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Demarest Drummey AP BIO Summer Homework; Chapters 45-50, 20 reviewing the chapter Chapter 20 Chapter 45 1.

In what ways do the study of hybrid lovebirds support the hypothesis that genetics (nature) influences behavior? a. The behavior of the hybrid lovebirds shows characteristics of both the Fischer lovebirds and the peach-faced lovebirds while building nests. The Fischer lovebirds cut large strips out of leaves and carry the strip in its beak to the nest. Peach-faced lovebirds cut shorter strips of leaves and stick them in its feathers to carry the strips to the nest. The hybrid lovebirds cut medium sized strips and tried to insert them into its feathers, but not as far as the peach-faced lovebirds as the strips always fall out in flight. Three years into the study, the hybrids learned to hold strips in its beak, but looked at their rump before returning to its nest. By showing that the hybrids automatically tried an intermediate method of transporting the strips of leaves to the nest, the hypothesis was proven. 2. What body system is involved in the behavior of garter snakes toward slugs? Explain an experiment that supports your hypothesis. a. The nervous system in the behavior of the garter snakes towards slugs. When snakes eat, chemicals on their tongues carry messages to an odor receptor on the roof of their mouths, as they flick their tongue out, the snake is able to recognize prey. In California, there are two types of garter snakes; inland that do not eat

slugs and coastal that feed on slugs. In one of the experiments, inland and coastal garter snakes cotton swabs dipped in slug extract and the coastal garter responded to the swabs more often, and it was determined that the inland garter snaked were not sensitive to the smell of the slugs and were not able to distinguish slugs as prey. The odor receptor of the inland snakes prohibited the snakes from recognizing the slugs as a food source, and as such the behaviors of the inland snakes towards the slugs is different from the behavior of the coastal slugs. 3. Studies of Aplysia DNA show that the endocrine system is also involved in behavior. Explain. a. The endocrine system is responsible releasing hormones and other chemicals to regulate body chemistry and many body functions. In the Aplysia marine snails, scientists noted that and egg laying hormone (ELH) caused snails to lay eggs even if the snail was unmated. Once the endocrine system released this hormone into the circulatory system, the hormone excited the smooth muscle cells around the reproductive duct, and caused the snail to lay the egg string.

4. How does an experiment with laughing gull chicks support the hypothesis that environment (nature) influence behavior? a. In the laughing gull experiment, newborn laughing gulls are allowed to peck at pictures of gull heads hitting the model only about 1/3 of the time. On the second day the hatchlings improved their accuracy to more than 75%. With practice the gulls were able to greatly improve their accuracy proving that the environment influenced the begging behavior of the chicks

5. Describe two way of associated learning. a. Classical conditioning: two stimuli when presented paired, become associated with each other. Pavlovs dogs- dog salivates when fed, ring bell when fed, dog salivated when not fed with bell b. Operant conditioning: learning from positive feedback. Giving rewards for good behavior 6. What is sexual selection, and why does it foster female choice and male competition during mating. a. Sexual selection is the adaptive changes of the males and females that lead to an increased ability to mate. Female choice allows the females of the species to choose a mate with a higher ability to survive or better appearance. Female choice gives the females the ability to choose the best traits to pass on to her offspring. Male competition forces the males of a species to decide if the benefit of mating is worth the cost of mating through competition from other males in cost-benefit analysis. Sexual selection causes the males to have a higher ability to compete with other male for a mate. 7. What is a cost-benefit analysis, and how does it apply to dominance hierarchy and territoriality? Give examples. a. Cost-benefit analysis- When the males of a species to decide if the benefit of mating is worth the cost of mating through competition from other males. Dominance hierarchy allows animals such as baboons in a troupe in which the more dominant have more access to resources. The dominant male must decide if the resources (including females) are worth needing more food, fighting off

predators, and the like. Territoriality or defending an area against another species member for feeding, mating, caring for young. In the cost-benefit analysis for the Red deer stags in Rhum, the harem masters must decide if the access to the hinds are worth having less body fat to protect his harem and are more likely to die of starvation in harder times. 8. Give examples of behaviors that appear to be altruistic but actually increase the fitness of the individual a. Bees- if the queen is mated, then the sisters workers are more closely related, and the sister workers can have a better inclusive fitness by helping the queen then reproducing themselves. b. Chimpanzees- males allow multiple males to reproduce with the same female because they will be genetically related because the males never leave the territory c. Florida scrub jays- offspring from the previous clutch stay to help the parents with the next clutch and the number of fledglings doubled. The helper stays to help its own kin and is more likely to inherit the parental territory 9. Give examples of the different types of communication among members of a social group. a. Chemical communication through pheromones such as female moths to male moths is used so that the males can track the females without predator detection. Cheetahs and other cats mark their territories to deter others from crossing into the territory at the boundary. Auditory communication is faster than chemical communication and can be modified. Male birds have different songs for distress,

courting, and marking territory. Visual communication is used mostly by diurnal species. male dominance matches with threatening posture to prevent outright fighting. Visual communication also allows animals to signal others without auditory or chemical messages. Tactile communication is used to cement bonds between animals of the same species. Male leopard nuzzle a females neck to calm her or to stimulate mating. Primates groom each other to create social bonds within the group. Chapter 46 1. What are the varying levels of ecological study? a. Organism- Population- Community- Ecosystem 2. What largely determines a populations density and distribution and growth rate? a. The availability of resources determines the populations density, distribution, and growth rate. The amount of resources will determine the number of organisms the area can support. If there is an increase of resources, the growth rate will also increase. 3. How does the morality pattern and age distribution affect the growth rate? a. The less young that die, the more that grow up and account for a larger population as it increases the number of individuals having young. 4. What type of curve indicates that biotic potential is occurring? What are the environmental conditions for exponential growth? a. Exponential growth occurs when the number of individuals in a population is added each generation increases as the total number females increases. For

exponential growth to continue, the population must have access to unlimited resources; food, shelter, space, and any other necessary resource. 5. What type of curve indicates that the biotic potential is being opposed by the environmental conditions? What environmental conditions are involved? a. Logistic growth shows that the biotic potential is being opposed by the environmental conditions. During logistic growth, there are four stages. The lag stage the growth is small because the population is small. The exponential stage shows that the growth is accelerating because the environment is not stressed by the population. during the deceleration stage, growth slows down as the resources begin to lessen. During the stable equilibrium stage, the population stays relatively the same because the death and birth rates are about the same. 6. What is the carrying capacity of an area? a. The carrying capacity is the number of a population that an area can support 7. Are density-independent or density- dependent factors more likely to regulate population size? Why? a. Density-dependent factors are more likely to regulate the population size because the competition between individuals of the same species as well as predation and parasitism will generally keep the population lower than the effects of the densityindependent factors. 8. What other types of factors are involved in regulating population? a. Other factors to consider in regulating population are the intrinsic factors such as territoriality, dominance hierarchies, immigration and emigration, and recruitment.

9. Why would you expect the life histories of natural populations to vary and contain some characteristics that are so-called K-selected? a. 10. What type of growth curve presently describes the growth of human population? In what types of countries is most of this growth occurring and how might it be contained? a. The human population growth is exponentially growing in less-developed countries, while in more-developed countries the population is relatively stable Chapter 47 1. Contrast the individualistic model of community composition with interactive model a. The individualistic model suggests that each population in a community is there because there are its own abiotic requirements and predicts that the species will have independent distribution and that the boundaries between communities will not be distinct from each other. The interactive model suggests that a community is the highest level of organization, and the parts of the community are dependent on each other, as well as predicting that the same species will recur in communities whose boundaries are distinct from each other. 2. What do experiments with artificial reefs and the model of island biogeography tell us about the species richness? a. The artificial reef demonstrates that community composition is dependent on abiotic and biotic factors, while island biogeography shows how the size of the island corresponds to the species diversity 3. Describe the habitat and ecological niche of a particular organism

a. Dragonfly: habitat- pond or lake with prey insects, larvae fall prey to fish while adults feed on prey insect species 4. What is the competitive exclusion principle? How does the principal relate to character displacement and the niche specialization? a. No two species can indefinitely occupy the same niche at the same time b. Due to the principle, organisms must adapt to be more divergent from similar species in the community (character displacement) such as different mating times or develop adaptations such as beak size to capitalize. In other cases, the similar species will live in specific zones of the habitat, leaving the others to their own zone. 5. What is significance of the barnacle experiments off the coast of Scotland a. This experiment show that the specializes niches are created because competition has been observed. The smaller barnacles can grow in the larger barnacles zone, but prefer to live in its own zone to lessen the competition. 6. Would you expect all predator and prey interactions to produce similar results with regard to population densities? why or why not? a. Yes. The population density of prey can be affected by the population density of the predators and vice versa; therefore, if there is a high population of prey but low of predator, the predator population will rise, until the population of the prey is low and then the predator species population will drop because there is not enough to eat. 7. What is mimicry and why does it work as a prey defense

a. Mimicry is a type of prey defense where one species looks like another, more dangerous species. 8. Give examples of parasitism commensalism and mutualism and show that it is not always easy to distinguish between these symbiotic relationships a. Parasitism- a tick feeds off a deer, one species is benefited b. Commensalism- barnacles attach themselves to whales, one party benefits, other not affected i. Often can be sorted into parasitism or mutualism and most relationships can have be more beneficial to one species over the other. c. Mutualism- flowers are pollenated by bees; both species benefited 9. Describe an example of coevolution between a predator and it's prey between a parasite and a host and between mutualists a. The cheetah is fast and the gazelle run fast and are able to jump high b. Malaria virus cause keeps changing surface proteins so the host immune system is unable to defend c. Flower evolves to have many individual flowers, attracts butterfly to pollenate 10. What is ecological succession what is the present controversy surrounding this concept a. Change involving a series of species replacement after a disturbance. we do not know if succession continues to a certain point because the process in not complete anywhere on earth. 11. What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and how does it relate to Community diversity

a. Moderate amounts of disturbance at moderate frequency are required for a high degree of community diversity. 12. What interactions affect biodiversity and what ways a. Predation- removal of predator will cause the prey population to explode and smother all other species. b. Exotic species/competition- no natural predators so population goes unchecked and can reduce food sources for natural species and native species can become endangered. 13. What is the danger of introducing species from other parts the world into a region a. Exotic species have no natural predators so population goes unchecked and can reduce food sources for native species can become endangered. Chapter 48 1. Distinguish between autotroughs and heterotrophs describe Four different types of heterotroughs found in natural ecosystems a. Autotroph= producers, heterotroph=consumers i. Herbivores- only eat plant/ algae ii. Carnivores- eat other animals iii. Omnivores- feed on plants and animals iv. Detritus feeders (Decomposers)- feed on decomposing organic matter 2. Discuss an energy in an ecosystem and chemical cycling within and between ecosystems why are chemicals able to cycle between ecosystems a. Energy flows through an ecosystem via photosynthesis in producers-consumers or decomposers-decomposers, but the majority is lost as heat.

b. Chemical cycling begins as inorganic nutrients- producers-decomposers of consumers-decomposers repeat 3. Describe two types of food webs in ecosystems. which of these typically moves more energy through with an ecosystem a. Grazing food webs starts producer b. Detrital food web starts at detritus, also moves more energy 4. With reference to food chain what is a trophic level, what is ecological pyramid. a. Trophic level- level of nourishment within a food web/chain b. Ecological pyramid- food chain where each trophic level is represented by energy lost 5. Give examples of reservoirs and pools and biochemical cycles. which of these is less accessible to living things a. Reservoir such as fossilized remains, pools such as a source not usually available to producers like fossilized remains are the less accessible to living things, biochemical cycles move through food webs 6. Draw diagrams to illustrate the water cycle and the carbon cycle

7. How and why is the global temperature expected to change and what are the predicted consequences of this change a. Because more CO2 and other greenhouse gasses are being released than absorbed into the atmosphere, the gasses trap solar radiation, which rise the ambient temperature. Environment will become warmer melting glaciers rising sea level, and more droughts will occur 8. Draw a diagram of the nitrogen cycle what types of bacteria are involved in this cycle Bacteria that convert N into a form that plants can use

9. What causes acid deposition and what are its effects a. Nitrous salts from commercial/industrial activities returning in rain or snow 10. How does photochemicals smog develop and what is a thermal inversion a. Air pollution that contains NOx hydrocarbons which react to produce ozone and PAN 11. Draw a diagram of the phosphorus cycle

12. Why is the use of phosphate-base detergents dangerous to aquatic ecosystems

a. Can create algal blooms that when is dies the decomposers use up the O killing off the fish 13. What are several ways in which freshwater and marine waters can be polluted what is biological magnification a. biological magnification -When a substance in more concentrated in the higher trophic levels. b. Mercury is absorbed but not processed by plankton- plankton eaten by small fish eaten by md fish eaten by large fish, so the large fish have huge amounts of mercury not processed. 14. Of what benefit is the ozone shield what pollutants in particular is associated with ozone shield depletion and what are the consequences of this the depletion a. Ozone shield absorbs UV light. b. Cl- atoms in particual c. Without adequate protection, health and food sources are threatened

Chapter 49 1. Describe how a spherical Earth and are in the path of the earth about the sun affects climate a. Sun rays are more direct at the equator making it hotter 2. Describe the air Circulation about the earth and tell why deserts are apt to occur at 30 north and south of the equator. Why does the Pacific coast of California get plentiful rainfall a. Air rises and cools, 30degrees N air sinks to the bottom creating dry, the pacific coast of CA gets plenty of rain because prevailing westerlies blow moisture to the west coast. 3. How does a coastal mountain range affect climate what causes a monsoon climate a. air blows up one side of the mountain and cools and rains the other side air falls and picks up moisture b. wet ocean winds blow onshore, the temp different between the wind and land creates a circulation 4. Named terrestrial biomes you would expect to find when going from the base to the top of a mountain a. Ice tundra coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, tropical, deciduous, montane coniferous, alpine tundra, ice 5. Describe the location the climate in the populations of the Arctic tundra coniferous forest both taiga and temperate rainforest deciduous forest tropical rain forests Shrublands grasslands both temperate grasslands in Savannah and deserts a. Arctic tundra- cold dark most of the year.few animal

b.

coniferous foresti. both taiga cold, heavy snow ii. temperate rainforest- cold, rainy rich soil

c. deciduous forest- moderate climate plenty of rain d. tropical rain forests always warm LOTS of rain e. Shrublands dry summers, rain in winter f. grasslands i. temperate grasslands winter bitter cold, hot and dry summer ii. Savannah- cool dry season followed by hot rain season g. Deserts- lat 30 degrees no moisture in air, hot days 6. Describe the importance of wetlands and the major types of wetlands 7. Wetlands are one of the most productive ecosystems on earth a. Marshes are wet at least part of the year

b. Bogs- acidic pools, wet most of the time 8. Describe the overturn of a temperate lake The life zones of a lake and the organisms you would expect to find in each life zone a. Littoral zone- closest to shore sunlit i. Wading birds b. Profundal zone- non light penetrating i. crayfish c. Benthic zone-bottom of the lake, silt sand etc. i. Insect larve, worms d. Limnetic zone-sun lit

i. Plankton and fish 9. Describe the coastal communities and discuss the importance of estuaries to the productivity of the ocean a. Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of brackish water i. act as the nurseries for many species b. seashores are bombarded by the tide i. harsh ecosystem to live in with eh constant erosion and deposition. 10. Describe the ocean currents and How the Gulfstream accounts for Great Britain having mild temperature a. Winds currents bring tropical water across the Atlantic to England 11. Describes the zones of the open ocean and the organisms you would expect to find each zone a. Epipelagic zoneb. Mesopelagic c. bath Chapter 50 1. Explaining these attributes of conservation biology 1 both Academic and applied 2 supports ethical principles and 3 is responding to a biodiversity crisis 2. Discuss the conservation of biodiversity at the species genetic community and landscape levels 3. Describe the uneven distribution of diversity in the biosphere what is the implication of uneven distribution for conservation biologists 4. Lists various ways in which individual wild species provide us with valuable services

5. List various ways in which ecosystems provide us with indispensable surfaces 6. List and discuss the five major causes of extinction starting with the most frequent case 7. Introduction of exotic species is usually due to what events 8. List and discuss five major types of pollution that particularly affect biodiversity of these why is global warming considered most significant 9. Use the positive feedback cycle to explain why overexploitation occurs 10. Using the grizzly bear population as an example explain keystones species metapopulations landscape Preservation and a population viability analysis 11. Explain the three principles of habitat restoration with reference to the Everglades Chapter 20 1. Explain the binomial system of naming organisms Why must species be designated by a complete name 2. Why is it necessary to give organism scientific names 3. Discuss three ways to distinguish a species which way relates to classification 4. What are the eight obligatory classification categories in what ways are they a hierarchy 5. How is it that taxonomy and classification are part of systematics what three types of data help systematics construct phylogenic trees 6. Discuss the principles of cladistics and explain how to to construct a cladogram 7. In what ways do the cladistic school and the phenetic school and the traditional school of systematics differ 8. Compare the five kingdoms system of classification to the three domain system 9. Contrast the characteristics of the bacteria the archaea and the Eukarya 10. Contrast the eukaryotic kingdoms Protista Fungi plantae and Animalia