.), each one has a distinct structure of its own. These systems ha"e continued to li"e o"er the centuries and are still performed with traditional e,pertise, and at times also incorporatin# modern music elements into them.

-.".-Guitar Tu#i#(: @ester# :s I#!ia# Tu#i#(


.lthou#h all e,amples of ra#as discussed in this article will relate to the standard western tunin#, this tunin# is not the ideal #uitar tunin# for Indian music. The ideal #uitar tunin# for classical Indian 'usic has alternate strin#s tuned to the tonic and the dominant &perfect 5th) notes. The Tonic is normally taken as / or 0 due to feasi ility issues on the 3uitar. These 8 tunin#s are typical for Indian music*

(? D A D A D D 4? B E B
70

E B E
In the first tunin#, the first &hi#hest) strin# on the #uitar is omitted. The reason to use this tunin# is ecause the tonic and the dominant notes are the least comple, to play in a system that in"ol"es playin# defined microtonal slides called T3amakasO. 1ama$as are the main phrasin# techni?ue in Indian 'usic and it e,plains how different notes are phrased relati"e to each other for different ra#as.

-.%.-@hat Are Ra(as a#! ; 9 are The' $i33ere#t *r 2 ScalesE


3a"as form the asis of the $lassical Indian 'usic system. . ra#a may e defined as a specific collection of notes >semitonal values?6 pla'ed to"ether with a specific "rammar of 1ama$as >microtonal slides?. 3a"as and scales are ?uite common at the top level) In effect, oth ra#as and scales are merely a specific collection of musical notes played in a specific order, in ascent and descent. 5owe"er the #rammar of the 3amakas and its phrasin# rin#s a completely different identityHte,ture to a ra#a and it cannot e musically compared to its e?ui"alent scale, played as a collection of plain notes. The ra#a therefore, is purely dependent on the specific 3amakas phrasin# applied to it &which differs for each ra#a), in the a sence of which it is merely a collection of notes aka a scale.

-.).-The I#!ia# EFui:ale#t 3 r the 1" Se2it #es


The followin# ta le relates the 18 semitone sa"aila le to us in the 1estern tunin# system to its Indian e?ui"alent name references &&waras). 4efore readin# the ta le, you need to understand that Indian music notes are not a solute "alues like their western counterparts. They are all relati"e to the tonic note &&hadjam), which is fi,ed to a reference "alue namely $ or / or any other semitonal "alue. 5ere we assume our tonic to e /, for easy reference while playin#. &in the "ideo more elow we also use the tonic / as (hadjam).

Table 1 Semitone D (tonic) D# E F F# &n)ian S-ara S @ S(a)$am/Sa0 5( @ S$ddha +i (ab(am/+i10 54 @ Chat$sr$thi +i (ab(am/+i20 5) @ Shatsr$thi +i (ab(am /+i30 G) @ Anthara Gan)(aram /Ga30
71

E.ui*alent !one 'alue

G( @ S$ddha Gan)(aram /Ga10 G4 @ Sadharana Gan)(aram /Ga20

G G# A (do/inant.!er2ect *th) A# B C C#

M( @ S$ddha 1a)("amam/1a10 M4 @ Prati 1a)("amam /1a20 P @ 2anc(amam /2a0 D( @ S$ddha D(ai*at(am /Da10 D4 @ Chat$sr$thi D(ai*at(am /Da20 D) @ Shatsr$thi D(ai*at(am /Da30 ") @ Ea>ali 3i (a)(am /3i30 "( @ S$ddha 3i (a)(am /3i10 "4 @ Eaisi>i 3i (a)(am /3i20

This ta le classifies, the 18 semitones of the 1estern tunin# system, to relati"e Indian (wara names. The %asic seven notes are (a, >i, 3a, 'a, 6a, /a, +i with "ariations*

Sa F (

5i F )

Ga F )

Ma F 4

Pa F (

Da F )

"i F )

The manner in which they are named as &>iH3a) and &/aH+i) for same "alues, depends on the relati"e notes occurrin# in the ra#a, and differs from case to case. %To be discussed in detail in later articles&

-.+.-Mel !' :s. ;ar2 #'


The eauty of the Indian 'usic system lies in its comple, melodic structure, rou#ht out with the well defined phrasin# techni?ue of 3amakas. In 1estern music scales are uilt with a stron# foundation in harmony. $arnatic music focuses on permutation of all a"aila le semitonal "alues &swaras). This #i"es rise to the foundation of the family of ra#as, called the Melakartha System &in $arnatic 'usic). The 'elakartha system is a set of 72 parent ra"as. 0ach of these ra#as contain all se"en notes &swaras) of the octa"e in oth ascendin# and descendin# order. These 78 ra#as &parent) alon# with their deri"ed ra#as &child) e,haust all possi le melodic com inations a"aila le to us throu#h all music forms across the world. That rin#s to li#ht the depth in melodic structure in $arnatic 'usic. 5ence it is important to understand that melody and phrasin# of $arnatic music is "ery comple, compared to the 1estern music system, which in turn shows its comple,ity in harmony of musical notes.

-.-.-; 9 t

&la' &e#tat #ic Scales - I#!ia# St'le ACar#aticD

In this section we e,plore the possi ility of playin# the well known pentatonic scales, as e?ui"alent $arnatic ra#as. The >a#as we will take for reference are Suddha Dhanyas and Mohanam.

72

The swaras for Suddha Dhanyas are &see Ta le 1 a o"eR the 1estern e?ui"alent note is etween parenthesis). !ou'll notice the notes of the (uddha /hanyasi are the same as those of the minor pentatonic scale &of / in this case)*

Sa (D)

Ga4 (#)

Ma( (G)

Pa (A)

"i4 (C)

The video lesson shows how to play the runs in the ascent and descent, and some asic phrasin# and impro"isation for Suddha #hanyasi F 'ohanam. Try the phrase impro"isation demonstrated on the lesson, after playin# the notated ascentBdescent run. 4elow you can find the notation for these ra#as. The ta s demonstrate the ascent and descent playin# for Suddha #hanyasi F 'ohanam in order.

The notes in !LL C!P& are the sylla le of the swara played The %old8italic notes are the notes to e plucked &on ri#ht hand) The arrows depict the slide flow of notes from one to another &without pluckin# the strin#) . point after a swara means one octa"e hi#her* (a.

Let me give you the first line %ascent& in the notation below as an e(ample)

Play an open # on the *th string Then stri+e the open # again, and slide all the way up to - and come bac+ to . on the same string, all in one flow, without pluc+ing any more notes Stri+e - and A on the same string Now, Stri+e A on the open/- 0rd string, and slide all the way up to # and come bac+ to " on the same string Stri+e # on 0rd string again

(imilarly try the descent approach, applyin# the similar techni?ue.. &uddha Dhan'asi 3a"a !scent Carnatic ;otation= S! A Sa UW 'a UW 3. X M! A P! A Pa UW (a. UW +I A S! <estern ;otation= D A d UW # UW : A G Descent S!" D A Sa UW +I A d UW $ X P! A M! A Ma UW 3. A Ga UW (. A A ! A G A g UW : A # UW / A A ! A a UW d UW $ A D A A

+ow, try the ascentBdescent run for 'ohanam >a#a, applyin# the similar techni?ue. 73

ohanam 3a"a !scent S! D A Sa UW 3a UW >I A G! A P! A Pa UW (a. UW /. A S!" A A d UW f; UW 0 A $% A ! A a UW d UW 4 A D A

Descent S!" D A Sa"UW /. A P! A G! A Ga UW >I A Ga 7 UW >i UW 3a8 UW (. A A d UW 4 A ! A $% A #% UW 0 A # B UW e UW f UW / A

).-Jazz /lues
1.-Jazz /lues Guitar
Ane of the ori#ins of jazz music is the lues and you can clearly hear that influence in jazz today. In this lesson we'll ha"e a look at the %lues' side of jazz.

1.1.-/lues Scales 4 the /lue N te


The scales that are used the most in lues music are the i(ol'dian scale and the pentatonic scale, oth enhanced with %lue notes. 4lue +otes are a drop of pitch of the -, 5 and 7 of a major scale. 'ost of the time when someone refers to the lues scale they mean the pentatonic minor scale with a b1 %blue note&. 'ost of the lues' harmony consists of dominant chords. 1hy is it that playin# a minor scale o"er a dominant chord sounds so #ood% 4ecause the - of the pentatonic scale is a lue note to the dominant chord and the tension of the - of the scale a#ainst the natural - of the chord creates the typical lues sound. !ou can use this tension in your solos y playin# with the contrast etween the lue note and the natural -. (ome techni?ues to do this*

5ammer on or slide from the - to the natural 'i, the 'i,olydian scale with the lues scale

5ere's an e,ample of mi(in" scales*

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The first part uses the $ 'i,olydian scale &with a natural -), the second half of the second ar uses the $ minor pentatonic scale &with a flat -). 5ere's another lues lick. It uses a %lues scale in 1.

:or more e,amples of the %lues scale, listen to recordin#s of lues #uitarists like (te"ie >ay 7au#han or 44 Din#. :or e,amples of the lues scale in jazz, check out jazz #uitarists like 3eor#e 4enson or Denny 4urrell. There are some other ways you can use the lues scale. 5a"e a look at the followin# #uitar ta s*

These are the first ei"ht %ars of a %lues chord pro"ression in +. The traditional way to use the lues scale would e usin# the : lues scale on the :7 chord, ut instead I play the / lues scale on the :7 chord. +unctions of the D %lues scale over +7* 1-, 1, E, -, - and 5. !ou see there is oth the lue note and the natural third in it. An the 4 7 I use the : lues scale* +unctions of the + %lues scale over #%7* 5, 7, 1, E, E and 11. 2ook out for the E, don't stop on the flat E, resol"e it into the E or the 1. (omethin# similar happens in this lick*

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It starts with an : arpe##io, followed y a /m7 arpe##io in ar 8. +ote that the 7 of :7 is delayed until the last ar. /oin# so creates "ariation and is a #ood techni?ue to announce the chord chan#e to 4 7.

More alternative $ses o2 the !entatonic scale 1.".-/lues Ch r!s 4 Ch r! &r (ressi #s
The majority of lues chords are dominant 7 chords. 'ore a out $hords The foundation of chord pro"ressions used in lues is the 18 ar lues with its many "arieties. 'ore a out 4lues $hord 6ro#ressions <al$in" %ass is a fre?uently used ass #uitar techni?ue in lues. . 2esson a out :in#erstyle 1alkin# 4ass 1.%.-$ u0le St 1s . techni?ue used a lot in lues are dou le stops* pla'in" 2 notes simultaneousl'. 5ere's an e,ample*

1ore Blue 4ere5


Ex!and Go$r 8a66 Bl$es Solos ;ith ( Si/!le Sha!e 8a66 Bl$es G$itar< Masterin3 the +I Chord 8a66 Bl$es ritone S$bstit$tions ".-E,1a#! C ur Jazz /lues S l i#( @ith 1 Si21le Sha1e
1hen learnin# how to pla' Jazz #lues on the #uitar, one of the first steps is to e a le to impro"ise o"er /ominant 7th chords usin# at least a few different scales and arpe##ios to keep thin#s interestin# as you uild up your impro"isational "oca ulary. Ane of my fa"orite ways to do this is to e,plore a ver' particular chord shape, a 7th chord with a 5th strin# root, that sits nicely on the neck and that contains all of the scales and arpe##ios you need to outline 7th chords in different keys all across the fret oard.

76

In this lesson, youOll rin# these sounds into your practice routine and out into the jam room as you e,plore the arpe##ios, 'ajor 4lues, 'i,olydian and 4e op (cales that fit within this chord shape, as well as 7 classic soundin" lic$s that are uilt from these melodic de"ices. (o #ra your a,e, turn up your amp, pour 'our favorite %evera"e and di# in to these concepts as you e,pand your Gazz 4lues soloin# "oca ulary.

".1.-$ 2i#a#t .th Ch r! Sha1e


To e#in, weOll look at the chord shape that will underline the scales, arpe##ios and licks that we will work throu#h durin# this lesson. The first two %ars in the e,ample elow show the open position chords that the mo"ea le shape is deri"ed from. In the first ar you can see an openBposition $ major chord, and in ar 8 you can see the openBposition $7 chord that comes from that $ major shape. 1e will focus on +7 in this lesson to keep thin#s simple, ut you can play this chord on any fret and in any key across the neck of the #uitar, the lowest note of the shape tells you the name of the chord that you playin# such as $7, :7, 4 7 etc. In the third %ar I ha"e written out the plain : major chord followed y the :7 chord in %ar , to show you the same uildin# locks as you saw in the first two ars with the $ and $7 chords.

".".-$ 2i#a#t .th Ar1e((i

Sha1e

The first melodic device weOll check out is the 9Bnote arpe##io that is uilt around our chord shape, which in this key is :7 &: . $ 0 ). Try playin# the chord, then runnin# up and down the arpe##io, then playin# the chord a#ain to see how the two fit to#ether, doin# so in all 42 $e's across the neck to #et a #ood fret oard workout as well as learn the arpe##io at the same time. The #oal is to not only see the relationship %etween the arpe""io and the chord, ut to also e a le to impro"ise and create music with the arpe##io in different keys across the neck.

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Ane trick that I like to do with this arpe##io shape is add in the %7 to the arpe##io, rin#in# in a it of a lues fla"or. In the key of :, the - is the . . .ddin# this note to your arpe##io shape will make your lines more %lues', and you can use that e,tra note to slide, hammer or pullBoff into the ne,t note in the scale, #i"in# you added te,tures that you can rin# to your jazz lues lines.

".%.-Ma< r /lues Scale Sha1e


The second melodic device we will check out within this :7 chord shape is the 'ajor 4lues (cale*

# G

Ab A

.#ain, learn the position alon# with the chord shape, and the arpe##io shape since you already ha"e that down, and then once youO"e worked on the technical side of this scale and memorized itR improvise with it in different keys and pro#ression across the neck. :eel free to mi, in the arpe##io as well as the chord itself when you are soloin# with the 'ajor 4lues (cale, addin# e,tra layers of melodic and harmonic te,ture to your lines.

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".).-Mi, l'!ia# M !e Sha1e


+ow weOll check out the shape. i(ol'dian mode, the fifth mode of the major scale, uilt around this :7

This is a seven8note scale that contains the followin# notes*

A Bb

Eb

Ance you can play this scale from memor', put on a ackin# track and use this new scale to impro"ise o"er "amps and common chord chan#es, mi,in# in the arpe##io and 'ajor 4lues (cale when you feel ready.

".+.-$ 2i#a#t /e0 1 Scale Sha1e


1e can also e,pand the 'i,olydian 'ode y addin" in one e(tra note, the major 7th inter"al or 0 natural in this key, to produce the /ominant 4e op (cale. This scale also fits nicely under the :7 chord shape we are workin# with in this lesson. Ane word of caution* a"oid restin# or sittin# on the 0 natural note in your lines. That note is #reat for passin# from the 0 to : and "iceB"ersa, ut it will sound fairly harsh if you stop on that note durin# your solos. (o, use the note as much as your ears are comforta le with, ut for now I would say avoid stoppin" and sittin" on that note as you donOt want to create too much tension that it takes away from the o"erall effecti"eness of your lines.

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".-.-% *. Lic>s * r *urther Stu!'


To finish this lesson, IO"e written out three e(amples of lines that you can use uilt from the :7 chord shape used throu#hout the article. This first lic$ comes from the 'ajor 4lues (cale and is a classic jazz lick that IOm sure youOll reco#nize from the solos of some of your fa"orite jazz #uitarists. .#ain, learn all of these licks o"er the :7 chord. Then take them around the neck. Ance you ha"e them memorized, impro"ise with them o"er "amps and common chan#es, mi,in# the licks with the scales and arpe##ios we studied in this lesson.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

The second lic$ mi,es rin#s in some more chromatic notes and 4e op "oca ulary, especially in the first half of the first ar and the first half of the second ar. Those two sections are common patterns used y 4e op and 6ostB4op jazz #uitarists in many different conte,ts, so if you like those sounds it would e worth takin# those patterns out of the lar#er lick and workin# them into your playin# on their own.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

80

The third lic$ uses a "ariation of the P5oneysuckle >oseQ melody in the first ar, followed y the : /ominant 4e op (cale and a 4e op pattern to finish the line. The first si, notes of the first ar are a#ain a common 4e op and 6ostB4op pattern that would e worth e,plorin# further on their own, out of the conte,t of this lar#er line as a whole.

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

+ow that you ha"e checked out all the different scales and arpe##ios that you can e,plore within this one chord shape, you can see why itOs an important device to ha"e under your fin#ers and why many jazz #uitarists use it in their soloin# and melody playin#. 1hat do you think of this shape and how does it work for you% Join in on the discussion for this lesson and 5ead on o"er to the Gazz 3uitar :orum...

%.-Jazz /lues Trit #e Su0stituti #s


1hen learnin# how to pla' Jazz #lues "uitar, it is not only essential to learn how to na"i#ate the standard chan#es, ut also to check out some of the common su s used y le#endary players such as Goe 6ass, 1es 'ont#omery and others. Ane of the most common su s is addin# in a tritone su%stitution to ar four of the Gazz 4lues form. This chord not only creates a le"el of tension in your compin# and soloin#, it also flows smoothly from the I7 chord in ar three and resol"es nicely to the I77 chord in ar fi"e, #i"in# you an PinsideBoutsideBinsideQ sound in your jazz #uitar playin# when usin# this su . In this lesson youOll e,plore the ack#round ehind addin# this su stitution to the Gazz 4lues form, as well as check out how to appl' this technique to your compin# and soloin# when you take it to the woodshed, jam room or and stand.

81

.ll of the e,amples elow are written out o"er a Gazz 4lues pro#ression in the $e' of +. To make sure you #et a wellBrounded approach to this topic, e sure to take these su s, chord shapes and licks into as many other keys as you can when workin# these ideas in the woodshed.

%.1.- /lues: The *irst ) /ars


4efore we di# into the different su s presented in this lesson, letCs review the first four %ars of a Jazz #lues chord pro"ression in case these chan#es are new to you or itOs een a while since youO"e worked on them. The standard Gazz 4lues chord pro#ression has three chords played within the span of the first four ars as shown in the e,ample elow*

%.".-Jazz /lues: The *irst ) /ars @ith Trit #e Su0s


+ow you can spice thin#s up a it y addin# in a tritone su%stitution into %ar ,, as you can see with the 47 chord in the e,ample elow. The 47 is called the PTritone (u stitutionQ of :7 ecause %oth chords share the same tritone interval. Tritone C ;9 inter"al

The -rd and 7th of +7* . and 0 The 7th and -rd of #7* . and /; &C0 )

2ike you can see, the notes are the same and the inter"al etween oth of these notes is a tritone.

2et's see how this works on the #uitar*

3ra the notes ! &8nd fret -rd strin#) and E% &1st fret 9th strin#) and play the root + &1st fret 6th strin#). It will sound like an :7 chord*

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Then, keep the top two notes where they are and simply move the + to a # &8nd fret 5th strin#) and now that chord will sound like a 47*

6retty cool ri#htK !ou can use this #7 in %ar four of a %lues ecause the 47 resol"es down y a halfBstep to the 4 7 chord in ar 5 of the lues*

+ow that weO"e e,plored the whyOs and howOs, letCs appl' this technique to a compin# and soloin# situation o"er a Gazz 4lues in : pro#ression.

%.%.-C 21i#( E,a21le


!ou can use any 7th ased chord when applyin# a tritone su to the fourth ar of a Gazz 4lues, dependin# on the conte,t and musical situation you are in. 4ut, one chord that a lot of players like to use when applyin# a tritone su is the 7B44 sound*

+otice that the B44 interval of the tritone su &: or 0; to e more e,act) is the same note as the root of the I7 chord &:7 in this key). 83

This ;11 inter"al pro"ides a further connection to the I7 chord, alon# with the -rd and 7th as we saw earlier, helpin# you to step PoutsideQ of the written chord chan#es, ut still maintain ties to the tonic key of the tune. Listen to the .udio for the Tritone (u $ompin# 0,ample*

==<== . ==<==

%.).-Lic> E,a21le
!ou can also apply the tritone su stitution to your soloin" to create a le"el of tension that is then resol"ed when you arri"e at the I77 chord in ar fi"e. There are two thin#s to $eep in mind in order to apply this techni?ue in a smooth and pleasin# soundin# manner*

The first thin# to keep in mind is that arpe##ios and arpe""io %ased lines are usually a #ood way to #o when first learnin# how to apply the tritone su to your solos. .rpe##ios help to outline the chord chan#es in a "ery definiti"e way, and so they can really rin# the sound of the tritone su to the forefront of your lines. The second thin# to keep in mind is that you will need to resolve your tritone su line in the ne,t ar of the tune to make it sound con"incin# to the listener.

If you keep this in your mind as you are workin# these chan#es in the practice room, then you will e a le to mo"e from an PinsideQ sound in ar 7, to an PoutsideQ sound in ar ,, efore resol"in# to an PinsideQ sound in ar . in a smooth, and easy to follow manner. $heck out the lick elow as an e,ample of how to apply the tritone su to a sin#leBnote line. Ance youO"e worked this line in the practice room, try and come up with some of 'our own lic$s and phrases that use this techni?ue. It's is etter to work with a %ac$in" trac$ on this approach as it will allow you to familiarize your ears with the sound of the tritone su approach in your solos. To learn more a out uildin# and playin# licks such as this one, check out the article 0,pand !our Gazz 4lues (oloin# 1ith 1 (imple (hape Listen to the .udio for the Tritone (u 2ick 0,ample* 84

==<== . ==<==

.ddin# the tritone su to ar four of a Gazz 4lues $hord pro#ression is not only a "reat wa' to step outside of the "iven chord chan"es, addin# some tension and release to your compin#Hsoloin# alon# the way, ut it is a fun and relati"ely easy way to rin# a su used y such #reat players as Goe 6ass and 1es 'ont#omery into your jazz #uitar playin# today. If you liked this lesson or ha"e any questions re#ardin# this material, join us o"er at the :orum Thread a out Gazz 4lues...

+.- Guitar Tech#iFue


1.-Guitar Tech#iFue 4 @ar2 U1
5ere are some techni?ue and warm up e,ercises that can help you to #ain fluency, speed and accuracy on the #uitar neck. It's a #ood idea to do some of these e,ercises e"ery day. /on't do them too lon# at a time, it's etter to e,ercise re#ularly &daily) for a short time. !ou #ain the most out of these e,ercises if you use a metronome. (tart slow and uilt up the speed. /on't force yourself into a tempo that you're not ready for. 'ake sure your arms and wrists are rela(ed. :ailin# to do so may result in a >(I like tendinitis &wrist inflammation). Gust to make sure we understand eachother in terms of fin#er namin# &warning* the num ers on the ta s elow are not fin#er num ers, ut fret num ers)*

1.1.-@ar2 U1 E,ercises his 2irst exercise hel!s to develo! yo$r 2l$ency& s!eed and le2t hand@ri3ht hand coordination? Start slo9 and b$ild $! the s!eed? Hse 2in3ers (& 4& ) and 0 o2 yo$r le2t hand& donBt s>i! the little 2in3er? Hse a !ic> and do alternate !ic>in3? he exercise doesnBt sto! at the end o2 the tabs& contin$e 2or the rest o2 the nec>? Be 5ECADEDI
85

The ne,t e,ercise trains your indi"idual fin#ers. :irst do the e,ercise with fin#ers 1 and 8. +e,t round use fin#ers 8 and -. Then use fin#ers - and 9. /o the e,ercise up to the 18th fret and for those of you who can't #et enou#h of it, ack from the 18th to the first. .nd remem er* >02.YK

1.".-Stri#( S>i11i#( E,ercises


The followin# set of e,ercises train your pickin# a ilities.

This is one of ass player Gohn 6atitucci &if I remem er it well). 5appy skippin#K

The ne,t e,ercise uses the 3 major scale. It speaks for itself that you can use all #uitar scales. Ah, when you reached the last note on the ta , don't stop, ut #o ack &I admit I was a it lazy).

1.%.-I#ter:alic Guitar Scales


The ne,t set of e,ercises run throu#h the 3 Ionian scale in different inter"als. Try this e,ercise with all #uitar scales you can think of. 86

In thirds*

In fourths*

In fifths*

In si,ths*

In se"enths*

".-Guitar Tech#iFue: *i#(er Stretchi#( E,ercises A guitar technique lesson by Jochen D'hondt
5ere are some fin"er stretchin" e(ercises that will impro"e the reach and fluidity of your fin#ers. 0"ery #uitarist, especially jazz #uitarists, runs into chords or scales e"ery now and then that take his fin#ers stretchin# a ility to the limit. The e,ercises elow will help you develop 'our stretchin" a%ilit'. If you practice them re#ularly, you will e a le to stretch your fin#ers much further than you do now. . word of warnin" and some ad"ice efore we #et started*

4efore attemptin# these e,ercises please warm up with some simple chromatic e,ercises like the first e,ercise in this lesson* 3uitar 1armB=ps (tart at an eas' tempo and #radually increase speed. If at any time durin# the e,ercise you start to feel pain in your hand &fin#ers, wrist, S), stop doin# the e,ercise and try a more simple one. The purpose of e,ercises like these is to stretch your fin#ers, not to dama#e them. /on't practice these stretches too lon" at one time. 6ractice with a metronome. 87

I will start all the e,ercises on the hi#h 0 strin# ut itOs free to choose on which strin" 'ou start. I also start from the 18th fret #oin# up, ut if this is too eas' for 'ou and 'ou want the e(ercises to %e harder, just move down on the nec$ &start on the 5th fret for e,ample). The space etween the frets increases as you mo"e down the neck, so the closer you are to the nut, the harder it will e. 'ake sure you $eep 'our first fin"er fretted at all time, else there won't e a lot of stretchin#.

".1.-*i#(er Na2i#(

".".-E,ercise O#e: stretchi#( s1ace 0et9ee# 3i#(ers 1 4 "

".%.-E,ercise T9 : stretchi#( s1ace 0et9ee# 3i#(ers " 4 %

".).-E,ercise Three: stretchi#( s1ace 0et9ee# 3i#(ers % 4 )

88

".+.-E,ercise * ur: stretchi#( s1ace 0et9ee# all 3i#(ers

".-.-E,ercise *i:e: !ia( #al stretchi#(


IOll #i"e you the e,ercise for stretchin# dia#onally etween fin"ers 4 D 2. 4y now you #et the idea and itOs up to you to work this e,ercise out for stretchin# the other fin#ers.

!ga n& # these e'erc ses are to easy #or you try (lay ng them closer to the nut )#or e'am(le start ng on the *th or 1st #ret+" ,here are many -ar at ons to these e'erc ses& try # nd ng some o# your own" That was it for my first lesson for Gazz#uitar. e, I hope you enjoyed it and see you ne,t timeK

@ 8ochen DBhondt %.-Guitar Tech#iFue: /ach Classical Guitar


.n e,cellent way to impro"e your #uitar techni?ue is playin# some of the compositions of #ach Classical "uitar has a different approach to #uitar techni?ue in comparison with jazz #uitar and it's a #ood thin# for e"ery #uitarist to play some classical #uitar studies from time to time. I arran#ed for you the presto part of #ach/s sonata for solo violin no)4 in 1 minor &with ta lature). 6lay the composition with a pick and make sure e"ery note sounds clear. If some positions don't work for you, try to find another way to play that certain passa#e. 89

Ance you're familiar with the notes and positions, put some d'namics into the music. Try to speed up the o"erall tempo and put some accelerandos and rallentandos at the appropriate places. >ecommended listenin#* L0ssential 3uitar* -- 3uitar 'asterpiecesL

90

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).-Ti2i#( E,ercise: *u# @ith a Metr # 2e


Timin# is one of the most important factors of playin# music. 1ithout precise timin# your music lacks ener#y and clarity. Ane essential thin# you need for practicin# your timin# is a metronome. 'etronomes come in all kinds and shapes. I'"e used a model like this for 15 years now &my mum #a"e it to me as a $hristmas #ift). There are also di#ital ones like this (eiko metronome. :or this timin# e,ercise we need* 1 metronome 1 #uitar

1 e op theme &for this e,ercise I take 4illie's 4ounce)

1. 1armin# up e,ercise* set the metronome at 15J and play the theme. 1hen you can play it without mistakes and tension in your fin#ers and arms, dri"e up the speed y 5. $ontinue to do this until you're at a speed that's not comforta le for you to play anymore. /o this e"eryday and you'll see a hu#e impro"ement in your #uitar techni?ue. 8. (et the metronome speed to IJ. +ow the clicks of the metronome are the first and the third eat of a ar, so we're actually playin# at a speed of 16J. 5a"e a look at the ta lature*

-. 2et's make the feel a it more jazzy* metronome still at IJ, ut now the clicks are the 8nd and the 9th eat of a ar*

This is a it more difficult, especially with anticipations like the 9th eat of the first ar. 9. +ow set the tempo to 5J. 0"ery click is the 1 of a ar, so we're actually playin# at a tempo of 8JJ. This is not "ery easy, first try to find the eats in your head efore you attempt playin# your #uitar.

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5. 2et's make it e"en more difficult* e"ery click of the metronome is the 8nd eat of a ar*

6. 0"ery click is the -rd eat*

,? Every clic> is the 0th beat (this is hard)<

Try this with different themes and #radually increase the tempo. :reaks can try this e,ercise* e"ery click is the second ?ua"er of the first, second, third or fourth eat.

6.-How to Improvi ! "v!r...


1.-; 9 T I21r :ise O:er Ma< r Ch r!s
In this #uitar lesson we'll ha"e a look at the #uitar scales, arpe##ios and su stitutions we can use to impro"ise o"er major "uitar chords. 1e use a C major chord for all e,amples. 93

5ere's a playBalon# track in $ major for you to test and practice the scales and arpe##ios su##ested elow.

Cmaj7 Play Along Track ==<== . ==<==

1.1.-Ma< r . Ch r!s 1.1.1- The C Ma< r Scale


The major scale &aka the Ionian mode) is the o "ious choice of scale to play o"er a major chord. #e"inners mi#ht want to read this music theory lesson* 5ow to $onstruct 'ajor (cales The Ionian mode is pla'ed over I chords, in II * I chord pro#ressions for e,ample. (omethin# to look out for when usin# the major scale* the 11 &: in $ major) is a so called avoid note for major chords ecause it is one half step a o"e a chord note &the - or e). This does not mean you can not play this note, ut is rather disharmonic when you keep han#in# on it or use it as a tar#et note. A"er the $maj7 we play the $ Ionian scale*

C Ionian 7ver C/aj,

C 1

D 6

E 3

F 11

G 5

A 6

B 7

5ere's the C Ionian mode in its root position on the #uitar neck*

5ere's a 'ethenyBes?ue e,ample*

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==


94

1.1.".- The Ma< r /e0 1 Scale


The major e op scale is a major scale with a chormatic passin" tone etween the 6 and 5 & 6). 2earn more a out the 4e op (cale...

C Major Bebo! Scale 7ver C/aj

B 7

A 6

Ab b6

G 5

F 11

E 3

D 6

C 1

1.1.%.- The C2a<. Ar1e((i


.n o "ious option as well* the $ major arpe##io &$ 0 3 4). 5ere's a #uitar lesson a out 4asic .rpe##io (hapes.

1.1.).- The E2. Ar1e((i


.n 0m7 arpe##io o"er $ major #i"es us the 5 sound.

E/, Ar!e33io 7ver C/aj,

E 3

G 5

B 7

D 6

In this e,ample I play an 0m7 arpe##io with some chromatic notes*

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

95

1.1.+.- Guitar Ch r! Sha1es


.n effecti"e way to outline the harmony of a son# is y playin# sin#le note lines that follow the shape of a "uitar voicin". 6lay the "oicin# like you would play an arpe##io, fret one note at a time &do not let rin#). The followin# "uitar lic$ uses the outlines of these asic chord "oicin#s*

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

1.".-Ma< r - Ch r!s 1.".1.- The C Ma< r &e#tat #ic Scale


The $ major &C. minor) pentatonic scale is the $ major scale minus 8 notes &11 and 7). The 11 is #one, which mi#ht e a #ood thin# ecause it is an a"oid note. The 7 is ommited as well, which #i"es this scale a it more %asic and less colorful sound. (uch a sound can e effecti"e for major chords with a stron# tonic function &like endin# chords) or for traditional jazz styles like Di(ieland.

C Major Pentatonic 7ver C/aj,

C 1

D 6

E 3

G 5

A 6

1.".".- The E Mi# r &e#tat #ic Scale


The 0 minor &C3 major) pentatonic scale has e"ery note of the $ major scale minus the 1 and 11, the least important notes of a chord.

E Minor Pentatonic 7ver C/aj,


.n e,ample*

E 3

G 5

A 6

B 7

D 6

Listen & Play


96

==<== . ==<==

1.".%.- The A2. Ar1e((i


The .m7 arpe##io #i"es us the $ triad < the 6.

A/, Ar!e33io 7ver C/aj,

A 6

C 1

E 3

G 5

1.%.-Ma< r 511 Ch r!s 1.%.1.- The L'!ia# Scale


The 2ydian scale is the 9th de#ree of the modes and is played o"er major chords that ha"e a I* function. Its only difference with the normal major scale is the B44. 4ecause the 11 is raised a half tone, there is no avoid note in the 2ydian scale.

C Cydian Scale 7ver C/aj,

C 1

D 6

E 3

F# #11

G 5

A 6

B 7

1.%.".- / Mi# r &e#tat #ic Scale


The 4 minor &C/ major) pentatonic scale works well o"er major ;11 chords. It has the - and 7 < all the tensions. !ou can also use the 4 minor %lues scale.

B Minor Pentatonic 7ver C/aj,

B 7

D 6

E 3

F# #11

A 6

In this e,ample I start with a %lues lic$ and end with a +Bm7%. arpe""io &see point 1-)*

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

97

1.%.%.- G2a<. Ar1e((i


The 3maj7 is a #ood choice to play o"er $maj7;11.

G/aj, Ar!e33io 7ver C/aj,

G 5

B 7

D 6

F# #11

5ere's an e,ample*

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

1.%.).- $. Ar1e((i
. /7 arpe##io works well as well*

D, Ar!e33io 7ver C/aj,

D 6

F# #11

A 6

C 1

1.%.+.- *52.0+ Ar1e((i


. :;m7 5 arpe##io sounds nice. I use it in the e,ample of point 1J.

98

#-/,b* Ar!e33io 7ver C/aj,

F# #11

A 6

C 1

E 3

1.%.-.- /2. Ar1e((i


. 4m7 is #ood for ad li phrases on endin# chords ecause it contains the 6, E and ;11, all popular tensions for end "oicin#s. 'ore a out Gazz 0ndin#s...

B/, Ar!e33io 7ver C/aj,

B 7

D 6

F# #11

A 6

/o you ha"e more ideas% If you do, let us know here...

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() ;ays to I/!rovise 7ver Minor Chords () ;ays to I/!orvise 7ver 1al2 Di/inished Chords

".- I21r :isi#( O:er Mi# r Guitar Ch r!s


In this tutorial we'll ha"e a look at the #uitar scales, arpe##ios and su stitutions we can use to impro"ise o"er minor #uitar chords, so we can make our #uitar solos more interestin#. =nless specified, we take a Dm chord as e,ample. 5ere are two %ac$in" trac$s that you can use with this lesson. The first ackin# track is a 4and in a 4o, com o playin# /m7, the second one is the same com o playin# II 7 Is in $ major.

m7 !acking Track ==<== . ==<== "" # " in C $ajor ==<== . ==<== ".1.- The $ ria# Scale
The - minor diatonic scales &/orian, 6hry#ian, .eolian) are the o "ious choice for playin# o"er minor chords. 1hich of the - scales you play depends on the harmonic settin" and the function of the chords you are playin# o"er. The Dorian mode is pla'ed over II chords, like in a II * I chord pro#ression. 1e'll take a 8 5 1 in $ major as an e,ample* 99

Dm7 &&

G7 '

Cma$7 &

A"er the /m7 we play the / /orian scale*

D Dorian 7ver D/,

D E

G A B C

1 6 b3 11 5 6 b7

5ere's the scale chart for D Dorian mode in its root position*

The /orian scale is also used to play o"er minor chords in modal tunes, like (o 1hat.

".".- The &hr'(ia# Scale


The 6hry#ian scale is used to play o"er minor chords that ha"e the function of a III in a harmony. .n e,ample is the -rd ar of a >hythm $han#es*
Cma$7 Am7 Dm7 G7 Em7 A7 Dm7 G7 & '& && ' &&& '&7 && '

An the 0m7 in the -rd ar we can play the 0 6hry#ian mode. .s a side note I want to point out that althou#h you theoretically play the 6hry#ian mode on the 0m7 in a rhythm chan#es, you don't think a out the 6hry#ian mode, just think $ major &did that make sense, if not, #i"e me a shout).

E Phry3ian Scale 7ver E/,

E F G ABC D 1 b6 b3 11 5 b6 b7

100

The 0 6hry#ian scale in its root position*

4?%.- The Ae lia# Scale


The .eolian scale &aka relati"e minor scale) is used to play o"er minor chords that ha"e a *I function or a I function in minor. .n e,ample of a 7I is the second chord in a rhythm chan#es.

A Aeolian Mode 7ver A/,

A B C D E F G 1 6 b3 11 5 b6 b7

The chart for the . .eolian scale in root position*

".).- $ Mi# r &e#tat #ic Scale

r /lues Scale

It can't #et more o "ious, "ery useful, also in a jazz conte,t.

101

D Minor Pentatonic 7ver D/,

D F GAA 1 b3 11 5 b7

2.+.- A Mi# r &e#tat #ic Scale

r /lues Scale

The . minor pentatonic scale sounds "ery nice o"er /m7

A Minor Pentatonic 7ver D/, ".-.- E 2i# r &e#tat #ic Scale

A 5

C b7

D 1

E 6

G 11

The 0 minor pentatonic works nice if you alternate it with / minor pentatonic &on modal tunes). It creates a tensionHrelease kind of thin# &see point 1J on this pa#e)

E Minor Pentatonic 7ver D/, "...- $ Mi# r Ar1e((i

E 6

G 11

A 5

B 6

D 1

(urprisin#ly the /m7 arpe##io works "ery well o"er /m7. (ee also* .rpe##io 1J1

".6.- *2a<. Ar1e((i


.n :maj7 arpe##io o"er /m adds the E* nice sound.

#/aj, Ar!e33io 7ver D/, ".7.- A2. Ar1e((i

F b3

A 5

C b7

E 6

Ane step further is .m7, it adds the 11 to the sound.

A/, Ar!e33io 7ver D/,

E G

5 b7 6 11

102

2.18.- E2. Ar1e((i


0m7 sounds a little more distant o"er /m, ut works fine if you alternate it with a /m arpe##io.

D # A C J E G B D = D Dorian Scale E/, Ar!e33io 7ver D/, 2811.- $2r /2.0+ Ar1e((i
E 6 G 11 B 6 D 1

0mphasizin# the : of a minor chord works nice if the minor chord has a tonic function and not a su Btonic function &like in a II 7). In other words, the minor chord should e the I, not the II. In other words, the minor chord should not e followed y the 7 &/m7 should not e followed y 37). 0,ample of a minor chord with a tonic function*
Dm7 &m7 Em7b5 A7

&&m7b5 '

2.1".- G. Ar1e((i
37 sounds ok o"er /m, especially when it has the tonic function. If you use it in a 8 5 1, you can make the &6) on /m7 #o to ;E and E on 37, to the 5 of $maj7.

G, Ar!e33io 7ver D/,

G 11

B 6

D 1

F b3

".1%.- The Li#e ClichG


In tunes where the minor chord spans a couple of ars, like in a minor %lues, you can use this little de"ice called the line clichM. This techni?ue is as old as the street and is fre?uently used y "'ps' jazz #uitarists. The line clichM is a descendin# line #oin# chromatically from the 1 of a minor chord to its 6*

( K , K b, K % d K c- K c K b

103

There's another e,ample of the line clichM in this tutorial a out 4e op. /o you ha"e more ideas% If you do, let us know here...

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(0 ;ays to I/!rovise 7ver Major Chords () ;ays to I/!orvise 7ver 1al2 Di/inished Chords

%.-&la'i#( O:er ;al3 $i2i#ishe! Ch r!s


.ccordin# to the mails I #et, a lot of people seem to e ha"in# pro lems playin# o"er half diminished "uitar chords &m7 5). The half diminished chord is used most often as the II of the natural minor scale in minor II 7 Is. 5ere's a roundup of the most o "ious tools to play o"er a m7 5 chord*

%.1.- The L cria# Scale


The locrian scale is the most o "ious scale to play o"er a halfBdiminished chord. The locrian mode is the 7th de#ree of the major scale and the second de#ree of the natural minor scale. 1e'll take a 8 5 1 in . minor as an e,ample*

B/,b* II/,b*

E7 '

CAm7 &m7

A"er the 4m7 we play the 4 2ocrian scale*

B Cocrian Scale

B 1

C b6

D b3

E 11

F b5

G b13

A b7

104

5ere's the scale chart for # Locrian in its asic position*

:or the ne,t chord, the 07, we ha"e #ot to chan#e a note in the scale* the # ecomes a #;. This scale is called ! harmonic minor. An .m7 you can play the notes from the 4 2ocrian scale a#ain, o"er .m7 they ecome the ! !eolian scale &more a out the modes). This is the most %asic solution for playin# o"er m7 5 chords, ut it has a pro lem* the $ & 8) is a /handle8with8care/ note ecause it is a half tone a o"e a chord note &the root). (ome like that note, some don't. 1e can take care of that y either a"oidin# this note or y raisin# it with a half step, what rin#s us to the followin# scale.

%.".- $ Mel !ic Mi# r


1hen we raise the $ from the 2ocrian scale with a half step, we #et the 6th de#ree of the / melodic minor scale. 1e call this the # Locrian B2 scale or # !eolian %. &more a out the melodic minor modes here* The 'elodic 'inor (cale).

B Cocrian -4 Scale 7ver B/,b*

B C# D E F

1 6 b3 11 b5 b13 b7

This sol"es the 'handleBwithBcare' note pro lem.

%.%.- A ;ar2 #ic Scale


The piano player #ud Powell fre?uently used harmonic scales to play o"er halfBdiminished chords. A"er 4m7 5 you can play the . harmonic scale. !ou can continue playin# . harmonic on the 07 as well. 105

A 1ar/onic 7ver B/,b*

A b7

B 1

C b6

D b3

E 11

F b5

G# 13

A 1ar/onic 7ver E, %.).- E 2i# r &e#tat #ic Scale

A 11

B 5

C b13

D b7

E 1

F b6

G# 3

!ou can play the 0 minor pentatonic scale o"er 4m7 5*

E Minor Pentatonic 7ver B/,b*

A B D

11 b13 b7 1 b3

%.+.- / Mi# r &e#tat #ic Scale @ith a 0+


This is also a nice one* the minor pentatonic scale &more a out pentatonic scales), ut with a %. instead of a natural .. !ou can also look at it as a # %lues scale without the natural .. In root position it looks like this*

%.-.- The G /e0 1 Scale


The 3 e op scale is diatonic to the key of $ major, so can e played o"er 4m7 5.

G Bebo! 7ver B/,b*

G b13

Gb F 5

E D C B A

b5 11 b3 b6 1 b7

'ore a out the e op scale.

%...- /2.0+

r $2- Ar1e((i

6layin# the 4m7 5 arpe##io is also a solution of course, ut not a "ery colorfull one. !ou can also play a /m6 arpe##io, it has the same notes ut mi#ht e easier to "isualize. 106

1e can make these arepe##ios a it more interestin# y addin# the 0, the 11 of 4m7 5 and a ver' nice tension to that chord. 5ere are the ta s for this pattern in the 5th position*

%.6.- $2. Ar1e((i

H Relati:e Ma< r "+1

!ou can play a /m7 arpe##io o"er 4m7 5*

D/, Ar!e33io 7ver B/,b*

D b3

F b5

A b7

C b6

This leads to somethin# interestin"* if we su stitute the 07 in the followin# ar of a 851 with 37 and the .m7 with a $maj7, we #et a major 8 5 1. (o we can play a major 8 5 1 o"er its relati"e minor 8 5 1, if we stick to the chord tones &that would e /m7,37,$maj7 on 4m7 5,07,.m7)

G, Ar!e33io 7ver E,

G #6

B 5

D b7

F b6

CMaj Ar!e33io 7ver A/,


5ere's an e,ample*

C b3

E 5

G b7

B 6

%.7.- G. Ar1e((i
107

!ou can play 37 o"er 4m7 5*

G, Ar!e33io 7ver B/,b* %.18.- *2a<. Ar1e((i


!ou can play :maj7 o"er 4m7 5*

G b13

B 1

D b3

F b5

#/aj, Ar!e33io 7ver B/,b* %.11.- E2. Ar1e((i


!ou can play 0m7 o"er 4m7 5*

F b5

A b7

C b6

E 11

E/, Ar!e33io 7ver B/,b*

E 11

G b13

B b3

D b5

%.1".- $2H2a<. Ar1e((i


!ou can play a /mHmaj7 arpe##io o"er 4m7 5, it has the natural E in it and it's an easy to play arpe##io. This chord is the first chord of the / melodic minor scale.

108

D/./aj, Ar!e33io 7ver B/,b* %.1%.- *2a<.5+ Ar1e((i

D b3

F b5

A b7

C# 6

!ou can play an :maj7;5 arpe##io o"er 4m7 5, the au#mented 5 is the natural E for 4m7 5. The :maj7;5 is the third de#re of the / melodic minor scale.

#/aj,-* Ar!e33io 7ver B/,b*

A C# E 6 11

b5 b7

/o you ha"e more ideas% 2et me know if you do...

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(0 ;ays to I/!rovise 7ver Major Chords () ;ays to I/!orvise 7ver Minor Chords

7.-#$a%i&' (a)) *ta&+ar+


..1.-Stella /' Starli(ht Mel !'
In this video "uitar lesson I show you how you can play the theme of &tella %' &tarli"ht &written y 7iktor !oun#) in a typical trio situation &drums < ass < #uitar). In a #uitar trio there is no one to play the chords e,cept you, ut since you are also the one to play the theme &most of the time), you'll ha"e to com ine playin# chords and melody notes. 6layin# in a "uitar trio re?uires a different techni?ue compared to playin# in a ?uartet or duo. The #uitarist is the one who needs to play the harmony since there is no ody else to do it for you. Ane thin# you do not need to play are the ass notes, we ha"e the ass player to play those. 1hen playin# in a duo &with a sin#er or sa,ophone player for e,ample) it also ecomes your responsi ility to play the ass. 1hen you're playin# with other harmonic instruments &piano for e,ample), there's no need for you to play chords, the piano will do plenty of them. I usually stick to sin#le notes or octa"es when playin# with a piano, when you oth start to play chords there's too much #oin# on in my opinion. (ome people will not a#ree with me, ut I thin$ it is important to pla' the theme more or less li$e it is written. I don't like it when I hear a and playin# a jazz standard and I can arely reco#nize the theme. That doesn't mean that you can't play em ellishments and rhythmic "ariations here and there to make a theme more ali"e, ut I don't like it when it's o"erdone. .nother thin# to watch out for in a trio is the chords "ettin" in the wa' of the melod', "olumeB wise and ener#yBwise. 1hen playin# a melody, the melody notes are the most important, not the chords. The chords are there to support the theme rhythmically and harmonically. !ou can make the sound of your trio more transparent y makin# a clear distinction etween melody and accompaniment &althou#h you are the one playin# oth of them). It's a fine alance thou#h, and not always easy to find. 109

5ere's the video* :or those of you that don't ha"e 4and in a 4o, yet, here's an mp- of the %ac$in" trac$*

==<== . ==<==
!ou can download the audio of the "ideo as an mp7 here &ri#ht click the followin# link with your mouse and select (a"e Tar#et .s...)* (tella y (tarli#ht 'p-

5ere are the "uitar ta%s for (tella 4y (tarli#ht*

110

111

(ome clarification a out what I'm playin# in this "ideo &I omitted the o "ious)*

#ar 4= I really like the sound of an 11 o"er and m7 5 chord. !ou can o tain this sound in your solo's y playin# a 4 maj7 or .m7 arpe##io &o"er 0m7 5). 'ore a out playin# o"er m7 5 #uitar chords. #ar 5 and 47* the first note of the melody in these two ars is the 9 of the major chord, the so called a"oid note. 5ere it ser"es as an harmonic delay. #ar 47* the two note in and out slide here is somethin# Gaco 6astorius used fre?uently. #ar 24* the . 7&;11) is a lydian dominant chord. #ar 2,* I play the ;11 of 4 maj7 here. #ar 74* sorry for the end #uys, just followin# 4and in a 4o,. #ar 7,= the $ triad o"er 4 is a 4 6HE&;11).

..".-C 21i#(: There @ill Ne:er /e A# ther C u


In this video "uitar lesson we'll e talkin# a out jazz "uitar compin". $ompin# is impro"isin# chords to support a soloist rhythmically and harmonically. 1e'll e usin# the jazz standard ,here . ll /e-er 0e !nother 1ou for this lesson. :irst ha"e a look at this "ideo of me playin# the lesson. The #uitar ta s, chord charts and e,planation are elow.

2ere3s an mp0 of the back ng track, so you can practice this lesson)

==<== . ==<==
!ou can download the audio of the "ideo as an mp7 here &ri#ht click with your mouse and select (a"e Tar#et .s...)* There 1ill +e"er 4e .nother !ou 'p-

5ere's the "uitar chord chart with the "oicin#s used in this compin# study. 'ost of them are pretty asic, ut I omitted the ass note a lot of times so they mi#ht look a it different*

112

113

.nd here are the "uitar ta%s for There 1ill +e"er 4e .nother !ou. To print the ta lature, download this .pdf file* There 1ill +e"er 4e .nother !ou

(ome clarification a out what I'm playin# in this compin# study &I omitted the o "ious)* 114

#ar 78,* I omit the ass note in these "oicin#s &and most other "oicin#s in this compin# lesson). The 1 and the 5 are the least important notes of a chord &when you're playin# with a ass instrument). - and 7 are the most important notes and tensions make a "oicin# interestin#. This doesn't mean you always ha"e to play tensions, asic chord "oicin#s like the ones in this II 7 work as well. :ind a #ood alance. (in#le note lines work #ood as well, ut keep it asic &unless you are fillin# the #aps in a theme, then you can play a it more acti"e lines). #ar .8:* the lead sheet says $m7 for these two ars. (omethin# you can do to make that 1 chord a it more interestin# is usin# the line clichM. The line cliche is a chromatic line #oin# from the 1 of a chord to the 6 and is used ?uiet often in e op and 2atin music. #ar :* I play the 4 m 1 eat early &on the 9). This is called anticipation and can e used to #i"e a tune a it more dri"e. !ou can anticipate a ?uarter note or a ?ua"er &like the end of ar 1-). #ar 44* this is a asic 3m "oicin#. 3m is the first su stitute for 0 maj7. It would ha"e een nicer if I had played a 3m7, so the E of 0 maj7 would e in the "oicin#. #ar 2E* this is a "ery useful cliche, #oin# from the ;E to the E of the dominant chord to the 5 of the tar#et chord. #ar 2@* this asic 4 maj7 chord "oicin# is the first su stitute for 3mE. The ne,t "oicin#, 4 maj7;11 is a su stitute for $ 1-. #ar 2@874* delayin# and anticipatin# create more interest compared to just playin# on the eat. #ar 72* I play a 6 chord here ecause it's the end of the chorus. . 6 chord is more sta le than a maj7 chord, it's etter to play a 6 when a chord re?uires a tonic sound.

..%?@ All The Thi#(s C u Are: ;ar2 #ic A#al'sis


All the Things 4ou Are is one the most commonl' pla'ed jazz standards and is often one of the first tunes called at any jazz jam session. 4ecause of the tune's popularity many #uitarists learn to play ATT4A at a fairly early sta#e in their de"elopment. 1hat most #uitarists fail to realize is that the piece actually has a fairly intricate harmonic structure that can pose ?uite a few pro lems for the no"ice impro"iser or comper. 4y understandin# the relationship etween each section of the tune, and the chords within those sections, we can de"elop a #reater appreciation for the o"erall formation of the harmony, which will allow us to etter na"i#ate the chan#es in oth a solo and chordal fashion.

..%.1.-Ie' Ce#ters
All the Things 4ou Are can e di"ided into four sections, with the first two ein# su Bsections of one lar#er section*

.* The first section of the tune contains %ars one to ei"ht and is la eled A .'* This is followed y another ei#ht ar phrase that we will la el A5. The T sym ol is used to differentiate this section from the first, as they are oth "ery similar, ut as we will see they are in different $e's, which makes them somewhat different. These first two sections can also e thou#ht of as the first PhalfQ of the tune, and in classical music they would e called the Fe(position)G 115

4* The third section contains %ars seventeen to %ar twent'8four and will e la eled 6. The 6 section is the Pcontrastin#Q section as it uses different keys and a different melody line than the other three sections. In classical music this section would e called the FdevelopmentG section. .''* The last section of the tune is similar to the first, thou#h just a it different, so we will la el it .OO. This section is used to PwrapQ up the first two sections y restatin# the melody line in %ars twent'8five throu"h twent'8nine, efore presentin# new material that leads to the final cadence in ars thirtyBthree throu#h thirtyBfi"e. In classical music this section would e called the Frecapitulation)G

..%.".-The A Secti #: /ars 1-6


There are two key centers found within the first ei#ht ars of the tune, . and $*

The first fi"e ars contains a 6B8B5B1B9 pro#ression in the $e' of !%... that mo"es into a 8B5B1 pro#ression in the $e' of C.

+otice how the composer links the two keys with the halfBstep mo"ement etween the / maj7 chord in ar fi"e and the /m7 chord in ar si,. 0"en thou#h these chords are in two different keys, the fact that they are a halfBstep apart makes for a smooth modulation.

..%.%.-The AJ Secti #: /ars 7-1The ne,t ei#ht ars ha"e a similar key structure as the first ei#ht, thou#h this time the two keys ein# used are 0 and 3*

The first fi"e ars of this section is a 6B8B5B1B9 pro#ression in the $e' of E%... that leads to a 8B5B1 pro#ression in the $e' of 1 to finish the section. This is the same chord pro#ression we saw in the first ei#ht ars, only now it has een transposed down y the inter"al of a perfect fourth.

Thinkin# of the second ei#ht ars as a transposed version of the first ei"ht will allow you to de"elop motivic ideas o"er the first half of the tune. .nythin# you play o"er the first ei#ht ars can e played o"er the second ei#ht ars, just a fourth lower, or a fifth hi#her dependin# on how you want to think a out it. (ee :i# 1 for an e,ample of how this could e done. +otice how the fin#erin# and the inter"als are the same etween the two lines, the second moti"e has just een mo"ed up the neck to fit the new key center.

116

..%.).-The / Secti #: /ars 1.-")


4ars se"enteen throu#h twentyBfour are often referred to as the P%rid"eQ section of All The Things 4ou Are, since the melody line has chan#ed and we are now dealin# with two new key centers.

The first four ars of the rid#e are a 8B5B1 pro#ression in the $e' of 1, which is followed y... a 8B5B1 pro#ression in the ne,t three ars in the $e' of E. This section is similar to the first half of the tune as it is made up of a chord pro#ression in one key, 3, which is then repeated in a new key, 0. The rid#e finishes with a short 8B5 in the $e' of + minor, which leads us into the final section of the tune. These two chords, 3m7 5 and $7alt, are two of the most important chords in the tune, and are often the ones that can really tell an audience if you are Pskatin#Q the chan#es or not.

..%.+.-The ABB Secti #: /ars "+-%

The first fi"e ars of this section repeat the same pro#ression from ars 1B5 of the . section, efore mo"in# on to new material in ar -J... The second four ars of this section, 8EB-8, contain an idiomatic jazz pro#ression that is commonly found throu#hout the jazz standard literature, I*maj78I*m78IIIm78%IIIdim7. The pro#ression starts with a I7maj7 chord in ar 8E, which then ecomes a I7m7 chord, efore mo"in# down to IIIm7 and finishin# on a IIIdim7 chord. The IIIdim7, 4diim7, chord then resol"es down to the 4 m7, IIm7, chord in ar --. 4ein# a le to con"incin#ly comp and solo throu#h this section of the tune will not only help you with AAT4A, ut will #i"e you a le# up on other tunes that contain this, or fra#ments of this, pro#ression.

.fter the descendin# section the tune finishes with a 8B5B1 in the tonic key of . . .#ain, the last ar of this section contains a short 8B5 in : minor, as we saw at the end of the rid#e. This is used to turn the tune around to the first chord at the top of the form, :m7.

117

..%.-.-R 2a# Nu2erals


4elow is a 3oman numeral anal'sis of All The Things 4ou Are. +otice how similar each section is to the other sections of the tune. If we take out the key centers, the first ei#ht ars ha"e e,actly the same num ers as the second ei#ht &6B8B5B1B9B8B5B1). .s well, the first three ars of the rid#e ha"e the same numerals as the second half of the rid#e, and the last . section starts with the same numerals as the first . section.Dnowin# the >oman numerals will not only help us to understand the harmonic structure of AAT4A, ut it will help us to transpose this tune into other keys. It can also #i"e us an idea of how important certain pro#ressions are in the jazz idiom, such 118

as 28.84, which occurs ten times durin# the thirtyBsi, ars of ATT4A. If you are ha"in# trou le remem erin# the >oman numerals to this, or any tune, try sayin# them out loud as you are practicin# the piece. /onOt worry a out the ?uality of the chord, m7 maj7 etc, just focus on remem erin# the num ers. :or e,ample, if you are lowin# o"er the first ei#ht ars, in your head, or out loud, you could e sayin#, Psi,, two, fi"e, one, four, two, fi"e, oneQ. This will make it much easier to transpose this son# into a different key if the need e"er arises.

..%...- I21r :isati # & i#ters


1hen I teach this son# to youn#er or less e,perienced players they usually ha"e trou%le navi"atin" throu"h %ars 25872, the descendin# chord section. 'ost of these players try and na"i#ate throu#h the chan#es usin# i#, ulky twoBocta"e scales and arpe##ios which cause them to e late on the ne,t chord, or not #et there at all. Instead of tryin# to work out lar#er #roupin#s of notes o"er this section, IO"e found that it can e eneficial to pick a short four to si, note moti"e to ase ideas of durin# this section. In the first e,ample we ha"e a motive uilt of the oneBocta"e arpe##io for each chord. IO"e switched up the rhythm a it to a"oid runnin# ei#hth notes, ut ha"e kept the same rhythm o"er each chord to make #i"e the line a sense of melodic and rhythmic continuity.

119

In the second e,ample I ha"e kept the same rhythm ut instead of usin# the > - 5 7 arpe##io, the line is ased off of the 7 . 7 5 arpe""io of each chord. This type of arpe##io comes in handy when playin# with a ass player or another compin# instrument, as the root is already ein# heard and therefore we do not ha"e to reiterate it in our lines. (ince the Eth is not a commonly used inter"al o"er a diminished chord the root is ein# used o"er the 4dim7 chord in ar -8. In that ar, instead of - 5 7 E, the moti"e uses the inter"als - 5 7 I, which etter fits the diminished ?uality of the chord.

+ow that you ha"e a etter understandin# of the harmonic la'out of All the Things 4ou Are, try and analyze other jazz standards in a similar fashion. 4ein# a le to ?uickly reco#nize key centers, and short e,cursions outside of the main key areas, will make si#ht readin# any tune a reeze. Try writin# out the key and >oman numeral analysis for one of your fa"orite standards, then once you feel confident enou#h, try callin# out the names of the chords and their function without writin# them down. 5a"in# an understandin# of any tunes harmony will make your solos ha"e a deeper connection to the tune. To finish, here's a "ideo of Goe 6ass playin# .ll The Thin#s !ou .re. .lso check out the "ersions played y 6at 'etheny, #aden Powell and 3rant 3reen*

..).-Gia#t Ste1s: Si21li3'i#( the C ltra#e Matri,


This article is the first in a two part series that will deal with na"i#atin# the chord chan#es to Gohn $oltraneOs masterpiece 1iant &teps. In this article we will look at three simple moti"es that can help us de"elop sin#le note lines that outline the chord chan#es, while the second part &ne,t week) will deal with compin# and chord soloin# o"er these same chan#es.

..).1.-&art 1: Si#(le N te Li#es


There are many ways in which we can solo o"er the first ei#ht ars of 3iant (teps, often referred to as the PColtrane atri(.Q Thou#h many ooks and articles deal with playin# the scales to each chord in order to outline the chan#es, we will instead look at - short melodic ideas that can e used in their place. 0ach of these 7 motives can e found throu#hout $oltraneOs solo and in the solos of many musicians that ha"e recorded the tune since. The use of three and four note moti"es to na"i#ate these tou#h chord chan#es is especially useful on the #uitar since each of these moti"es can e played on two or three strin#s at most. .ddin# these moti"es to your practice routine allows us to 120

outline each chord without ha"in# to think of a i# fi"e or si, strin# scale or two octa"e arpe##io and we can stay in one position throu#hout the entire matri,.

1oti*e One5 !ria)


The first moti"e that we'll use to outlint the $oltrane matri, is the root ased triad* 4878. :or the purposes of this e,ample each triad is written with the same rhythm, two ei#hth notes and a ?uarter note. Ance we ha"e the triads under our fin#ers feel free to alter the rh'thms for any or all of the chords and actually make some music. Triads are often o"erlooked in a traditional jazz conte,t, ut they can e a #reat tool when na"i#atin# tou#h chord chan#es like those found within 3iant (teps.

..).1.1.-E,a21le 1
5ere are the 1B-B5 triads for the first four ars in ascendin# fashion.

..).1.".-E,a21le "
In the ne,t e,ample the triads from e,ample 1 are now presented in re"erse order* .8784. Thou#h it may e tricky to #et used to e#innin# a triad from the top down &fifth to the root) this is a #reat way to rin# triads into our lines without soundin# like we are simply runnin# up the chords.

..).1.%.- E,a21le %
+ow that we ha"e the ascendin# and descendin# triads under our fin#ers we can start to alternate etween the two. In this e,ample we will ascend the first triad then descend the second triad. +otice how the first note of the second triad, ., completes a 47 chord when added to the first chord. The same thin# occurs with the first note of the fourth chord, : on the 4 7, which produces a 37 chord. Thou#h these connections are not necessarily important to the harmony of the tune they may help when we are workin# on findin# fin#erin#s for these e,ercises. 121

..).1.).-E,a21le )
The ne,t e,ercise is the reverse of e(ample 7, where the first triad is descendin# and the second triad is ascendin#. +ow the first note of the third chord, /, is the root of the pre"ious chord and completes a one octa"e 1B-B5BI triad. The same thin# occurs etween the fourth and fifth chords where the 4 on the down eat of ar three completes a 4 triad, 1B-B5BI, from the 4 7 chord in the pre"ious ar.

1oti*e !-o5 Four 3ote Ar#eggio


+ow that we ha"e worked out the triads for each of the chords in the $oltrane matri, we can mo"e on to the four note arpe""ios for each chord. :or the purposes of this article each arpe##io is presented in only one position on the neck. .fter this position ecomes comforta le feel free to play these arpe##ios on different strin# sets and positions on the neck. .s with our first moti"e we should feel free to alter the rhythms of each arpe##io once we ha"e asic ei#hth notes under our fin#ers. Ane way to do this would e to play a triplet on eat one and a ?uarter note on eat two or "ice "ersa.

..).1.+.-E,a21le +
The first e,ample presents the four note arpe##ios for each chord in ascendin" order.

..).1.-.-E,a21le This e,ample presents the 1B-B5B7 arpe##ios in descendin" order.

122

..).1...-E,a21le .
+ow we can e#in to alternate %etween ascendin" and descendin" arpe##ios. This e,ample is only one possi le fin#erin#, feel free to e,plore other fin#erin#s to open up these ideas to different positions on the neck.

..).1.6.-E,a21le 6
The followin# e,ample is a reverse of e(ample 7, where the arpe##ios are now alternatin# etween descendin# and ascendin# fin#erin#s.

1oti*e !(ree5 1235


In the ne,t four e,amples we will look at one of ColtraneCs favorite motives* 1B8B-B5 This moti"e has ecome an essential part of the impro"isational repertoire for many famous jazz musicians, includin# 4ill 0"ans, 'c$oy Tyner, Gerry 4er#onzi and 'iles /a"is to name a few. In order to make this as simple as possi le it is important to think of each root as 1. Then we just play 1B8B-B5 o"er each of the chords, instead of thinkin# of this moti"e within the different keys, which would mean thinkin# a out the /7 moti"e as 5B6B7BE in the key of 3.

..).1.7.-E,a21le 7
The first e,ample presents the 18-5 moti"e in ascendin" order o"er each chord in the pro#ression.

123

..).1.18.-E,a21le 18
This e,ample presents the pre"ious e,ercise in re"erse order* .878284. 3ettin# used to playin# this moti"e ackwards can e a it tricky as the fin#erin#s start to #et a it awkward dependin# on what strin# set we use. Thou#h it may e a difficult to #et down this e,ercise can impro"e our techni?ue as well as our a ility to low o"er 3iant (teps.

7848181189E,a21le 11
.s with the pre"ious e,ercises we can now play the 1B8B-B5 moti"e alternatin" etween the ascendin# and descendin# "ersions. There is now a it of a jump etween the second and third chord and the fourth and fifth chord as the last note of one and the first note of the ne,t is a perfect fourth. The fourth inter"al one the #uitar can e played y usin# one fin#er on the same fret o"er two different strin#s. Instead of playin# each note with the tips of our fin#ers, as we ha"e een tau#ht to do, try arrin# these two notes, which will allow for a smoother transition etween each chord.

7848181289E,a21le 1"
In the ne,t e,ercise we will alternate the 1B8B-B5 moti"e etween the descendin" and ascendin" "ersions. In this e,ample the perfect fourth inter"al is now ascendin# etween the second and third, and fourth and fifth chords. 4etween the second and third chords we can use the %ar technique from the pre"ious e,ample, thou#h ecause of the tunin# of the second strin# the fourth inter"al is now o"er two frets so we can use two different fin#ers for these notes.

124

1oti*e A##lication ..).1.1%.-E,a21le 1%


+ow that we ha"e worked throu#h the three moti"es &triads, arpe##ios and 18-5s) we can mi, them all to#ether to create lines o"er the 1iant &teps chord chan"es. :or the purposes of the e,ercise we are only usin# ei#hth notes, once these are comforta le we can alter the rhythms to create more interest in our melodic ideas.

7848181489E,a21le 1)
5ere is another e,ample of how we can mi, our three moti"es to produce a line o"er -iant Steps. These e,amples are only a few ways to maneu"er throu#h 3iant (teps, once you ha"e checked them out start makin# up your own lines. (tart y writin# out the lines away from the #uitar and then playin# them to see how they sound. Ance this ecomes comforta le practice doin# it on the spot at a slow tempo, then slowly raise the tempo until it #ets closer to the ori#inal recordin#. The est way to do this is to use a pro#ram like 4and in the 4o, as it allows us to chan#e the tempo and hear our ideas a#ainst the harmony at the same time.

..).1.1+.-E,a21le 1+
+ow we can take these ideas and apply them to the first ei#ht ars, the $oltrane matri, in 0 and 4. .#ain, the e,ercise is written in strai#ht ei#hth notes so feel free to alter the rhythms or to write your own lines with more "ariety in the rhythms. 125

..).1.1-.-E,a21le 1The last e,ample is another line written o"er the first ei#ht ars of the tune usin# our three moti"es. Ance these e,amples are under your fin#ers try writin# and impro"isin# your own lines o"er the first ei#ht ars usin# the three moti"es we ha"e learned in this article.

Conclu ion
+ow that we ha"e these three moti"es under our fin#ers and in our ears we can add to our repertoire y de"elopin# our own 3iant (teps melodic ideas. 1e can do this y takin# moti"es from $oltraneOs solo, or any other famous recordin# of the tune, or y simply makin# up our own melodic ideas. =sin# these simple three and four note moti"es can e an eas' wa' to ne"otiate throu"h an' series of tou"h chord chan"es, not only 3iant (teps. .fter workin# these moti"es throu#h 3iant (teps try takin# any of these three moti"es, or any you come up with yourself, and apply them to other son#s with tou#h chan#es such as Laz'%ird6 oments ;otice and &ta%lemates. +ot only does usin# short moti"es help us to na"i#ate these tou#h tunes, ut it can also #i"e our solos a sense of continuity that may not e found when we rely on scales, arpe##ios and patterns. 126

2art 2< Giant Ste!s< Co/!in3 L Chord Melody

7858918 Jazz Guitar E#!i#(s


There are so many ways to end a son#, here are 1J of them. =se them as a startin# point to de"elop your own endin#s.

..+.1.- Ma< r -H7H511 Ch r!s


;11 chords are the read and utter of jazz endin#s. I usually com ine them with a 6 andHor a E in my end "oicin#s ecause the 6 is a more sta le tone than a major 7. 5ere are 8 "oicin#s for a $6HEH;11 chord*

5ere's an e,ample for son#s that end on a major II 7 I. The 37 is su stituted y the / E;11 &tritone su stitution).

!ou can also use the major ;11 chord in minor keys.

..+.".- Ma< r .H57H511


. major 7 with a ;E has a nice tension and is an interestin# chord to end on. This is not a mHmaj7 chord, the - acts like a tension &;E). 5ere's an e,ample*

..+.%.- 0?I2a<. t

0II2a<.

This is a nice one, instead of #oin# to the I to end the son#, first #o to the 7Imaj7, then to the IImaj7 and then conclude with the I. 6lay this pro#ression ad li% &free time, without a fi,ed tempo). .n e,ample in $ major, instead of this chord pro#ression*

:D/, G,

:C/aj,

:
127

1e play this one*

:D/, G() :Ab/aj' :Db/aj,

:C/aj,(-(() :

5ere's the #uitar chord chart for this pro#ression*

+ote that the roots of the added chords are the tritone su stitutes of the II 7 &. is the su of /, / the su of 3).

..+.).- 0?II2a<. t

0II2a<.

This is a "ariation of the pre"ious one, instead of the 7I, we play a 7II*

:D/, G() :Bb/aj' :Db/aj,

:C%.'.-(( :

5ere's the #uitar chord chart for this pro#ression, with an ascendin# voice leadin" in the melody note*

..+.+.- A c 20i#ati #

3 % a#! )

!ou can com ine the 8 pre"ious into this one*

:Bb/aj' Eb/aj, :Ab/aj' Db/aj,

:C%.'.-(( :

5ere are the #uitar ta s for a possi le "oice leadin#*

128

..+.-.- 0II2.
. "ery fresh way to end a son#, play a IIm7 after the Imaj. 0,ample in $ major*

:D/, G,

:C/aj, :Db/,

..+...- 5I?2.0+
.nother classic endin#* instead of #oin# to the I, you play this pro#ression, startin# on ;I7m7 5*

:II/, +, :-I+/,b* I+/aj, :III,-' bIII'-(( :II,-' bII'-(( :I%.'.-(( :


In $ major*

:D/,

G,

:#-/,b*

#/aj,

:E,-'

Eb'-((

:D,-'

Db'-(( :C%.'.-(( :

5ere's the #uitar chord chart for this e,ample*

..+.6.- 2H2a<7 Ch r!s


mHmajE chords in minor keys are the e?ui"alent of ;11 chords in major keys. 5ere are 8 asic "oicin#s*

..+.7.- 2-a!!7 Ch r!s


'inor 6 chords also work #ood to end son#s in minor keys*

Ar com ined with a major 7*

129

..+.18.-D Re1etiti #
.nother way to end a son# is to repeat a part of the melody. 2et's take the last 9 ars of There 1ill +e"er 4e .nother !ou as an e,ample*

!ou can repeat the melody and chords of ars 1 and 8, efore mo"in# to the end*

6lease don't play this the way I wrote it, it's just a theoretical e,ample. .dd some fla"or to it y playin# a "ariation, rhythmic or melodic. 2et your ears decide what part of the melody should e repeated.

6.- Jazz Guitar Ch r!s 3 r /e(i##ers


1.- /asic Guitar Ch r! The r' 1.1.-Jazz Guitar Ch r!s The r'
5ow are "uitar chords uilt% 1hat makes a chord minor or major% If you're not sure a out this then read on ... (ome ack#round theory makes a tremendous help when learnin# how to pla' "uitar chords. 2et's #et started with the C major scale* 130

C Major Scale

C DEFG AB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The 7 notes in this scale are num%ered, these num ers are important, it's like a formula for this scale. Chords are ased on third intervals. There are 8 kinds of thirds &or -rds)*

minor t(ir) ma$or t(ir)

inter*al o: 3 (al: te# inter*al o: 4 (al: te#

"mbol 5 minor 3r) "mbol 5 ma$or 3r)

2et's start y stackin# 8 thirds on the 1 &first note) of the $ major scale*

C 1

E 3

G 5

The result is a $ major triad or $ &a triad is a chord that contains - notes). :rom $ to 0 is a major -rd and from 0 to 3 a minor -rd* e"ery major chord has this structure. The thin# to remem er here is what we call the chord formula for major chords* 1 - 5 .nother thin# to remem er * another name for the 1 of a chord is the root. 2et's do the same for the 8 of the $ major scale*
D 1 F b3 A 5

The result is a / minor triad or /m. :rom / to : is a minor third and from : to . is a major third* e"ery minor chord has this structure. The thin# to remem er is the chord formula for minor chords* 1 - 5 +ow we're #oin# to skip a few notes and stack thirds on the 7 of the $ major scale*
B 1 D b3 F b5

131

The result now is a 4 diminished triad or 4dim. :rom 4 to / is a minor -rd and from / to : is also a minor -rd* e"ery diminished triad chord has this structure. (o the chord formula of diminished chords is* 1 - 5 I'll summarize and complete the other notes of the $ major scale *

( 4 ) 0 * % ,

"otes C E D # E G # A G B A C B D

G A B C D E #

#or/$la ( ) ( b) ( b) ( ) ( ) ( b) ( b)

* * * * * * b*

Chord "a/e C /ajor D /inor E /inor # /ajor G /ajor A /inor B di/inished

Sy/bol C D/ or D@ or D/in E/ or E@ or E/in # G A/ or A@ or A/in Bdi/ or BA

1hat we'"e just seen is the asis of chord theory, we'"e learned to find the chords of the $ major scale. 1e call these chords diatonic chords. This isn't a "ery con"enient way to find the notes of a chord ?uickly, that's what we'll learn ne,t... There are 8 ways to construct chords 1. The first way starts from the major scale. 1. :ind the major scale of a #i"en key. If you're not sure how to do this, #o here* 5ow To $onstruct a 'ajor (cale. :or e,ample* if you need to know the notes of a 3m chord, then first find the 3 major scale* 3 . 4 $ / 0 :; 8. $onstruct the major chord y usin# the major chord formula* 1 - 5. In our 3 major e,ample that would e* 3 4 / -. .pply the minor chord formula to the major chord. The chord formula for minor chords is 1 - 5. This means the -rd of the major chord has to e lowered half a step* 3 4 / -. The second way in"ol"es some memorization and will e e,plained in part 9, after we co"ered seventh chords and tensions.

1.".-Jazz Guitar Ch r! The r' A1art "D


2et's ha"e a look at seventh chords, chords that contain 9 or more different notes and that are fre?uently used in jazz music. In part 1 of jazz #uitar chord theory we co"ered the construction of triads, chords that contain different notes. If you are new to chord theory, I su##est you read part 1 first. 2et's #et started a#ain with the C major scale* 132

C Major Scale

C 1

D 2

E 3

F 4

G 5

A 6

B 7

The construction of se"enth chords follows the same principle as constructin# triads* stackin# -rds on top of each other. Triads were made y stackin# 8 thirds on top of the root. (e"enth chords are constructed y stackin# - thirds on top of the root. 2et's stack - thirds on the 1 of the $ major scale *
C 1 E 3 G 5 B 7

The result is a $ major 7 chord &$maj7). :rom $ to 0 is a major third, from 0 to 3 is a minor third and from 3 to 4 is a major third* e"ery major 7 chord has this structure. The chord formula for major 7 chords is* 1 - 5 7 2et's do the same for the 8nd note of the $ major scale*
D 1 F b3 A 5 C b7

The result is a / minor 7 chord or /min7. :rom / to : is a minor third, from : to . is a major third and from . to $ is a minor third * e"ery minor 7 chord has this structure. The chord formula for minor 7 chords is* 1 - 5 7 +ow let's skip some notes and stack - thirds on top of the 5th note of the $ major scale*
G 1 B 3 D 5 F b7

The result is a 3 dominant 7 chord or 37. :rom 3 to 4 is a major third, from 4 to / is a minor third and from / to : is a minor third* e"ery dominant 7 chord has this structure. The chord formula for dominant 7 chords is* 1 - 5 7 1e'll skip some more notes and stack - thirds on top of the 7th note of the $ major scale*

133

B 1

D b3

F b5

A b7

The result is a 4 half diminished chord or 4m7 5. :rom 4 to / is a minor third, from / to : is a minor third and from : to . is a major third * e"ery half diminished 7 chord has this structure. The chord formula for half diminished 7 chords is* 1 - 5 7 I'll summarize and complete the other notes of the $ major scale*

( 4 ) 0 * % ,

"otes C E D # E G # A G B A C B D

G A B C D E #

B C D E # G A

#or/$la ( ) * , ( b) * b, ( b) * b, ( ) * , ( ) * b, ( b) * b, ( b) b* b,

Chord "a/e C /ajor , D /inor , E /inor , # /ajor , G do/inant A /inor , B hal2 di/inished

Sy/bol C/aj, D/, or D@, or D/in, E/, or E@, or E/in, #/aj, G, A/, or A@, or A/in, B/,b* or B/in,b*

1.%.-Jazz Guitar Ch r! The r' A1art %D


In part 8 we had a look at how seventh chords are constructed. In part - we'll focus our attention on tensions. -ensions are notes that are part of a chord, ut are not chord tones &1 - 5 7). 2et's ha"e a look a#ain at the $ major scale*

C Major Scale

C 1

D 2

E 3

F 4

G 5

A 6

B 7

There are - notes left in the major scale that are not chord tones * 2, , and :. If we add these tones to the chord, they ecome tensions. 'ost of the time we play tensions an octave hi"her compaterd to the chord tones ecause otherwise they mi#ht #et in the way of the chord tones &the chord would sound 'muddy' most of the time). That's also the way they are notated* 8 ecomes E &8<7&one octa"e)CE), 9 ecomes 11 and 6 ecomes 1-. (o if we add the 8 to $maj7 we #et $majE*
C 1 E 3 G 5 B 7 D 6

134

The two other notes that are left, the , and :, are special cases in com ination with a major chord. :irst of all there is somethin# we call avoid notes* notes that are a half tone a o"e a chord tone. ."oid notes sound disharmonic, that's why they are #enerally a"oided. If we ha"e a look at the , of the $ major scale &f) we notice that it is a half step a o"e the e &the -rd of $maj7). (o the 9 &f) is an avoid note for $maj7. -he : is also a special case in com ination with major chords. 'ost of the times when we add a 6 to a major chord, the 7 is omitted and there is no octa"e added to the 6. This is ecause the 6 and 7 mi#ht #et in each other's way. (o if we add the 6 to $ major we #et a $6*
C 1 E 3 G 5 A 6

The same #oes for : in com ination with minor chords* the 7 is omitted. If we add the 6 to /m7 we #et /m6 &2ook out * the 6 is no lon#er . ecause the root of the chord chan#ed to /. The 6 is now 4 &/ 0 : 3 . # $)*
D 1 F b3 A 5 B 6

The , is not an avoid note in com ination with minor chords ecause it is two half tones a o"e the - and not one half. (o we can safely add the 9 to /m7 and we #et /m11 *
D 1 F b3 A 5 C b7 G 11

&+ote* theoretically, the E is included in a minor 11 chord)

The , is also a special case in com ination with dominant chords. 1hen a 9 is added to a dominant chord, the - is omitted. $hords like these are called sus, chords and often function as a delay for a dominant chord. (us9 chords often come with a E on the #uitar * 135

G 1

C 4

D 5

F b7

A 6

There's also somethin# called altered tensions & E, ;E, 5, 1-). This topic is co"ered later in another lesson.

The different chord types and their tensions*

Chord y!e

Major

Added "ote 4 0 -0 % 4 0 % 4 b4 -4 0 % b%

Sy/bol C/aj' . C/aj,-(( C% C/' C/(( C/% C' C,(b') C,-' C,s$s0 C() C,(b())

avoid note? -(( co/es o$t o2 lydian scale o/itted ,

Minor

o/itted , b4 and -4 co/e o$t o2 the altered scale b% co/es o$t o2 altered scale

Do/inant

1.).-Jazz Guitar Ch r! The r' A1art )D


In jazz #uitar chord theory part - we had a look at chord tensions. In part 9 we'll summarize the chord formulas and ha"e a look at some e,amples. 5ere's a summary of the chord formulas we co"ered until now < some additional chord types *

Chord y!e Major riad Minor riad Di/inished riad A$3/ented riad Major , Minor , Do/inant , 1al2 Di/inished , Di/inished , A$3/ented , S$s!ended 0 /inor./ajor ,

Chord #or/$la ( ) * ( b) * ( b) b* ( ) -* ( ) * , ( b) * b, ( ) * b, ( b) b* b, ( b) b* bb, ( ) -* b, ( 0 * b, ( b) * ,


136

In $hord Theory 6art 1 we saw the first way to construct chords. 5ere's a ?uicker way** 1. The first step is memorizin# the chords and chord tones of the C major scale and the chord formula's*

C/aj, D/, E/, #/aj, G, A/, B/,b*


8.

C D E # G A B

E # G A B C D

G A B C D E #

B C D E # G A

!ou must e a le to picture the chord types and chord tones of $ major without thinkin#. -. +ow that you know the chords of $ major, it's easy to find chords of other keys. :or e,ample* to find the chord tones of $m7* 1. !ou know the chord tones of $maj7* $ 0 3 4 8. !ou know the chord formula of $maj7* 1 - 5 7 -. !ou know the chord formula of minor 7* 1 - 5 7 9. .dapt the chord tones of $maj7 to the formula of minor 7* rin# the - and the 7 a half step down 5. $onclusion * the chord tones of $m7 are* $ 0 3 4 0,ample 8* the chord tones of /dim7* 6. !ou know the chord tones of /m7* / : . $ 7. !ou know the formula of /m7* 1 - 5 7 I. !ou know the formula of diminished 7* 1 - 5 7

E. .dapt the chord tones of /m7 to the formula of diminished 7* rin# the 5 and the 7 a half step down 1J. $onclusion* the chord tones of /dim7 are* / : . 4 0,ample -* the chord tones of :;7* 11. !ou know the chord tones of :maj7* : . $ 0 18. To find the chord tones of :;maj7 you just ha"e to raise each chord tone a half step* :; .; $; 0; 1-. !ou know the formula of major 7* 1 - 5 7 19. !ou know the formula of dominant 7* 1 - 5 7 15. .dapt the chord tones of :;maj7 to the formula of dominant 7* rin# the 7 a half step down 137

16. $onclusion * the chord tones of :;7 are* :; .; $; 0

1.+.-Jazz Guitar Ch r! The r' A1art +D


+ow you know how to find the notes of a chord, ut how do you translate this to the "uitar% :or starters* here are 8 chord charts that will help you in the process. The first thin# you need to know is that not e"ery chord tone is e?ually important *

7 and 7 are the important notes of a chord ecause they decide the chord type. They are also important for "oice leadin#. The 4 is the least important note, ecause it is usually played y the %ass pla'er. The . is not so important either and can e distur in# sometimes. -ensions add color and interest to a chord, so it's prefera le to use tensions instead of 1 and 5.

.nother thin# you need to know is that 4 half step e?uals one fret on the "uitar. 5ere's an e,ample with chord dia#rams* 1e'll start with a $ triad* $ 0 3 &1 - 5) 2et's ha"e a look at the chord dia#ram*

D(*()*< C
from left to ri#ht &from low 0 strin# to hi#h 0 strin#) we ha"e*

Y * the low 0Bstrin# is not played 1 * the 1 or root of the chord is played on the .Bstrin# 5 * the 5th of the chord is played on the /Bstrin# 1 * a#ain the root, ut now on the 3Bstrin# - * the third is played on the 4Bstrin# 5 * the 5th is played a#ain, ut this time on the hi#h 0Bstrin#

!ou see that it is ok to duplicate chord tones, like the 1 and the 5 in our e,ample, ut it may sound a it slu##ish. 138

This chord doesn't sound "ery jazzy thou#h, so let's spice it up a it*

D(*,)*< C/aj,
Instead of duplicatin# the root on the 3Bstrin#, we e,chan#ed it for the 7 of the chord. +ow let's add some color*

D(),'D< C/aj'
1e e,chan#ed the 5th on the /Bstrin# for the -rd and we chan#ed the -rd on the 4Bstrin# to a E. This would e a nice chord if you're playin# ossa no"a, solo #uitar or in duo settin#, ut if you play with a ass player and you don't want to #et in his way, it's etter to omit the root and to play on the hi#her strin#s only*

DD),'*< C/aj'.E
Instead of playin# the root of the chord, we now play the 5th on the hi#h 0Bstrin#. . chord like this is called a chord inversion* a chord that has a note other then the root in the ass. There are three types of chord in"ersions* 139

+irst inversion* with the -rd in the ass. &econd inversion* 1ith the 5th in the ass. -hird inversion* with the 7th in the ass.

In our e,ample we ha"e a $majE chord with the -rd &0) in the ass. +ow what needs to happen if we want to make this chord dominant% (imple* the 7 has to #o a half step down &major is 1 - 5 7, dominant is 1 - 5 7). 5a"e a look at the chord dia#ram*

DD)b,'*< C'.E
.nd if we want to make this chord minor% (tartin# from the dominant chord we ha"e to lower the -rd a half step, as you can see on the #uitar chord dia#ram*

DDb)b,'*< C/'.Eb
. #reat tool to help you with the constuction of #uitar chords is the #uitar chord finder. To conclude our tutorial I'll #i"e you some chord construction e,ercises. :ind the notes of the followin# chords &the solutions are on the ne,t pa#e)* :or e,ample* :m7* : . $ 0 +ow it's your turn*

3m7* . maj7* $;maj7* .Esus9* 140

47* 0dim7* 3dim7* /7 E* /;m7 5* /maj7*

1.-.-Jazz Guitar Ch r! The r' A1art -D


The solutions to the chord e(ercises of #uitar chord theory part 5*

3m7* 3 4 / : . maj7* . $ 0 3 $;maj7* $; 0; 3; 4; &0; is the same as :, ut we write 0;) .Esus9* . / 0 3 4 47* 4 /; :; .

0dim7* 0 3 4 / 3dim7* 3 4 / 0

/7 E* / :; . $ 0 /;m7 5* /; :; . $; /maj7* / :; . $;

".- U11er Structure Tria!s


Hpper structure triads are "ery useful for rin#in# new elements in your compin" and sin#le note soloin". Triads are ideal for compin" ecause they are easy to fin#er and most of the time don't contain the root of the chord &which is played y the ass player). An this pa#e you'll see which upper structure triads work est. These "uitar chord su%stitutions open up new sounds and #i"e you fresh ideas.

If you want to know e"en more a out upper structure, I su##est you take a look in this e,cellent ook &it's the jazz theor' %i%le)* The Gazz Theory 4ook

2et's start with the upper structure triads for the $maj7 chord *

141

5ere are the triads from the root on * $0 1B-B5 is not an upper structure triad ecause it contains only chord tones 3 03 -B5B7 is not an upper structure triad ecause it contains only chord tones 4 34 5B7BE this is the first upper structure triad / 4 / 7BEB11 this is not a usa%le upper structure triad for $maj7 ecause it contains the avoid : note &11) for $ major / : EB11B this is not a usa%le upper structure triad for $maj7 ecause it contains the avoid . 1note &11) for $ major : . 11B1-B this is not a usa%le upper structure triad for $maj7 ecause it contains the avoid $ 1 note &11) for $ major .$ 1-B1B- this is the second upper structure triad 0 (ome thin#s to keep in mind* the upper structure triad must contain at least one tension which is not an avoid note. ."oid notes only play a role in major chords. .n upper structure triad can e major6 minor6 diminished or au"mented. :or me major upper structure triads work est.

!ou can use upper structure triads for soloin" as well as for compin". Triads are technically non comple, chord forms, ut in com ination with a ass player they can really open up your sound.

5ere's a list of upper structure triads that sound #ood to my taste. I'll do the first one with you so you can see how the list works*

The first upper structure triad in the list is for a major chord type. 7 means we uild the upper structure triad on the 5 &compared to the root) of the chord. (o in case of a $ major chord the upper structure chord is 3* 3 4 / &5 7 E) re"iations mean*

5ere's what the a


7B means a minor triad on the 5th note. 7< means an au#mented triad on the 5th note. 7II means major triad on the 7. .nd so on...

Chord y!e Major

Chord ensions ' '&-((

H!!er Str$ct$re riad + II

"ote #$nction * , ' ' -(( %


142

+II@ Minor %&'&(( II@ I+ +@ b+II /inor./ajor Do/inant ' '&() '&-((&() bIIIJ + +@ +I@ II IIJ b+IIJ b'&-'&b*&b() bII@ bIII@ bIII IIIJ b+ b+I b'&() S$s 0 '&() +I II/ I+ b+II 1al2 Di/inished Di/inished b%&'&(( b%&'&(( b+I b+II II I+ b+I

, ' (( * b, b) * * () ' ' b, b' -' -' ) b* b() () ' 0 b, b% b, ' (( b%

' -(( (( % b, ' * , b, ( -(( -(( ' ) b* * b() b, ( b' 0 () ' ( ' b* bb, ( , ' ' ) () b, -(( b() b, b, ( b' -' ) () ( 0 b) (( bb, ( b) % ( ' ((

9.-,!'i&&!r G-itar . /0!or% 1!


1.-; 9 T Rea! Guitar Ta0latureE

o&

. common ?uestion for a lot of no"ice #uitar players* how to pla' "uitar ta%sI -a%lature &or ta%) is a type of music notation that is desi#ned for fretted strin" instruments. It's ori#ins #o ack to the renaissance, a lot of music for the lute was ori#inally written in ta lature. 143

+owadays ta lature is commonly used to notate modern "uitar music. . #uitar ta lature staff consists of : lines that represent the : strin"s. The low E strin# is at the %ottom, the hi"h E at the top*

ex?(

1e can put num ers on the lines. 0ach num%er represents a fret on the #uitar neck. E means open strin", 1 is the first fret, 8 the second fret, and so on... 5ere is the ta lature for the chord shape of $. In this e,ample, all num ers are on one line a%ove each other, meanin# all notes should e played at the same time as a chord.

ex?4

1hen the num ers are ne(t to each other on the staff they should e played after each other. .d"ancin# from the left to the ri#ht on the staff C ad"ancin# in time. In the followin# e,ample you first play the 5th fret on the 0 strin#, then the -rd fret, a#ain the 5th, then the -rd fret on the . strin#, and so on...

ex?)

!ou can/t read rh'thm on a #uitar ta and you can/t read the e(act len"th of a note. -a%lature can #i"e you a sli#ht indication thou#h on how lon# a note is y lea"in# more or less space %etween the num%ers. 144

In e,ample 9 the note played on the 5th fret on the 0 strin# lasts lon#er then the same note in e,ample 5*

ex?0

ex?*

1hen all notes are evenl' spaced, as in e,ample -, you can assume that all notes are of equal len"th, usually ?ua"ers or ei#ht notes. It's a lot easier to read a #uitar ta if you know the son# or ha"e a recordin# of it so you know the rhythm. The ne,t e,amples show you the use of sym ols for "uitar techniques used on this site * 0,ample 6 shows you a hammer on.

ex?%

0,ample 7 shows you a pull off.

ex?,

0,ample I shows you a slide.

ex?M

145

0,ample E shows you a "host note. . #host note can e played y frettin# a note, ut not pickin# it. 3host notes are arely audi le, ut they do a lot to the feel of the music. The note on the 7th fret is a #host note.

ex?'

0,ample 1J is a %end.

ex?(=

Ta lature notation has some ad"anta#es and some disad"anta#es &just like standard notation). The disadvanta"es of #uitar ta lature compared to standard notation*

!ou can/t read rh'thm on a "uitar ta% !ou can/t see the duration of a note on ta%lature 3uitar ta lature is instrument specific &only for fretted strin# instruments)

The advanta"es of #uitar ta lature*


!ou can/t read in what position to play in standard notation 3uitar ta lature is easier to learn then standard notation

. lot of times a "uitar ta% is com%ined with standard notation to #et the est out of two worlds &e,ample 11). The standard notation can e used to read the rhythm, while the ta can e used to #et to know how and where to play the notes.

ex?((

".-The Ma< r Scales

146

4y popular demand I decided to write a series of %asic music theor' lessons. This lesson a out the major scale is the first one in the series. 1hen learnin# #uitar scales it is important to know the music theory ehind the mother of all music scales* the major scale. 5ere are some of the asics we need to know*

The major scale is the first of the diatonic scales .nother name for the major scale* the Ionian ode . major scale has 7 notes

The first and simplest major scale is the C major scale*

The $ major scale is the only major scale that doesn't ha"e sharps &;) or flats & ). 1e'll see a it further what this means. If you play the $ major scale on the piano, only white notes are used &all the white notes) . In solfe#e, the notes of the major scale are named like this* /o, >e, 'i, :a, (ol, 2a, Ti &or (i) .nother notation that is used is the followin#* $ / 0 : 3 . 4

It's important that you're a le to switch etween these two notation methods without thinkin#. !ou need to know that $C/o, /C>e,...

C Do

D 5e

E Mi

# #a

G Sol

A Ca

B i

5ere's how the $ major scale is played on the #uitar*

".1.-; 9 T

C #struct Ma< r Scales

.ll major scales ha"e a t'pical structure. 2et's ha"e a look at the $ major scale to find out more a out that structure*

E #

A B

147

I added a $ at the end of the scale. This $ is one octa"e hi#her &18 half tones) compared to the first $. +ow we are #oin# to ha"e a look at the inter"als etween the notes of the $ major scale. .n inter"al is the distance etween 8 notes.

$B/* / is 8 half steps hi#her than $ /B0* 8 half steps 0B:* 1 half step :B3* 8 half steps 3B.* 8 half steps .B4* 8 half steps 4B$* 1 half step

(o, e"ery note in the $ major scale is 8 notes hi#her than the pre"ious note, e,cept the : and the $ &this is important, remem er these two notes)*

C D E# G A BC @ @ 4 4 ( 4 4 4 (
1e can use this as a scale formula*

1a$or Scale Formula5 2 2 1 2 2 2 1


.nd we can use this formula to construct other major scales. 2et's find the major scale of D*

The first note is of course* / The formula tells us that the second note is 8 half steps further* 0 The ne,t note also needs to e 8 half steps further.
o o o o

1e remem er from efore that : is only 1 half step further than 0. To make the : 8 half steps further, we ha"e to add a sharp &;). . sharp adds 1 half tone to a note, so when we write :;, it means one half step further than :. To summarize* the -rd note of the / major scale* :;

The formula tells us that note 9 can only e 1 half step further then the -rd. 3 is 8 half steps further than :, ut only 1 half step further than :;, so 3 is the 9th note of the / major scale. +ote 5 is 8 half steps further* . +ote 6 is 8 half steps further* 4 +ote 7 needs to e 8 half steps further, ut $ is only 1 half step further than 4, that's why we need to add a sharp* $; The ne,t note in the scale is the same note as the first, ut one octa"e hi#her and is one half step further then $;* / 148

(o here's the / major scale*

D E #- G A B C- (D) 4 4 ( 4 4 4 (
2et's try another scale, the : major scale*

The first note is : The second note needs to e 8 half steps further* 3 The third note also* . The fourth note only needs to e 1 half step further. 4 is 8 half steps further than ., so we need to add a flat & ) to make it only one half step further than .. (o the fourth note is* 4 The fifth note needs to e 8 half steps further. $ is only 1 half step further than 4, ut ecause we flatted the 4 we are ok* $ is 8 half steps further than 4 The ne,t note needs to e 8 half steps further* / The se"enth note is also 8 notes further* 0 1e close the circle y addin# the first note, ut one octa"e hi#her. : is one half step further than 0.

The followin# two are important to remem er, we call them accidentals*

B* the sharp si#n* makes a note a half step hi#her %* the flat si#n* makes a note a half step lower

5ere's a list of all the major scales*

C Major Scale D Major Scale E Major Scale # Major Scale G Major Scale A Major

#-

C-

#-

G-

C-

D-

Bb

G A

A B

B C-

C D

D E

E #-

#G149

Scale B Major Scale CMajor Scale Eb Major Scale #Major Scale Ab Major Scale Bb Major Scale B CDE #GA-

C-

D-

E-

#-

G-

A-

B-

Eb

Ab

Bb

#-

G-

A-

C-

D-

E-

Ab

Bb

Db

Eb

Bb

Eb

%.-I#tr !ucti # T Jazz Guitar I21r :isati #


In this series of #uitar articles, we e,plore some jazz #uitar improvisation concepts* consonance,dissonance D resolution and note enclosure. These concepts #i"e impro"isation a tension and colour that many other #enre's of music o"erlook. !ou will re?uire #ood knowled#e of the modes, and the structure of jazz chords to fully enefit from this article. (o if you are unsure of these, I'd ad"ise you take a look at those articles firstK In this first section we'll look at improvisation over a simple pro"ression, focusin# on notes that stay within the key si#nature. The second article &ne,t week) demonstrates the use of /issonance F >esolution o"er the same pro#ression. In the third section we'll look at the +ote 0nclosure concept.

%.1.-I21r :isi#( O:er II ? I: Sta'i#( I#si!e


The ii 7 I is the most common chord pro#ression in jazz, so we'll use it as our ase. Take a moment to familiarize yourself with the followin# pro#ression.
ii Am7 ' D6 & Gma$7 & Gma$7

5ere's a %ac$in" trac$ for this chord pro#ression, it is looped multiple times for you to impro"ise o"er* 150

==<== . ==<== %ou can &o'nloa& an mp( o) this backing track here*
These three chords are all within the scale tone set of 3 Ionian, indicatin# that 3 Ionian is our home scale*
G 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F# 7

.ny phrase in 3 Ionian will sound consonant o"er the pro#ression. The term II 7 I &said 8 5 1) refers to the roots of the chords*

.m7, with a root note of ., is the second &8) note of the 3 Ionian mode. /E is uilt on the fifth &5) note. 3maj7 is uilt on the first &1) note.

2ets ha"e a look at a few 3 Ionian phrases that suit this pro#ression.

2(ra e 15 Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

This phrase makes use of the chordal tones in each ar. In ar one, we start on the root of the .m7 chord &.) then follow some notes of the 1 Ionian mode. In ar two we hit the root of the /E chord &/) then follow the 3 Ionian mode once a#ain, landin# on the major se"enth of 3maj7 &:;) in ar -. +otice there are no accidentals in the phrase, e"ery note is part of the 3 Ionian mode. 4y playin# the chordal tones on eat one of each ar, the phrase stron#ly su##ests the chords ehind it. The phrase could e played without any ackin# chords at all, and we'd still e a le to determine the underlyin# chords. This is a "ery useful and common concept to use while impro"isin#. 0specially in solo pieces of music, when you do not ha"e any accompaniment. This ne,t phrase makes use of other chordal tones.

2(ra e 25
151

Listen & Play ==<== . ==<==

In ar one, we start on the 7 of the .m7 chord &#). In ar two we reach the 7 of the /E chord &c) and then we end on the 7 of 3maj7 &f;) in ar three. Tip* 1hen soloin# o"er the 3maj7, youLll notice that the fourth note of the 3 Ionian mode &c) clashes adly. (o try to avoid endin# a phrase on that note. 3 Ionian and . /orian are the same set of notes. The #uitar ta s of phrase 1 for e,ample are played at the /orian position, ut could ?uite easily e played at any position. 4oth 6hrase 1 and 6hrase 8 are said to e $onsonant, and ?uite frankly, dull. Af course that is su ject to opinionK 5owe"er, without consonance there can %e no dissonance, and in turn, no fla"or. (o credit where credit is due, we do need consonance in our impro"isations. Try constructin# a few phrases yourself, takin# care to land on a chordal tone on eat one of each ar. !ou can also use chordal tones on eat three of each ar to #reater imply the chords eneath.

%.".@C #s #a#ce E,ercise:


6ractice takin# different paths etween two chordal tones, usin# only the notes within the key si#nature. 0ach riff should e fi"e Ith notes, startin# on a chord tone, and endin# on another &or the same tone, perhaps in another octa"e). (o for .m7 you can mo"e etween any of the chordal tones . $ 0 3. .lso practice this with other chords, and at different areas of the fret oard. /on't for#et to practice mo"in# etween two chords in the pro#ression. (uch as a chordal tone from .m7 &. $ 0 3) to a chordal tone of /E &/ 0 :; . $), and so on. This e,ercise will #et you comforta le with consonant phrasin#, e"entually to the de#ree that you no lon#er ha"e to preBplan your riffs, ut can construct them in realBtime. .s you in"entHdisco"er more and more small sequences, you will e"entually tie them to#ether with ease. This #i"es you the a ility to create a constant stream of notes that always imply the underlyin# chords. 5ere are a few e,amples o"er .m7 to #et you started*

152

4ar one mo"es from the flattened se"enth of .m7 &3) to the root of .m7 &.). 4ar two mo"es from the root to the minor third &$), and ar three from the minor third to the perfect fifth &0). There are many ways to mo"e from one chord tone to another, usin# just the notes of the key si#nature. The more you e,periment, the #reater your impro"isational "oca ulary will ecomeK

5elated Cesson (/ore advanced)< Dissonance L 5esol$tion

153