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Aquatic Sediments Author(s): Robert Castro, Jr., Armando Bosquez, Mohammed K. Ali and Andrew N.

Ernest Source: Water Environment Research, Vol. 69, No. 4, 1997: Literature Review (Jun., 1997), pp. 749-777 Published by: Water Environment Federation Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25044928 . Accessed: 03/11/2013 17:02
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_Fate Wang, L.; Zimmer, K; Diedrich, P.; and Williams, Rainbow Trout Fishery and Its Effect S. (1996) The Two the Zooplankton

& Effects

of Pollutants

Story Ward,

on

in a Minnesota Lake. J. Freshwater EcoL, 11, 67. Community F.A., and Lynch, T.P. (1996) Integrated River Basin Optimiza tion: Modeling Economic and Hydrologie Water Interdependence. Resour. Bull. (Urb.), 32, 1127. I.; Downes, J.; Hawes, liams, C (1996) Evidence Evolution 8, 49. S.E.B., and australis J.A. Strand, in Relation Transport (1996) Rhizome toWater Depth: Distances. Folia Architecture in for Implications Geobot Phyto M.; Timperley, M.; and Howard-Wil in the for Regional Climate Change of a High Latitude Pro-Glacial Lake. Antarctic

and Eckhardt, B. (1996) Effective Variables in Ecosystem Wirtz, K.-W., to Phytoplankton with an Application Models Succession. Ecol Model, 92, 33. Wollheim, W.M., Growth Forms and Lovvorn, J.R. (1996) Effects of Macrophyte on Invertebrate Communities in Saline Lakes of the 323, 83. Impact of a Protective and Zooplankton Chemistry (Neth.),

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Wyoming High Plains. Hydrobiologia D.; Danks, M.; and Lawrenz, R. Wright, on the Water Limestone Treatment

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Recent Sei., Weisner,

Wu,

Phragmites Within-Plant taxon., Weiss,

of Thrush Lake, Minnesota. Restor. Ecol, 4, 293. Community of the Diatom Assemblages J.-T., and Chang, S.-C (1996) Relation to the pH Values in the Surface Sediments of an Alpine Lake Taiwan. Arch. Hydrobiol (Ger.), 137, 551. L.A.; Dettmers, J.M.; and Stein, R.A. (1996) Feeding Preferences of Omnivorous Gizzard Shad as Influenced by Fish Size and Zoo plankton

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Oxygen 31, 91.

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M.J. B.T.; Gulliver, P.T.; Oakley, J.S.; and Semmens, (1996) Bubbleless Fiber Aerator for Surface Waters. /. Envir. Eng., 122, 631.

Yan,

Werner,

and Farrell, J.M. Jonckheere, R.G.; B.V.; M.D.; Clapsadl, A Bioenergetic of Piscivory and Planktivory Exploration the Early Life History of Two Species of Freshwater Fishes. During Mar. Freshwater Res., 47, 113. (1996) Pattern by Gas Water

Trans. Am. Fish. Soc, 125, 753. Density. and Dillion, P.J. Keller, W.; Scully, N.M.; Lean, D.R.S.; to Drought Penetration in a Lake Owing (1996) Increased UV-B Induced Acidification. Nature (G.B.), 381, 141. N.D.; Q., and Li, W. Vegetation Xuebao, on (1996) Effect of Intensive Pen Fish Farming and Its Ecological Strategy (Chinese). Yingyong 7, 83. A. (1996) Mechanisms at Harbors in the North on the Basin

Yang,

Aquatic Shengtai

J.P. (1996) Control of the Diurnal G.J., and Chanton, Whiting, of Methane from Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes Emission Aquat. Bot, 54, 237. Transport Mechanisms. and Duke, J.H. (1996) Modeling R.G; Smith, D.J.; Willey, Resource

Y.; Nakahara, Yoshida, H.; and Kuwae, of Microcystis Bloom Occurrence

for Water-Quality J. Water. Re Management. Systems sour. Plann. Manage. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 122, 171. Williams, P.J.L., and Lefevre, D. (1996) Algal C-14 and Total Carbon to Account for the Physiological Metabolisms. I.Models Processes J. Plankton of Respiration and Recycling. Res., 18, 1941. Williams, P.J.L.; Robinson, C; Sondergaard, M.; Jespersen, A.M.; et al II. Experimental (1996) Algal C-14 and Total Carbon Metabolisms. Observations Res., Williamson, (1996) 18, With 1961. P.L. R.E.; and Stutzman, Resources for Zooplankton Vertical Migration Theory. the Diatom Skeletonema costatum. J. Plankton

of Lake Biwa (Japanese). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (Jap.), 62, 230. Influence of Abiotic T.G. (1996) Comparative Zale, A. V., and Adornato, on Seasonal Abundances of Hybrid Variables Striped Bass and White Ecol, Bass in the Grand Lake Tailwater, E.E. Oklahoma. J. Freshwater 11, 257. and Prepas,

Zhang, Y., Planktonic

of of the Dominance (1996) Regulation in Four Eutrophic Hard and Cyanobacteria water Lakes by Nutrients, Water Column and Tempera Stability, ture. Can. J. Fish. Aquat Scl, 53, 621. Diatoms

Sanders, R.W.; Moeller, CE.; of Subsurface Food Utilization

Impacts of Hydroelec Zhong, Y., and Power, G. (1996) Environmental Rivers Res. Man tric Projects on Fish Resources in China. Regul age., 12, 81. Zohary, Robarts, R.; and Hambright, T.; Pais-Madeira, A.M.; of a Hypertrophie (1996) Interannual Phytoplankton Dynamics 105. rican Lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Ger.), 136, K.D. Af

for Diel Implications Reproduction: Limnol. Oceanogr., 41, 224.

Aquatic
Robert Castro,

sediments
Jr., Armando Bosquez,

Properties. on studies distribution, residing Permeability in

Porosity smectite-rich such smectite and

corrections sediments. corrected

were To

data were

for previous a true porosity produce to account for the water made and on Ransom, 128 core 1996). plugs

Mohammed

K. Ali, Andrew N. Ernest

(Brown interlayers measurements porosity

taken from the Triassic Hawkesbury Sandstone in the Sydney basin, Australia, were analyzed by both sedimentological and
geostatistical approaches to assess horizontal and vertical per

SEDIMENTATION
Bottom-current-influenced in outer-fan and basin-plain sandy deposits sediments of were identified Group, to have the

meability and porosity variations in deposits of braided river systems. Itwas found that the permeability heterogeneity in the
Hawkesbury was used for Sandstone was related closely to sedimentary to seabeds. fa

the Kazusa

infill of the Plio-Pleistocene


Peninsula of Japan. Analogous

Kazusa forearc basin in the BOSO


processes appear been

cies type (Liu et al,


anchoring

1996). The Superpile anchoring system


tension leg platforms The

responsible for the deposition of sandy contourities in the Ka zusa forearc basin during the Pliocene through Pleistocene (Ito, 1996). Comparison of sediment data collected in 1982 with data
collected reef in 1994 has enabled subsequent an assessment changes varies of the response produc reef of sediments to the in carbonate

Superpile did not show distinct failure. Pullout load continues to increase with displacement up to as much as 60% of pile diameter (Singh et al, 1996). Deposition. A transgressive systems tract (TST) deposit on
the inner continental using shelf of the south Tuscany profiles, region gravity was cores, detailed high-resolution seismic

tion and productivity after Hurricane Allen


tial for sediment time-averaging

in 1980. The poten


among

enormously and reefs

sites and has implications both for assessing periods of commu


nity ting reef within Quaternary change rates of taphonomic destruction sequences within for (Perry, interpre 1996).

and grab samples. The TST deposit showed a tabular geometry and comprised three internal architectures of beach facies (Tort
ora, mire 1996). complex The on sulfur content of the Caribbean peat coast in a large of Panama back-barrier was related

LiteratureReview 1997 749

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants to climatic, biological, and tectonic factors of the depositional environment. High sulfur content was related spatially tomarine or brackish influence in the Changuinola peat deposit. (Phillips and Bustin, 1996b). The late Proterozoic Penganga Group, Pran hita-Godavari valley, South India, is a sequence of siliciclastic
carbonate basin. The sediments that were deposited sedimentary in an intracratonic containing rift nonvolcanogenic succession servation, X-ray, and scanning electron microanalysis of dis

tinctly laminated, indistinctly laminated, and nonlaminated sedi ments from ODP Site 893 showed that laminated as well as nonlaminated hemipelagic sediments could form in the absence of bioturbation (Grimm et al, 1996).
Metal riverbed in six separated partitioning was sediment by analyzed sediment-size sequential fractions extraction. of The

listric basin-marginal faults showed abrupt facies change (Ban dopadhyay, 1996). Empirical data from 15 years of annual sedi ment sampling throughout the canyon system have produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sedi ments. Field mapping identified 108 deposits of sediment, in cluding active bed load, floodplains, bars, channel fills, and
slack-water deposits barrier river. can (Graf, 1996). Thick, low-ash, low-sulfur

extraction data showed increasing potential bioavailability of metals with decreasing grain size (Stone et al, 1996). An inves tigation of the influence of landslide activity on the sediment budget and the distribution of Au inHarris creek was conducted.
Along the lower Harris creek, decreases in stream gradient were

peat was accumulating


prograding ment-laden deposits

immediately behind an aggrading and


to a flood-prone, adjacent that thick peat, and hence of tectonically driven, sedi coal,

and system It was evident because

associated with accumulation of Au and landslide activity (Hou and Fletcher, 1996). A 1 430-m-deep station in the Norwegian Sea (Voering Pla teau) was occupied five times between May 1986 and February 1987 to investigate the seasonal variation in sediment mixing
rates. The input function of radiocesium to the seafloor was

accumulate

punctu

ated subsidence without leaving a record of high clastic input within the peat (Phillips and Bustin, 1996a). An overview of event deposits was done. The importance of two principal fac
tors controlling an size and frequency of event deposits was em

evaluated from the increase of the total inventory with time (Balzer, 1996). Characterization. Sedimentary features of shelf north of
Taiwan mapped were classified echo character by 3.5-kHz an echo to produce that revealed character map on the seafloor. The echo character features sedimentary was characterized that each feature showed sedimentary revealed characteristics coexist for with the design of the Pacific manganese mining and the map by sea a

phasized (Einsele, 1996). The Oligoc?ne Creede Formation rep


resents tary and exceptionally within sequence erosional patterns well-preserved a large, resurgent that intracaldera caldera. the sedimen Sedimentation basin geometry

suggested

corresponding echo type (Yu and Song,


and distribution properties which mount sediments, deposits, are essential data

1996). Geotechnical

evolved from being narrow and deep to being broad and shallow through its depositional history (Larsen and Crossey, 1996).
Shoreline line line migration which trajectory, trajectories forced were in terms of shore described patterns was cross-sectional the along path. Shore as accretionary can be defined and nonaccre normal regression, and accretionary and Mar

cobalt-rich of

a seafloor

system for the deposits. Analysis


that the geotechnical properties

of the core samples showed


were important

of the sediments

tionary and

regression,

nonaccretionary

transgression

(Helland-Hansen,

tinsen, 1996). Four important aspects of sedimentation during the rift transitional phase were addressed: the effect of base level changes; the influence of faults on sediment pathways; the
stratigraphie ate-platform and sequence tated the architecture and deposits; boundaries. of alluvial the nature fan, fan-delta, and carbon of depositional Accommodation space carbonate sequences created by

(Yamazaki et al, 1996). Biofacies development, sedimentology, and geochemical properties of intertidal Mytilus beds in the German Wadden Sea were studied in vertical profiles in situ
and in box core samples. The deposition mud of feces, pseudofeces, centimetres

and trapped fin-grained material


well-defined biosedimentary

resulted in the formation of


layers several

thick (Hertweck and Liebezeit, 1996). The chemical composi tion of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers was
presented. The comparison of the dissolved, suspended, and

fault movement

and the changing of older sediment bodies dic


architecture of platforms

three-dimensional

and elastic fans (Bosence et al,

1996).
pro suspension the suspension were on the

sandy transport fluxes of each element in the Congo Basin rivers showed that up to 80% of the REFs were transported by the
so-called "dissolved" load in the Black Rivers (Dupre et al,

The turbulence-driven Particles. Suspended to determine cess in a sand-bed studied river was

1996). Three stages of deposition were distinguished


mokarst-lake-basin Tuktoyaktuk The Mono located ied. The sediment on Coastlands, estuary, sequences western is an in ice-rich Canada permafrost (Murt?n, was microtidal coast, factors arctic

in ther
of the 1996). estuary stud such as and

intermittency and turbulence frequency. Data suggested that the


intermittent, turbulent eddies that mix sediments

order of one to five times the flow depth (Lapointe, 1996). Water and sediment movement in The Wash embayment was determined from an extensive set of data consisting of tidal
current surements. ment cally readings suspended and residual Instantaneous a distinct column lateral was and sediment concentration in the whereas (Ke mea embay verti et al, currents

which

in-filled,

the wave-dominated showed relative that to

study supply

Bight local environmental limited

of Benin

accommodation

space

showed the water

inhomogeneity, almost homogenous of from

strong longshore drift may lead to in-filled equilibrium or near equilibrium estuaries thatwill not necessarily evolve into deltas (Anthony et al, 1996). Submarine jet processes were inferred
from glaciomarine on the proximity facies exposed in gravel pits in southwestern

1996).
Precipitation. mica-quartz Textural interfaces observation in sandstones at dissolution quartz conti the Norwegian

coastal Maine. The geometry and distribution of fan facies de


pend to the grounding line and stream effluxes,

nental shelf showed thatmica grains have penetrated into quartz grains without being significantly deformed. Because the pres sures at which this was occurring were significantly lower than
the overburden sidered induced load, it was suggested process and (Sami that what may James, was instead 1996). once con to be a pressure-solution dissolution process be a clay Core ob

the angle of jet trajectory from glacier conduits, and sediment


remobilization mation further processes. augments Syndepositional bank morainal glaciotectonic formation through from the defor push

ing and squeezing of fan sediments at the grounding line (Hunter


et al, 1996). Humic substances extracted sediments

of Lake Edku (Egypt) were


750 Water Environment

fractionated to their humic and


Research, Volume 69, Number 4

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants fuvic acid constituents. The geographical distribution of the physical and chemical characteristics did not reveal distinct and systematic features that could be related to the origin of the material (El-Sayed et al, 1996). Chesil Beach on the south coast of England and Hawk Bay Beach on the east coast of North Island New Zealand were examined to identify the prob
lems grading to be solved before sediments of beach a comprehensive of lateral explanation factors could be achieved. Several

distribution and shell isotopic composition. A link between en


vironment, metabolism, and isotopic disequilibrium of observed

in oceanic settings suggested that there was potential to better


reconstruct the structure and biological processes the upper

water column (Ortiz et al, 1996). The episodic phenomena for the pelagic-benthic coupling in the Nordic Seas were studied
to show tic and decades. Polar that physical Ocean Physical in the northeastern North Atlan processes on time were to scales of days variable on the a significant have influence processes

were identified as contributing to lateral grading. These factors were attrition and sorting developed by longshore drifting and
wave energy gradients, the configuration of the coast and adja

cent seafloor, and the nature and rate of supply of beach material were (Bird, 1996). The sedimentary budgets of 12Cand 13C
determined for the well-characterized coastal site of Cape Look

dynamics of pelagic-benthic coupling in which the physical oceanography influences the vertical and horizontal particle flux directly (mixing, advection up- and downwelling) (Wassmann et al, 1996). Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on seston levels and sediment deposition inWestern Lake Erie
resulted from in a substantial the water column increase in flux of particulated matter exceeded to the benthos. Biodeposition

out Bight, North Carolina. It was concluded that the relative rate of production of the C02 and CH4 (the rate was controlled by the depositional flux of metabolizing organic carbon), along
with the fractionation factor, was associated with methanogen

esis (Boehme et al, 1996). Activity. Multilevel Meteorological


on an offshore effect on temperate the benthic reef system strong sediments,

events of severe storms


were macroalgae, for benthic shown and to have implica and a

normal sedimentation by 50%. Suspended matter reduced the presence of mussels inLake Erie by 7 to 30% of total suspended matter per day (Klerks et al, 1996). The influence of biomass and size distribution of epilimnetic algae on patterns of algal
sedimentation was studied. The net and relative sedimentations

tions for fisheries (Renaud et al,


an unpredictable source of mortality storms

1996a). Severe storms provide


organisms

were related to the mean length to the biomass of epilimnetic algae (Larocque et al, 1996). An investigation of relative im
portance of resource, grazing, and live history processes for

may
cated

strongly influence community composition. Results


that severe, episodic can affect the composition

indi
of

the dynamics of dinoflagellates was carried out at Peridinum limbatum in two bog lakes of different population densities. A
simple tions. model based on measured emergency rates was created

offshore benthic communities (Posey et al, 1996). The tsunami wave induced by the collapse of the Santoi caldera after the
Bronze-Age eruption produced turbidites and large-volume

to find the difference of growth processes by nutrient limita


It was discovered were not that resource the dominant availability controlling ton grazing and Zooplank for mechanisms

megaturbidites in the abysmal plains of the Ionian Sea. Four types of homogenite were discussed in this study (Cita et al, 1996).

dinoflagellate population in both lakes (Sanderson and Frost, 1996). Short-jawed kokopu from diverse localities fed on spe cies of cased caddisflies from stream benthos and on diverse
terrestrial tebrates invertebrates such as beetles, from ants, the surface. cicadas, terrestrial Large and spiders were inver part of

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND TOXICITY


Sediment produced by parrot fishes (family Scaridae) may
compromise new bioeroded and/or reworked sediment. The ex

the short-jawed kokopu diet (McDowall et al, 1996). A survey was made of framboid size distributions in recently deposited
sediments from euxinic, dysoxic, and oxic environments. It was

tent of sediment reworking by excavating or bioeroding scardis was quantified directly by determining the mass of sediment ingested versus the primary erosion products (Bellwood, 1996). The influence of organic additions to sediment and of female
age and size on patterns of offspring were examined. Organic

proposed that framboid size distribution may be used to indicate


whether fine-grained sedimentary rocks were deposited under

oxic or anoxic conditions (Wilkin et al, 1996). Bioturbation. Among the bottom-living cephalopods,
able to dig into soft substrata showed involving coordinated mantle/funnel, fin, special and behavior

those

addition tomud had no detectable effect on the C or N content of embryos (Bridges, 1996). Three hard-bottom sites of the southern Onlow Bay have been studied for 3 years. The studies were of sedimentology and dynamics of the surficial sand bodies
and the benthic community structures. It was shown that the

patterns arm movements.

Their burial activities and the sand/mud digging of many squids and cuttlefishes played a notable role in bioturbation (Boletzky, 1996). Callianassid shrimps were the dominant benthic endo
fauna Brewer and bioturbational Sediment agents of investi shrimp was reworking two reef-top of cores from the 210Pb analysis sites; using gated a classical characteristic subdivision the study revealed tripartite Reef. reef-top by these sediments on John

distribution and characteristics of sediments influenced the loca


tion of biological consequences caused by storms (Renaud et al,

1996b). A study was undertaken of the levels of 21 chlorinated biphenyl congeners in the common mussel from Irish and North
Sea waters. New Brighton sediments apparently were clean with

respect to total chlorinated biphenyls


A series of stations representing

(Thompson et al,
moderately, Biodiffusivities

1996).

of depositional settings inwhich sediment reworking dominates over sediment accumulation (Walbran 1996). Bioturbation by
the deep-burrowing ied in Loch Sween, the animal's likely A echiuran Scotland. effects on Maxmuelleria Results were lankesteri was stud to evaluate analyzed in of radionuclides

severely,

and neg deter

ligibly affected sediments was studied to better understand the


impact sediments of such pollution the outfall on bioturbation.

the movement

mined from the 234Th profiles yielded a spatial pattern in which


near were mixed at intensities of approxi

sediments of the northeast Irish Sea (Hughes et al,


field instrument

1996).

mately 10 cm2/a (Wheatcroft andMartin, 1996). An assessment of the use of four species of living planktonic foraminifera as
tracers northern of thermocline Ocean and was intermediate made based water on masses in the Pacific their water-column

near Ecology. diver-deployed water and horizontal bottom speed temperature, light intensity, of these measure The principal for up to 3 months. applications recorded ments site were selection to study (Miller, benthic R.J., and to aid in aquaculture ecology of 248 et al, 1996). The analyses

LiteratureReview 1997 751

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants samples revealed that the composition and distribution patterns of sediments within the Albermarle estuarine system (AES)
represented sources, processes. for many basin a complex interaction among and estuarine evolution, morphology, as both a sink and source muds acted Organic-rich in the water chemical constituents column different multiple associated sediment

offshore of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, elicited a rapid re


sponse from the dense benthic community. The transport was

a consequence of the dense infaunal populations, which were supported by the rapid deposition of organic carbon in this region (Blair et al, 1996).
Mollusks. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc

and played an important function in the physical and chemical dynamics of estuarine ecosystems (Riggs, 1996). The applica tion of a pedological paradigm for subaqueous soils of subtidal habitats was proposed to develop ecological interpretations of subaqueous soil types and apply an inventory of subaqueous soil
resources for management of estuarine shallow-water habitats

inmussel and sediment samples collected together from eight different geological coastal areas of Chile were determined. Strong relationships between Cu concentrations in themollusk and sediments were found (De Gregori et al, 1996). Low levels of chlordane were determined in several species of mollusks and polychaetes and in shallow sediment cores from an intertidal
sandbank. Total chlordane levels were similar in all mollusks,

(Demas et al, 1996). The fluxes of oxygen and nutrients be tween water and sediments at 21 sites primarily inVirginia and North Carolina estuaries were determined during the past 15 years. In general, itwas found that heterotrophically dominated
sediments had the potential to degrade water quality, whereas

but were twice as high in polychaetes


Faunas. a coarse-sand The benthic community

(Simpson et al,

1996).
over with a

boundary layer (BBL) macrofauna at Trezens Vraz was sampled

modified Macer-GIROQ
changes. Biomass exchanges

hyperbenthic
among of copper

sledge to analyze diel


BBL, and benthos

photoautotrophy in the sediments ameliorated this effect (Rizzo et al, 1996). Oxygen-releasing plants may provide aerobic
niches in anoxic sediments and soils for ammonia-oxidizing

pelagos,

appeared important around sunset and sunrise (Zouhiri and Dau


vin, on 1996). Concentrations in a marine sediment were

bacteria. It was argued that the conservation of the nitrifying capacity during anoxic periods and the ability to react instanta
neously ers in fluctuating 1996). Seasonal nia excretion to the presence important environments oxic-anoxic (Bodelier rate and in the oxygen variations uptake the benthic studied It was deposit-feeding in an open-sea of oxygen are traits of nitrifi et al, ammo Mo of the

experimentally enhanced to see the ecological effects of copper


fauna. Differences among in changes replicate of the fauna (Gee were consistent experiments not always and Warwick,

rate of were Sea.

amphipod population

noporeia northern

affinis Baltic

1996). Water and sediment samples were obtained to study the relationship among temporal variability in macroinfaunal abundance, physical factors, and chlorophyll content. Spatial variability was explained by variations of the data, together with
those of sediment texture an organic matter content (Quijon et

concluded

that quality-food elevations in oxygen 1996). cockle,

abun

dance after the sedimentation of the spring phytoplankton bloom


induces rate was derma and the observed ammonia early-summer rate excretion (Lehtonen, uptake Research Cerasto

al, 1996). The relationship between the supply of phytodetrius to bottom sediments and the horizontal and vertical distribution of meiobenthos in the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico
off the coast of Louisiana and its major was studied. Abundance was of the total meiobenthos components correlated signifi

conducted edule, on

to study the influence of the the macrozobenthic community have a strong on influence on

of the tidal flats

in the Wadden
adult cockles

Sea. Itwas concluded that dense assemblages of


can the macrozooben

thic community (Flach, 1996). The development of smallMyti


lus beds and its effects resident intertidal macrofauna were

cantly with sediment pigments, indicating a functional relation ship between food supply and abundance of meiobenthos in a stress-prone environment (Radziejewska et al, 1996). Sediment oxygen demand (SOD), silicate and ammonia fluxes, benthic
macroand meiofauna, Adriatic and the northwestern phytopigments Sea. Water-column were measured in in characteristics

studied in the German Wadden


mussel The beds abundance with sandy of macrofauna bare

Sea during 1986 by comparing


areas of the same tidal elevation. with the organisms in intertidal decreased

dicated a rough partition of the transect into two groups of


stations of which the northern cluster experienced the direct

age of themussel bed (G?nther, 1996). The effect of biodeposi


tion on macrofaunal communities sand flats caused

by the input of organic material via biodeposition produced by mussel beds was studied. The results indicate that biodeposits changed the quality of the sediment structure of the sand flats (Kroncke, 1996). The effects of boring activities of Echinometra
lucunter along causes the Caribbean coast of Colombia and of E. van

influence of Po water (Tahey et al, 1996). Results for 68 poly chlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in benthic fauna, isopods,
and fourhorn sculpins and sediment were presented for three

brunti in the Colombian Pacific were examined. Boring by Echi


nometra a secondary structure of the surface to form

additional microhabitats (Schoppe and Werding, 1996). The effect of the introduction of theAmerican species Marenzelleria viridis {Polychaeta, Spionidae) on the benthic ecosystem of an oligohaline and silted water basin was studied in the late 1980s. The American species considerably reduced the previous bot
tom macrofauna, which was composed mainly of Chironomidae

coastal locations in the Bothnian Sea and two in the Bothnian Bay. A chemometrical comparison of the distribution of the PCB congeners at the different sampling sites using principal component analysis revealed that PCB congener patterns dif fered between Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea (Van Bavel et al, 1996). A study was described inwhich the concentrations
of copper Univariate increased and in marine analyses concentrations of sediments of the were changes enhanced in the had varied an experimentally. fauna that showed on taxa the fauna (Schlacher

of copper the response

impact

that the nature

among

andWoolridge,
infauna, were ganic able

1996b). A study was done to determine whether


in low organic-content sediments, living with the deposition of large amounts of or The population of infauna from some dynamics were limited or residence con by processes time within the sedi to

larvae and oligochaetes


biological spillage effects into

(Zmudzinski, 1996). The chemical and


timber-preservative monitor Sediment

a major from resulting were studied. Bourne the River

adapted to cope

material.

ing revealed high surficial sediment concentrations of tributylin, and lindane loadings declined during a period of time (Dowson
et al, labeled 1996). Emplacement on green algae of the a tracer mixture seafloor of the containing continental 13C slope

organic-poor trolling

sediments sandy matter organic input

ment
influence

(Webb, 1996). Browsing


competitive interactions

(or sublethal) pr?dation may


via changes in sediment dis

752

Water

Environment

Research,

Volume

69, Number

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_Fate

& Effects

of Pollutants

turbance activity. By quantifying the zone of influence of browsed infauna, better predictions can be made of the level
of browsing necessary was to reduce competitive and adult-larval

studies of Miocene toHolocene hemipelagic and pelagic marine sediments by means of backscattered electron imagery were
done to reveal the common presence of exotic aggregates of

interactions (Lindsay and Woodin,


macroinfauna quantified

1996). The distribution of


soft-bottom habitats,

well

in subtidal,

extending from the estuarine mouth to the tidal head of a small,


shallow, fauna Axial of macroin zonation estuary. patterns temperate and fishes, matched those of mesozooplankton broadly a general structure the of notion species underlying supporting

to poorly sorted silt-size particles. The long stratigraphie range and diverse habitats occupied by agglutinated foramini fera suggest that they may be an important contributor to the
of early fabrics in fine-grained marine sediments

production done

(Pike and Kemp,

1996). A study of benthic foraminifera was


site with deep-sea characteristics. The

in a shallow-water

distribution patterns in the Gamtoos estuary (Schlacher and Woolridge, 1996a). Fluxes of silicoflagellates, the dinoflagellate
Actinisius ciliate ment sp. polycystine, and pelagic cysts, samples from phaeodarian were mollusks the eastern radiolarians, estimated Atlantic. for tintinnids, 13 sedi The data

study site, Explorer's Cove, clarified the role that protist played
in shallow waters as well as deep-water environments (Gooday

et al, 1996). A study of variations inMg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios of planktonic foraminifera caused by postdepositional dissolu
tion was that Mg:Ca done. By in an using inner an electron chamber, revealed it was microscope, calcite G. t?mida were higher

trap

tropical

indicated that seasonal variations were difficult to recognize (Boltovsky and Uliana, 1996). Phytodetrital sedimentation, bac
terial activity were abundance in sediments, measured and benthic macroa carbon and meiofauna budget for pe to calculate

than calcite crust, where Sr:Ca was elevated slightly (Brown and Elderfield, 1996). Research was done on the development
of a latitudinal benthic species-richness It was foraminifera. gradient suggested caused that the by gradient deep-sea was

lagic-benthing coupling in Lake Erken. Bacterial activity in surficial sediment was limited by temperature (Goedkoop and Johnson, 1996). The epibenthic megafauna of the high-Arctic Northeast Greenland shelf was investigated by seafloor. The
estimation erable of brittle of the star oxygen organic portion indicated uptake carbon produced that a consid in the polynya

largely a result of an increasing but strongly pulsed food input into the deep oceans at high latitudes (Thomas and Gooday, 1996). A study of neritic sections inEgypt was done. The results
showed that in the southern shallow chemistry, Tethys, a prominent term change in bottom-water sedimentation, long and ben

and partitioned to the benthos may be remineralized by epiben thic bank assemblages (Piepenburg and Schmid, 1996). A study of the influence of mucous aggregates on themicrophytobenthic community in the Northern Adriatic Sea was first observed in 1991 to relate the mucous on the benthic flora and fauna. The results showed a general decrease of benthic diatoms from 1991 to 1993, in both quality and quantity (Welker and Nichetto, 1996). Plankton. A freshwater phytoplankton bloom in Visovac Lake may be the cause of the benthic mortality that occurred in late summer and early autumn of 1989 in the upper part of
Krka estuary. The sertularia cumulative species effect of the Synedra apparently acus and Dinobryon decomposition caused

thic foraminifera fauna was initiated when the deep-sea benthic extinction event (BEE) took place (Schmitz et al, 1996).
Toxicology. The relationship between combined sewer over

flows (CSOs) and sediment contamination of the lower Passaic River in New Jersey was evaluated to identify the nature of toxic chemical inputs to the river. The magnitude of the CSO discharges to the river combined with the nature of the chemi cals used and discharged to the system indicated that CSOs
represent a historic and ongoing source of toxic pollutants to

the river (Shear et al, 1996). An artificial sediment was tested for use in evaluating the potential hazard of toxicants to benthic
The organisms. throid insecticide, toxicant of this Fenvalerate. done using study was The benthic organism the pyre popula

an oxygen demand sufficient to trigger benthic mortality (Petric ioli et al, 1996). A study on the benthic origins of Zooplankton
was done. Eighteen of 21 planktonic groups, the ancestry of

tion was affected adversely by fenvalerate (Weber et al, 1996). Sediment chemistry toxicity and benthic community structure
were used individually untreated and wastewater discharged together on were concern up to assess the marine found to the effects of environment. in the 100 m sediments away from

could be traced, originated in the benthos (Rigby and Milsom, 1996). Evidence was found for Pliocene reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (Burkle et al, 1996). Plankton response to physical forcing was studied in the Gulf of Califor nia. It was discovered that the phytoplankton attribute to the destabilization of surface waters (Thunell et al, 1996). Algal which
recruitment and depths Recruitment cruitment sediment often was occurred to water the occurred total primarily at shallow increased highest below A study phytoplankton water when abundance. maximum 1996). and oxy core re

and 1,4-dichlorobenzene Mercury at concentrations of possible

the outfall terminus (Chapman et al,

1996). Acute

laboratory
collected along each the

on surficial tests were sediments toxicity performed areas 22 1 176 locations estuarine from throughout

Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico


along the Pacific coast of

coasts and in southern California


the U.S. In most areas, test

in shallow the

indicated different patterns in toxicity (Long et al,


study to assess and follow the contamination

1996). A
com

thermocline

(Hansson, carbon

of different

Foraminifera.

examined

the stable

partments of Lake Geneva by Irgarol 1051, a biocide agent used


in antifouling Geneva but water paints, do was done for a 9-month period. levels The study

gen isotopic compositions of the tests of 11 planktonic foramini


fera species that were collected from sediments in a box

showed that the present Irgarol 1051 concentrations


not reach the acute on toxic for an ecotoxic long-term effect phytoplankton,

in Lake
algae, and

raised from off northeastern Taiwan. The variation in the stable isotopic composition of the species that lived in the surface
water showed a greater amplitude than the variation in the spe

algae,

cies that lived deeper in the water column (Shieh et al, 1996). Foraminiferal assemblages in sediments sampled off Key Largo, 1982, 1991, and 1992 were compared. Florida, in 1959-1961, The study indicated that family-level identifications may be
sufficient semblages to detect decadal-scale sediments changes (Cockey in foraminiferal et al, 1996). as Fabric in reef-tract

macrophytes cannot be excluded (Toth et al, 1996). The possi ble contribution of sulfides to sediment toxicity was evaluated by exposing it to four marine species (for sediment, Rhepoxy
nius abronius and Eohaustorius estuarius, and for pore water,

Mytilus edulis and Strongylocentrotus). Amphipods were less sensitive to sulfides than the embryos (Knezovich et al, 1996).
A comparison among the results of tests using recirculating,

Literature

Review

1997

753

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants static, and elutriate techniques for measuring
various sediments to the cladoceran Daphnia

the toxicity of
was made

magna

the original load of metals and in some cases gained Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni (Nott and Nicolaidou, 1996).
In sandy Microorganisms. obic and microaerobaccilliated sediments, protozoa shallow water the occurrences at several of aer centimetres

(Schuytema et al, of chronic-response


emergence responses

1996). A study illustrated the usefulness criteria, which observed the growth and
of midge chironomus riparius Meigen.

depth were found. The distribution of aerobic, microaerobic,


and anaerobic protozoa in shallow in sediments was de

Copper spiking with concentrations of Cu2+ resulted in signifi cant growth reductions of larvae (Watts and Pascoe, 1996). A study was done to test the feasibility of the toxicity test as a
tool of the risk evaluation of contaminated sites. The test deter

scribed (Fenchel
microniches

1996b). The scale and distribution of oxic


waters were characterized. The implica

and Thamnotoxkit F tests were the mined that theMicrotox most sensitive acute toxicity tests (Heida and Van der Oost, 1996). Sediment putatively contaminated Biological Treatment. with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its metal
complexes was used to examine the biod?gradation and the

tion of the proposal was that vertical zonation of microbial processes and microbial biota reflect the diminishing fraction of oxic inhabitants (Fenchel, 1996a). The microphytobenthos
consists of unicellular eukaryotic of both biomass algae and and cyanobacteria that

grow within the upper several millimetres


ments. On the basis

of illuminated sedi
biogeochemical reac

tivity, benthic microalgae were found to play significant roles


in system and trophic productivity dynamics et al, were found 1996). Microphytobenthos treme a mat or scum on the H.L., (Maclntyre, to alter sediment

sediment/water partition of 14C-labeledEDTA and diethylenetri amine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). Experiments with 14C-labeled
benzoate showed that concentrations of inorganic nutrients in

properties (for example, erodability) both directly,


forming was sediment

in the ex
and

the sediment were unlikely to limit biod?gradation of EDTA or DTPA to 14C02 (Allard et al, 1996). The ability of microorgan isms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated in soils and sedi ments. Methanotroph-linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was ob served in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and saltmarshes (Oremland et al, 1996).
Naphthalenesediments Sound enumeration phenanthrene-degrading were enumerated by most-probable-number and a phylogenic procedures analysis. Poly nuclear and bacteria in Puget

surface,

indirectly by modifying
argument held

the activities of benthic infauna. An


studies of particular interac

that reductionist

tions as distinct entities should be done (Miller, D.C,


1996). were and

et al,

controlled microcosms Environmentally sedimentary to experimentally determine used temperature, salinity, effects on 13Cdic profiles restricted of dissolved inor

depth-horizon water

ganic carbon (DIC) in sediment pore water


bottom (BW). Foraminifera

(PW) and near


to the uppermost

aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation was confirmed in se lected strains on the basis of removal of phenanthrene from growing cultures (Geiselbrecht et al, 1996). A study was con
ducted on the effect of incubation temperatures on the dechlori

1-cm sediment depth exhibited shell calcite 14C values not sig nificantly different from foraminifera allowed to free-roam
through glades the sediment near column sources (Chandler of agricultural and et al, sediments runoff Ever 1996). were ob

served to have low redox potentials, high sulfide contents, high


pore-water sediments microbial phosphorus nearest profiles concentrations, high water-column

nation of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2346-CB) in two sedi ments from different climates: PCB-free sediment from Sandy Creek Nature Center Pond (SCNC) in Athens, Georgia, and PCB-contaminated sediment fromWoods Pond (WP) inLenox, Massachusetts. The data suggested that in the SCNC sediment,
similar factors controlled the metaand para-PCB dechlorina

conductivities. Research

findings demonstrated that Everglades


anaerobic are poised

runoff have enhanced agricultural and that the anaerobic microflora

tion over a broad temperature range (18 to 30?C), but that in


WP changes sediment, there were controlling multiple ortho-, in the factors meta-, temperature-dependent and paradechlo

to respond rapidly to phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate input (Drake et al, 1996). Simultaneous measurements of benthic bacterial production and bacterivory by benthic heterotrophic nanofla gellates (HNAN) were made for sediment samples collected
from a eutrophic freshwater littoral in different seasons. The

rination (Wu, Q., et al, 1996). Different strategies designed to increase the removal of Pb were tested during the application of a biological remediation procedure to treat highly contaminated
aquatic sediments. Most of the experimental results seemed to

results showed that bacterivory by HNAN cannot account for the fate of bacterial production in the littoral studied (Starink et al, 1996b). Seasonal variations inHNAN and bacterial densi ties at different depths in the sediment of two freshwater littoral
stations were studied. Density ratios between bacteria and

follow the theoretically predicted outcome for Pb solubilization (Mercier et al, 1996). Profiles and patterns of polychlorinated Bioaccumulation. were determined in sediment, mus residues naphthalene (PCN) sel, crab, plankton, and fishes from the Gdansk Basin, Baltic
Sea, identify potential concentrations. Different to sources marine and accumulation of the features lower food organisms

HNAN were very high in the top layer. These ratios suggested that the impact of benthic HNAN on the bacterial dynamics was minimal in the littoral zone (Starink et al, 1996a). Water
and and sediment pathogenic samples were examined for microorganisms. Perfringens a range was of indicator as identified

web clearly bioaccumulate many PCN congeners (Falandysz et al, 1996). A study on the bioaccumulation of methylmecury in a benthic food web of two hydroelectric reservoirs and a natural lake of northern Quebec (Canada) was done. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in benthic insects from a 14-year-old hydro
electric reservoir lake were and, two to three times up a reference in some groups, than those from higher to seven times higher

the most useful indicator of fecal pollution and was the only indicator significantly correlated to the presence of pathogenic
Giardia guson different River, ship. and et al, the opportunistic 1996). Water bacterial samples sites across and after for genus Aeromonas (Fer were two from analyzed a transect the passage fecal conform, of of the Buffalo a lake-going heterotrophic

at three depths New before York, were

Samples

analyzed

(Tremblay etal,
thium vulgatum,

1996). The sediment-feeding,


from a polluted environment,

tower shell Ceri


accumulated Cr

plate count, and total suspended solids (Pettibone et al, 1996). Diel rates on nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) and primary
14C02 fixation production Carolina Atlantic coastal, were examined benthic intertidal, seasonally microbial on a North mat com

and Ni to 3 500 ppm dry weight

in fecal pellets. Pellets retained

754

Water

Environment

Research,

Volume

69, Number

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants


Results indicated a more role for bacteria sand that is much coarser than the detrital

munity.

important

quartz

quartz

compo

in the dynamics of mat N2 fixation than has been recognized previously (Paerl et al, 1996). An investigation was done on the influence of landslide activity on the sediment budget and the distribution of Au inHarris creek. Material eroded from the
toe of landslides diluted the Au content and created an apparent sediment of

nent of the underlying black shale. Silica deposition in algal cysts may provide a significant component of intrabasinal quartz sand in shale sequences (Schieber, 1996). On stable carbonate like Bermuda, Pleistocene shoreline sediments platforms
showed what The is termed nature, diagenetic oscillation and fidelity local factors shoreline cording. significance, on regional record and depends of sea level, wave exposure, height ent terns, topography, and the of or diagenetic re this diagenetic such stability, as climate, anteced

cutoff of the Au anomaly (Hou and Fletcher,


Diagenesis. water profiles matter Benthic were used incubation chambers

1996).
and pore organic stoichiome and agreement of the C:N with

in equatorial Pacific was of remineralization try to be 8. Both ratio was found

to study early diagenesis The 02:C02 sediments. found to be -1.45, ratios were

synsedimentary topography, pat permeability time spent in marine and/or meteoric diagenetic

in good Two

those observed from sediment trap and hydrographie studies in


the water column (Hammond et al, 1996). jap?nica were types de posit-feeding polycheates, sediments sp., and their surrounding in northeastern Nankita River estuary this was study made that suggested by those animals selective after Neanthes and Nnotomastus collected from the

environments (Vollbrecht and Meischner, 1996). Three main diagenetic processes affected the El Ribero carbonate silicifica
tion, dolomitization, and subsequent dedolomitization. An in

tense and locally destructive dedolomitization produced sig nificant dissolution that affected the unsilicified organisms (Gar
cia-Garmilla and Elorza, siderites nonconcretionary sandstones and mudrocks Bowen of the Basin. siderites The elemental and 1996). Early concretionary are common in subsurface Triassic of the Rewan and that only oxygen meteoric Group, isotopic pore in the southern composition were waters

results from Japan. The use of sedimentary carbon processing and subse

bacterial

quent fractionation (Kikuchi andWada, 1996). Detailed p?tro graphie mapping and sedimentologic description of cores from the Oligoc?ne lower Vicksburg Formation of McAllen Ranch
Field, south Texas, zones have identified in cement thickness variations from 0.1 that result to 0.9 cm in diagenetic Kee ies, ranging

indicated

involved lated

in siderite that host rocks accumu formation, implying et al, in totally nonmarine environments (Baker 1995). and Skeletal The presence of skeletal Shells Remains. crys

(Grigsby and Langford,


reef complexes Scarp are oil-producing,

1996). The Middle-Upper


at Norman Wells, Northwest carbonates stromatoporoid-rich of reef

Devonian
Territor associ

tals of calcite and trona in hot-spring deposits inNew Zealand and Kenya showed that they could form in natural sedimentary
regimes. Failure to recognize that crystal growth follows the

ated with reef buildup. A conclusion was made


dissolution and neomorphism components

that diagenetic
resulted in the

development of microporosity, which is the dominating porosity


type in the reservoir of the sedimentological tant reservoir quality (Al-Aasm model, were and Azmy, 1996). Assessments diagenetic in case provided reservoir of chalk and resul pathway, studies of Edda, Tor, can

skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal (Jones and Renaut, 1996). The skeletal compositions of 273 sediment samples, collected within 14 615
km2 of lagoon barrier habitat in New Caledonia, were analyzed. and It was

suggested that themajor role of the barrier reef is to provide a


physical that allows the development preservation

and Eldfisk
on how incorporated

fields. Each case study showed unique examples


engineering type and data be the diagenetic from Lake

of lagoon sediments (Chevillon,

1996).

and petrophysical in assessments

pathway (Brasher and Vagle,


ble-isotope-labeled was Vechten studied try mate (GC-MS). The formate by gas formation

1996). The disappearance of sta


in freshwater sediment chromatography-mass of nonlabeled spectrome was ex formate

PALEOLIMNOLOGY
A detailed stratigraphie and sedimentological analysis was given of Late Oligoc?ne to Early Miocene continental sediments
in a small 1-km2 area of the Loranca Basin. The time interval

plained by isotopic exchange resulting from the activity of for


dehydrogenase rather than by the turnover of formate (De were were studies

Graaf and Cappenberg,

1996). Vertical

profiles of total dis

covered by the sediments studied showed a progressive trend toward drier conditions and higher temperatures inferred from qualitative and quantitative changes in fossil rodent faunas
(Daams ing, and et al, 1996). High-resolution seismic profiles, soil mud 14C dat engi sedimentological, of eight studies micropaleontological cores in the coastal

arsenic in Amazon and solid-phase shelf deposits solved Maximum arsenic concentrations pore-water prepared. to be higher found in previous than the numbers found

(Sullivan et al,
among reduction cated high organic was rates

1996). A comparative study of the relationships


degradation conducted. of sulfate processes, sulfur cycling, and diage indi be

neering for done matic

a stratigraphie It was analysis. were in the characteristics reflected changes lakes

prism were that cli demonstrated of coastal

netic removal of dissolved

sulfide produced by bacterial sulfate


Organic-rich reduction muddy and anoxic sediments conditions

marine mud (Pujos et al,


in the mentary less lakes, populations, remains

1996). The history of some fisheries

low 5 mm depth (Bruchert and Pratt, 1996). A study was done


on the conditions regulating oxic the formation and diagenetic served behav

in the Sudbury assessed the sedi using region was of Chaoborus larvae. Among six recently fish never to have Bat Lake was fish found supported and the data were Lake inconclusive for Ruth-Roy seismic were collected from

ior of methylmercury
that barrier the surficial to the diffusion sediments beds of are

inmarine sediments. The data suggested


as a geochemical of dissolved accumulated methylmercury waters et al, to the overlying (Gagnon sediment layer intercalated Mountains, extensive in a Miocene central devitrification Japan. sedimentary Much of the and weathering

(Uutala and Smol, 1996). More than 600 km of high-resolution,


reflection single-channel A Bornholm. offshore the seismic has led to data, profiles sequence in combination of of stratigraphie interpretation some available core data, with se two Quaternary depositional

in anoxic 1996). silica

Chert

identification

succession was

the Niu from

derived

quences overlying the late Mesozoic deposits (Perini et al, seismic 1996). High-resolution profiles from the North Sea, 20
km off Northumberland, dune field have buried shown beneath subaqueous the presence Holocene of a 25-km2 mud. marine

of volcanic
Thin sandstone

ash and sediments nearby (Hattori et al,


beds in the Chattanooga shale contain

1996).

abundant

Literature

Review

1997

755

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Fate & Effects

of

Pollutants_ characteristics of the flow of formation waters were

Burial of the dunes occurred when the dimensions of the tidal embayment were increased (Brew, 1996). Seafloor morphology and sediment distribution in the Knight Inlet were discussed. The study showed that theKnight Inlet differs from other British Columbia fjords in thatmany channels that emanate from fjord
head (Ren deltas et al, coalesce 1996). An and into one channel of the further down the inlet overview sediment on research significant on intertidal mudflats

analyzed

for the Canadian side of theWilliston basin and integrated with previous studies done on the American side (Bachu and Hit chon, 1996). Lake Tanganyika, part of the Eastern African rift
system, represents one of the most widely cited modem analogs facies

for interpreting ancient rift lakes. The data suggested that unique
but predictable associations of reservoir, seal, and source

morphodynamics

dynamics

in China (1961 to 1964) was presented. Three sedimentological zones were identified from land to sea within the intertidal zone: high mudflat, middle mudflat, and low mudflat (Shi and Chen, with 1996). The association of PAHs, PCBs, ,37Cs, and 210Pb
various carbon?was associated components determined. with organic of sediments?that The carbon results porosity and is, clay indicated and silt silt, and organic that PAHs were 137Cs, and PCBs

existed along each of the different margin types (Soreghan and Cohen, 1996). The Ramu basin lies along a plate boundary where the Finisterre is colliding with the Indo-Australian plate. Itwas suggested that a lateMiocene age for the initial collision
of the Finisterre for nits terrane lying seismic with beneath the Ramu a regional basin correlation requires late-Miocene a new angu

lar unconformity
1996). methods surement shear-wave identifying earthquake lected from Sea, Increased

in the Keram

1 and Tsumba
by the use

1wells
of

(Cullen,
and mea by for

resolution

shear-wave

were associated with clay but not with organic carbon (Ab et
al, 1996). Sedimentological over oc?anographie characteristics

in unconsolidated, of near-surface splitting, neotectonic hazards five coastal may

water-saturated directional provide deformation 1996).

sediments

in theGulf of Comith were examined to define modem


tation processes the main (Poulos used its central part. Depositional

sedimen
processes

polarizations, valuable

produced information associated were

were found to be dominated by gravity-driven mass flows for


which activity ses were triggering et al, 1996). in combination mechanism Pore-water with appeared and solid-phase analy in situ 02 and pH microelec to be earthquake

(Harris, wetlands

and evaluating cores Sediment the North Sea,

col

along and Chernobyl. sediment 137Cs was used to assess on the vertical rates. Based it does not accretion rates,

the Baltic accretion seem that

trode measurements in the uppermost The Santa in comparison 1996). Mn-rich a few profiles Mn

to characterize sediments Barbara with layers closer of

processes early diagenetic Califor the Santa Barbara Basin, had pore-water higher alkalinity et al, basins (Riemers above the most recent

any of these sites is in imminent danger of excessive flooding evidence of rapid, (Callaway et al, 1996). Paleolimnological
recent ecological change in Lake Erie's trophic status was

nia.

Basin other were

California

observed

found. Itwas discovered that the recent deposit diatom in Lake Erie were different from any deposit during the past 200 years
(Stoermer isotopically exaporitic inclusions minescence, et al, distinct dolostones of carbonate and nearly 1996). and petrographically, structurally, were of in present K-feldspar generations of the central NC A. Replacement textures, material, absence of intrinsic cathodolu indicated a end-member Two

sapropel (SI), one immediately above the sapropel top and one
centimetres to with the sediment surface. analyses SI Pore-water showed that in combination solid-phase

the active oxidation front was located at the level of the lower
peak, immediately muscovite above the present-day sapropel top

composition

(Van Santvoort et al,


phengitic multianvil

1996). The stability and composition of


and associated phases of were investigated

diagenetic origin (Spotl et al,


dolomite-limestone Chanda mitization. collectively Limestone alternation was formed

1996). Bedding-parallel
in the deep-marine by penecontemporaneous and geochemical occurred

rhythmic
dolo data

Proterozoic

from 5.5 to 11 Gpa in synthesis experiments performed


apparatus. The presence phengite at far

in a

greater

Stratigraphie, suggested

depths than the zone of melt generation beneath arcs (100 to 150 km) required a mechanism such as the partitioning of K, Be, B, Ba, and Rb into migrating fluids to provide for the
transfer of these slab signature 460 km was elements from phengite two to arc

p?trographie, that dolomitization

in the ma

rine pore water during shallow burial diagenesis (Mukhopad hyay et al, 1996). The abundance and isotopic composition of total and pyrite
sulfur were determined in a core in the central Black Sea. Four

magmas
survey wells belt, Ahuas were

(Domanik and Holloway,


that covered drilled in the Ahuas Savannah a simple

1996). A 36-fold
done area, before on

seismic

exploratory the Patuca tectonic Honduras. of The

different types of pyrite were detected in the sediment, and the isotopic information demonstrates that pyrite in modern
sediments (Calvert years showed was of et al, obtained the Black 1996). from The forms mainly air temperature was lake sediments Sea in the water record column 200 of the past

in the Mosquita area was not

in northeastern down-dip expression

the Colon

platform, and it had a different history than the interior basins on Honduras (Mills and Barton, 1996). High-resolution seismic profiles and foundation borings from the northwestern Gulf of
Mexico ies of recorded several the physical late Quaternary of lowered attributes histor and depositional that were sequences deposited deltas shelf-margin during level. Structure, shelf-margin of sediment subsidence composition, se deltaic eu supply, near the shelf

analyzed. of the of

Empirical

analysis and modeling


that the oxygen mainly by controlled

of the isotope hydrology


isotopic composition the isotopic composition of Sacramento-S

of the lake
lake water local pre

cipitation (Grafenstein et al,


the past 2 000-year to the San inflow measurements were and used stream record Francisco of

1996). A study has been made of


an

by wave-modified, successive periods and

river-dominated

sea

of each late Quaternary deposition a unique combination reflected quence static fluctuations, basin energy, and

isotopic sediment salinity seasonal nental oxygen in the

River Joaquin and carbon estuary. Oxygen Bay in estuarine bivales contained fossil a late Holocene Bay sediment record of

to reconstruct flow in San

Francisco

(Ingram of

et al,

edge (Morton and Suter, 1996). Analysis


mic were reflection an data revealed fluvially River. area G.H., unconfined,

of multichannel
its

seis
fan with sedi where

1996). An attempt was made


oxygen depletion shelf of Louisiana. stress The

to study the historical record of


and the conti rise increase anthropo in study showed an overall

and that Bryant Canyon associated s?urced system Bryant of the et al, Canyon of base 1996). The delivered a slope

in water

the ancestral ments they to formed

Mississippi the unconfined a fan

100 years and in the past of riverborne influence nutrients,

a progressive particularly

(Lee,

regional-scale

genically
756

influenced nitrates (Gupta et al,


Water Environment Research,

1996). Sand boils


69, Number 4

Volume

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_Fate

& Effects

of Pollutants

induced by theMississippi River flood of 1993 were examined to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 to 1812. Based on the comparison, it was concluded that flood-induced sand boils are interpreted
to represent liquefaction uted less-energetic et al, (Li, Y., a than earthquake-induced genesis matter contents The 1996). organic

that although least 42 Ma,

ice-volume mechanisms

controlled sequences changes for sea-level before change information sediments were of channel attributed

since then

at are

still not fully understood (Browning andMiller,


cal, was faunal, and archeological The channel discussed.

1996). Geologi
excavation to oxygen forests for of ele

isotopes

(Buckingham
was

et al,

1996). Diverse
interactions Geochemical with

information on
rain contrast

of sediments deposited in Lake Erie and Lake Ontario contrib


to the record that ecosystems centuries. as runoff in the lake watersheds of changes and aquatic and have settlement resulted from European observed nutrients that increased increased and Meyers,

soil-sediment-heavy southeast Asia ments, not

mineral reviewed. as heavy

present

minerals,

was

relatively

subdued

cultural eutrophication of these systems during the past two


It was of soil aquatic productivity (Bourbonniere

because of leaching of soils and elimlead to a geochemical soil survey, which defined residual anomalies of the deposit. The
anomalies were generated through weathering of the sphalerite

1996a). A study was done of the paleoceanographic 400-kyr record of dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaC03) in the cen
accumulation of dissolution and relationship or et al, (La biogenic opal Montagne Corg and turf Substrate between 1996). competition cyanobacteria as an important was control of stromatolite identified algae concluded that the use of the term "stro formation. The project tral Pacific Ocean. There of was no

and galena within the silification halo of the deposit (Arias, 1996). Using stratification to study the distribution and sources of settling particles inLake Erken, particles and resuspended parti
cles were observed in a water column. Internal seiches were

suggested to be responsible for a high amount of settling parti cles in hypolimnion during stratification (Weyhenmeyer, 1996).
Soil to interpret used criteria were carbonate-pa in the Plio-Pleistocene St. David Formation, genesis of increased Arizona. southeastern accumulation Layers clay to zones of increased carbonate had a genetic relation seldom development leosal the clay-rich layers (Slate et al, 1996). Stratigraphie analy

matolite"
within

is inappropriate to describe micritic


of the Holocene (Maclntyre,

crusts formed
LG., et al,

the framework

1996). Noy on Uul strata was interpreted to be composed of a


fluvial braided coarse-grained, a and cies, oxygenated poorly Four lated. al, facies, lacustrine a meandering fa fluvial that represent facies and corre et in

and

three principal depositional environments (Hendrix et al, 1996).


major Some 1996). paleochannel have phases The four activities were identified aeolian undergone successive sedimentary ice-dammed lake lake (Page reworking environments

sis of the Middle Cambrian formation in the southern Great Basin indicated that themixed siliciclastic-carbonate lithofacies were deposited in three distinct phases. It was suggested that
the primary of siliciclastic source depends measured sidescan on the relative sea

the Ahmsundhelleren
ice-free position, Sediment phase, subglacial

Caves
ice-dammed

in western Norway were listed as


phase-sand/silt flows, de and phase-debris was measured

level position
distribution using between mentary tic. The formed a 3.5-kHz

(Osleger and Montanez,


sediments subprofile terrain to the were and

1996). Bedforms
in the Tanshui combined sonar

and

subaerial

estuary system. and sedi

laminated clays (Valen et al,


supply to coastal

1996).
foredunes during

Coastal morphology
volcanic terrain

and offshore bathymetry were different


north of (Hong of of the Tanshui et al, estuary 1996). south

the period 1986 to 1992 at three sites along the accretional distal end of Long Point Spit, Lake Erie. It was found where that beach width is typically less than 50 m, variations in beach
width are a the foredune stronger than the wind control on climate rates of sediment (Davidson-Arnott supply and Law, to

Two sediment wave fields were identified in theNorth Atlan


waves waves. are composed The deposits currents from bottom turbidity wave the sediment fields have

1996). A biological comparison of the Loch Goil and the Loch


Linnhe contents, sediments sulfate was made reduction, manganese by examining rates. and oxygen uptake in both sea lochs and The iron study et al,

been identified as early Holocene, which was indicated by the bottom-formed activity (Howe, 1996). Charcoal in late Pleistocene marine sediments of the tropical
Atlantic coal was measured as carbon to examine it relates the regional deposition continents and to biomass history on burning in the ocean. The of char adjacent tempo of

revealed large differences


organic matter degradation of the

in the sediment characteristics and


(Overnell

sequestration

1996).
One have were hundred been studied offshore mass-movement and A Pleistocene static in the Holocene into types. classification of three that deposits sediments was the initia

charcoal deposition was linked mainly to the growth and decay of high-latitude ice (Verardo and Ruddiman, 1996). The history
of late Pleistocene were assessed and Holocene by environments secular and rates paleomagnetic deposition and variation

categorized to a dynamic related

classification that underlines event from

morphological mites from four

transformation

system an offshore

stratigraphical descriptions of sediments (Pippert et al,


A river terrace above sediments representing a floodplain was underlaid in a fluctuation climatic

1996).

tion to deposition (Cochonat andMulder,


caves and one sealed

1996). Fifteen stalag


tunnel in southern Bel

by fluvial late-middle

Pleistocene

gium are composed of alternations of annually deposited white


porous matic and data dark-compact and modern laminae cli between laminae. Comparison showed of a closed tunnel stalagmites can record and climatic variations (Genty

(Green et al, 1996). and chemical properties of substrates of marine brine Physical were in relation to quantity and quality of discussed ponds
of of surrounding rocks, leaching Weathering produced. of Fe under remobilization substrate by the brine, and diagenetic were for the main conditions processes responsible reducing of Fe (Varnavas and Lekkas, enrichment 1996). salt

that growth

Quinif, 1996). During the upper Pleistocene the Central Alti plano of Bolivia was flooded repeatedly by deep and extensive
saline lakes in response to climatic fluctuations. Builder commu

nities were dominated by filamentous calcifying green algae associated with other plants (Rouchy et al, 1996). Nine docu
mented coastal lower-middle plain were Eocene compared with sequences global on the New 180. It was Jersey concluded

Group

Plio-Pleistocene synorogenic deposits of the Upper Siwalik in the Shinghar Range (Trans-Indus Salt Ranges) of
Pakistan recorded the transition from foreland

northwestern

basin to piggyback-basin
the Salt Range thrust. The

deposition
integration

on the hanging wall of


of sedimentological and

LiteratureReview 1997 757

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Fate & Effects of

Pollutants_ triggering mechanisms


neau and Dethier, 1996). sedimentation Montanana group patterns in fan-delta Basin, sediments south High-frequency the Eocene

geochronological data indicates that motion of the Salt Range thrust and repositioning of the Indus River began nearly 1.0Ma ago (Pivnik and Khan, 1996). The sediments of three lakes of the Yunnan Plateau in China were identified as belonging to
three groups of minerals, bearing were associations interpretation tonic evolution was authigenic and silica indicative in agreement minerals: minerals. of the with carbonate The lake minerals, Fe authigenic mineral and evidence the

for these landslides were uncertain (Re

of

(Tremp-Ager

central Pyrenees, Spain) were represented by a series of couplets


consisting mudstone. of The alternating couplets fan were sandy conglomerate an explanation were deltas studied in extensional to determine and of calcareous the result of

development,

palaeontological

intermittent variations of sediment supply (Weltje et al,


Trapezoidal-type basins pressional are formed when basins and

1996).
com

(Xiouzhu et al,

1996). A new approach to understanding tec


of passive tested. margins by using fission-track analy and

the characteristics

sis of detrital apatites from sediments deposited offshore of east


Greenland was Previous apatite fission-track studies

of fan deltas. Gilbert-type deltas, which have bottom deposits,


coarse-grained sediments are transported out

geomorphic mapping of the East Greenland coast have shown that locally up to 6 km of denudation may have occurred (Clift
et al, Great 1996). Basin Lower-middle were carbonate deposited platform. Devonian carbonates of the eastern westward representing a low-energy, along Six regional facies were

side of the basin confinements 1996).

(Zelilidis and Kontopoulos,

NUTRIENTS
The distribution was examined of different forms of carbon,
nitrogen, rameters and of and standard sediment pa physical phosphorus a shallow the surface of the Gulf sediments of Riga,

thickening

peritidal, shallow subtidal, stromatoporoid buildup, deep subti


dal, 1996). slope, and basinal environments Sedimentary architecture (Elrick, recognized an elongated of Pohjankangas, of can

ridge formed of glacial melt deposits, was discussed. The inves


tigation showed that internal structure landforms affect

the evolution of ice-lobe patterns and the timing of their relative movements during d?glaciation (Lunkka and Gibbard, 1996).
Glaciogenic types were sediments found. were It was investigated, suggested that and the four lithofacies were sediments

semiclosed brackish bay of the Baltic Sea. Several measured parameters were highly correlated (Carman et al, 1996). Ori gins and magnitude of external total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) loads fromWest Point Lake basin were
estimated Franklin, during Georgia, a 1-year period. The to the headwaters upper of subbasin the area, from Chattahoochee

produced by two small ice advances (Hart, 1996).


An investigation of patterns and processes of late Quaternary volcaniclas pelagic from

sedimentation
the major tic silt

in the Lesser Antilles

island arc indicated that


were carbonate, Sediment was

River, contributed to 96% of the discharge and 97% of the TP and TSS loads into West Point Lake (Emmerth and Bayne, 1996). Studies of sulfur behavior in the water column and in
sediments conducted investigation ments were in the river in three showed water areas the of and seawater the Black of mixing and Avov sulfate zones Seas. were The

sediment of deep-water components and clay, shallow-water redeposited and windblown was deposited, seven dust but from Africa. the amount

carbonate, South

constancy

concentrations

America

insignificant across controlling

versus chlorinity (Lei et al,


conducted

1996). Field and laboratory experi


the phosphorus (P) assimila

(Reid et al,
were carried Brazilian

1996). Sedimentological
out on margin

and stratigraphie analyses


the

to determine

continental

cores collected Kullenberg to discover the factors

tory capacity of a stream in the Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough Basin located north of Lake Okeechobee, Florida. P assimilation
rates based function 1996). ate A in the stream on the of total were P estimated concentration from marine the using of first-order the water source was relationships as column (Reddy et al, a

the sediment flux distribution in the Southern Brazil Basin dur ing the late Quaternary. The distribution of sediment fluxes in the basin showed a bathym?trie trend (Masse et al, 1996). The Precambrian Elisabeth Bjerg Formation in East Green
land was studied to measure the intermittent ramp. siliciclastic-domi The deposits were nated marine deposition outer system, on a carbonate

distance

set of modern

primary sediments

the role of during

sulfurization early

as a mechanism Results

to evalu analyzed for biomarker pres that catalytic

ervation

diagenesis.

suggest

subdivided into four depositional


system, siliciclastic a carbonate ramp ramp and

systems: amarine siliciclastic

a transitional carbonate system, a carbonate system inner-ramp ooze

(Tirsgaard, 1996).
A remarkable 3-m-thick sequence of laminated diatom

(LDO) has been recovered in the northern Atlantic Ocean. It is suggested that the LDO represents numerous depositional
events of Thalassiothrix convergence mats front that were (Boden Lower accumulated and Backman, Permian physically 1996). sedimentary In at a subarctic the North

dehydration/hydrogenation of chlorophyll accounts for approxi mately 50 and approximately 4% of the Raney nickel phytane yield measured in suboxic sediments from the Washington shelf and anoxic sediments from Saanich Inlet, respectively (Prahl et al, 1996). Analysis of the benthic fluxes on inorganic nutrients and oxygen during a 1-year period provided a basis for describ interface in the Etang ing the dynamics of the water-sediment de Thau Lagoon (France). The factorial multiple correspon
dence analyses water-sediment tions and describe et al, measured for the interface study of the annual monitoring to establish it possible made the main sources of flux Sediment-water at correla the

American

Midcontinent,

succinctly 1996).

cycles consist predominantly of very shallow marine and paralic facies and well-developed stacked paleosol profiles. The cycles
contained cludes scale evidence of cyclic climate facies regionally K.B., change. The evidence for meter from calcic slump in carbonate-to-clastic and the pattern consistent et al, observed change 1996). Massive

(Mazouni fluxes were

oxygen regions of

variability and nutrient

in three distinct

of the Chesapeake revealed

Bay at monthly
several additional

intervals during 1 year and for portions of


years. Examination the data strong and

cycles to vertic paleosols

spatial and temporal patterns (Cowan and Boynton,


ment-water exchanges of ammonium (NH4, nitrate,

1996). Sedi
nitrite,

(Miller,

complexes composed of Pliocene basaltic rocks and underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments flank the Rio Grande along
16 km of northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Exact

NOx), filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP, primarily orthophos phate), and oxygen (02) under aphotic (heterotrophic) condi
tions were determined at two to five stations in the Neuse River

758

Water

Environment

Research,

Volume

69, Number

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants Estuary, from 1987 to 1989. Fluxes of 02, NH4, NOx, and FRP have obvious interrelationships in that their spatial and temporal
patterns and potential controls are each unique along the salinity

groves in T?rminos Lagoon, Mexico. The results with nitrogen isotopes suggested that the uptake of inorganic N from tidal
waters nitrogen condition by an within mangrove ecosystems sediments represent a retention and Twilley, of in mangrove (Rivera-Monroy transition

gradient of theNeuse River Estuary (Rizzo and Christian, 1996).


Chesapeake evidence ment profiles cores. Bay of sediments were trends of examined using eutrophication Measurements carbon, for biogeochemical two mesohaline sedi and sediment and

1996). Measurement
along

of denitrification

under changing
zone was of removal wetlands

flood
done ex soils, et al,

210Pb geochronology organic

the aquatic/terrestrial method. acetylene-block-age sediments exceeded that

of organic

nitrogen,

phosphorous,

posed turnover

Nitrogen of undisturbed

biogenic silica (BSi) were used to develop temporal concentra tion trends (Cornwell et al, 1996). Periphyton nitrate uptake and dentrification accounted for approximately 90% and 73%, respectively, of the depletion of approximately 35% N03-N
added as whole-epilimnion enrichment of ammonium nitrate to

indicating considerable
of nitrogen in

effect of the flood pulse on gaseous


the Amazon floodplain (Kern

1996). The concentration-dependent uptake of nitrate (N03) and its inhibition by ammonium (NH4) were surveyed in surface
waters of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Results from the exten

Castle Lake, California. Historical analysis of nitrate depletion in the epilimnion during spring suggested that periphyton may
outcompete of phytoplankton for water-column nutrients (Axler

sive survey of theNorth Atlantic clearly showed that traditional


saturation nitrogen tration Ammonium from two of concentration-dependent of uptake in the nanomolar apply equally nitrogen-concen as in micromolar et al, range range (Harrison 1996). well regeneration stations located was studied in sediments Chile, collected a semien in Concepci?n kinetic models

and Reuter, 1996). Flux estimates showed that upward mixing


the deep-water accounts for more nitrate than 85% of pool zone of Crater Lake. the total new nitrogen to the input euphotic

Bay,

Comparisons of nutrient and refractory element fluxes reflect two important lake processes (Dymond et al, 1996). Measure
ments of the distribution patterns of nutrients (ammonium, ni

closed and shallow system that is under the effect of the coastal upwelling processes for approximately 57% of every year. Ap proximately 76 to 83% of total nitrogen was a regenerated
product of the remineralization of organic matter produced dur

trate, orthophosphate, total N, and TP) and chlorophyll concen trations were conducted under an interdisciplinary program known as SEAKEYS. Results indicated that coral reefs in Flor
ida were ents via elevated accumulating flow surface water (Szmant not loads of land-derived 1996). nutri Ben and Forrester,

ing upwelling
uptake enced cies. and

events (Farias et al,

1996). Inorganic nitrogen


influ spe nitro

in the coastal were environment regeneration river nutrient and water, concentration, by plankton Two situations characterized the seasonal contrasting were measured nitrogen isotopes sediment of 18 surface samples It was that proposed of nitrogen in the bulk collected

thic fluxes of dissolved N, Si, and P nutrients, alkalinity, dis solved inorganic C (DIC), and 02 from sediments in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic, Italy) were measured monthly for 16months. The nutrient fluxes observed were not significantly
linked processes to 02 consumption, were important that anaerobic suggesting at the sediment-water oxidation interface in

gen dynamics in surface shelf water (Bode and Dortch,


Stable matter

1996).

sedimentary in three tran

sects in the Eastern Angola


Zaire degree estuary. of fractionation

basin and two samples from the


isotopes in the Angolan the region in organic matter

the gulf (Bertuzzi et al, 1996). The sulfur cycle in the chemo cline of meromictic Mahoney Lake was investigated during a 2 year period. The data indicated that in Mahoney Lake, oxygenic photosynthesis and sulfate reduction were coupled only indi rectly via degradation and autolysis of photosynthetically formed biomass (Overmann et al, 1996). A study of carbon
and nitrogen-uptake when or mixed patterns during blooms of Emiliania hux

is a function of nutrient supply to sunlit waters (Holmes et al, 1996).

MODELING
A distributed reactivity model for sorption by soils and sedi
ments was made. The experimental than bentonite data revealed that equilib the external

leyi in two Norwegian


ratio was higher in diatom-based

fjords was done. The organic C:nitrogen


coccolithophorids phytoplankton in two were dominant than (Fernan that were assemblages reservoirs

rium is obtained rapidly for all sorbents studied, the isotherms


for all surfaces comparable high residual A review of sorbents have other are linear, and surface-area-based those of phase the that are coefficients sorption at of surfaces bentonite interlayer

dez et al,
between

1996). A study was done to appraise the interaction


aquatic sediment tropical

with

highly nutrient inputs. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were important in controlling the sediment nutrient flux in anaerobic or high-alkaline conditions, which determined the quality of overlying waters in tropical reservoirs (Appan and Ting, 1996). A study was done to use quantified fractions of phosphorus
to determine the potential of aquatic sediment as a source of

et al, concentrations 1996). (Huang and descrip structure-imitating, process-imitating, of subsurface tive approaches fluid flow and transport was done. was modeled in sedimentary The heterogeneity numeri deposits aqueous

phosphorus supply. The Kranji Reservoir has a large potential phosphorus supply to support the growth of phytoplankton (Ting and Appan, 1996).
The rates of reaction between silicate iron and dissolved sul

cally to solve governing equations for subsurface fluid flow and transport (Koltermann and Gorelick, 1996). A development was done of equations based on laboratory lake sediment oxygen demand (SOD) incubations for predicting induced oxygen de mand after hypolimnetic aeration. Comparison of predicted SOD rates by the model to observed oxygen demand rates in the laboratory led to the conclusion that the predicted model
rates were in close agreement with the observed rates (Moore

fide in Peru Margin


contained tially

sediments were studied. These sediments


of dissolved then sulfide, decrease which ini and to near-zero

pore-water profiles to a maximum increase

et al, 1996). Depositional models for fluvial sediments in an intra-arc basin in the Upper Cenozoic Tokai group in Japan
were the made. intra-arc It was basin shown were that fluvial by 1996). with controlled depositional the interaction An eight inverse state models of model variables tecton of an was in

concentrations at greater depths (Raiswell and Canfield, 1996). Nitrogen Compounds. Rates of direct and coupled nitrifica
tion-denitrification in intact sediment were cores measured from with fringe, basin, 15N isotope techniques man and riverine

ism and estuarine

volcanism

(Nakayama, model eutrophication

LiteratureReview 1997 759

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants developed.


useful

Experiments
some

showed that the inverse model was


important questions, two such as uniqueness matter frac

to address

of the parameter estimation (Shen and Kuo,


pore-water model was made by matter. using The

1996). A multi-G the early diagenic


model sup

storage (Valett et al, 1996). Formation of economic-grade noble metal and heavy mineral placers at high latitudes was facilitated. The model provided a composite view of how integrated effects
of coastal erosion, bathymetry, wave action, long-shore trans

organic

tions with different reactivity to describe


decomposition of nitrogen of organic

port, and bottom current control sediment distribution (Paulsen


and Owen, ities were of and the ratio of veloc 1996). Seismographic analysis to compressional two-dimensional shear waves p-waves a model of to create the degree that could used predict

pore-water

ported the idea that the Redfield model


and phosphorus can be extended

for biological
to bioreactive

control
trace

elements
potentially tion within sediment

(Widerlund,
lead

1996). High

sedimentation
and and sediment

rates could

consolidation and the type of sediment (Digranes et al,


The development accumulations of dolocrete, of CaMg(C03)2 near-surface around soil or the palaeolake

1996).

to overpressuring The generation basins. pore pressure caused by

dissipation in sedimentation variations

undercompac of abnormal

soil-related or playa

rate, facies, formation porosity, and permeability within the Gulf basin were modeled (Mello and Karner, 1996). Thermal
and lected generation hydrocarbon wells that characterize histories were simulated New for Zealand. se the Taranaki Basin,

suggested that dolocrete formed by themixing of groundwaters and lake brines got into the preatic zone during periods of lowered water levels. Fabric-destructive (type I) calcitization
was caused by lowering of lake levels and exposure to vadose

conditions
models be of in a direct

(Colson

and Cojan,

1996). Tectonostratigraphic
generally rates of The fluvial to were presumed tectonism and con study suggested clastic and by climate that lacus change

Modeling
Mesozoic

results show that predepositional and syndepositional


crustal thickening, erosion, and rifting resulted

sedimentation foredeep link between changing sedimentological alternation deposition response. between was

high heat flow during the early stages of deposition (Armstrong et al, 1996). A mathematically simple model simulated quartz
cementation stone tion and the of resulting porosity loss as a function in parameters of clay and temperature such as grain grain history. size, detrital coatings, history The in quartzose sand of varia effect

comitant

formation-scale trine

carbonate

controlled

(Drummond et al,
Software/Programs.

1996).
The source pollution from management wa

abundance tion

or other

porosities, and

temperature

content, quartz cementa prequartz was simulated easily

model, ANSWERS-2000,
average annual runoff and

was developed
sediment yield

to simulate long-term
agricultural

with
medium veloped

the presented algorithm (Walderhaug,

1996). Equivalent
de

were formulas O'Doherty-Anstey generalized one-dimensional of elastic from a study of the influence random media on the kinematics

tersheds. The model is intended for use without calibration (Bouraoui and Dillaha, 1996). The in-place pollutant export model (IPX) is a screening level model for estimating contami
nant from tributaries export water IPX bodies. receiving cesses with ments for sediment with contaminated sediment sediments to pro transport synthesizes decreased sediment resuspendability aging, sedi of freshly age, and resuspension deposited increasing as a function into the U.S. Environmen of water velocity

inhomogeneous

and dynamics

of the transmitted obliquely incident P and SV-plane waves. A theory suggested that fine elastic multilayering is characterized by a frequency-dependent anisotropy (Shapiro and Hubral, 1996). A study on the diffusive tortuosity of fine-grained unlithi
fied rately sediments to readily was done. The measure was correlated tortuosity values (Boudreau, porosity accu 1996).

tal Protection Agency's


transport sional and fate chassis

(U.S. EPA's) WASP4


(Velleux of et al, program, soil The 1996). A EROS, loss and

contaminant
three-dimen was used to

A model

for the manganese


and geochemical Deep,

enrichment, which
analyses was presented. It was

is based on
sedi suggested

sedimentological from the Gotland ments

of Holocene

terrain analysis grid-based the spatial distribution estimate deposition potential

erosion-and characterized

in a catchment.

study

that these manganese


a number of similar

enrichments in sediments were formed by


processes (Huckriede and Meischner,

the effects of topography and soil loss and identified areas of catchment (Wilson and Gallant, 1995).
Transport ing of Modeling. A sediment-transport model was pre the

1996). A depositional model for storm and tide-influenced pro grading siliciclastic shorelines from theMiddle Devonian of the
central The results basin was foreland developed. Appalachian conditions when caution inferring suggest palaeoceanographic data sets that do not contain from preserved sedimentological

sented for the entire stretch of theGulf Coast. Numerical model


the fair-weather, inner shelf wave-energy adjacent transformation to Apolachicola across and low-gradient tential shore model the Ala

bama coast indicates that the critical threshold velocity for po


a significant distance off is exceeded onshore transport and Stapor, 1996). A (Stone sediment-transport simple fea was of sedimentary to produce the evolution used that modeling of bottom consolidation the time-space needed of bed

examples of palaeo shorelines (Prave et al,


Amarga Basin, Spain, temperate carbonate

1996). In the Agua


deposits accumu

lated in a shallow shelf. The depositional model of the shallow shelf is a gentle rising ramp toward the beaches and shoals
(Martin ical model. based on et al, 1996). An unsorted, unflocculated source suspen

tures in the Tejo estuary during a 50-year period. The study


showed for processes evolution sediment realistic of representation is essential thresholds

sion exhibits gravitational settling, which is described by a phys


The model the analysis and of equation sediments were from proven a variety to be accurate of locations

erosion

to replicate reaction sediments

processes for oxygen, constructed.

consistent with in situ observations (Barros, 1996). A simplified


timepH, can and and space-dependent in irrigated sulfide influence in transport coastal model was

(Kranck et al,
from suspension

1996a). The grain size of the bottom sediment


settling a power was described by an equation for the that was

verified with bottom sediment samples from the Bay of Fundy.


The equation, law, accounts resettling of the

Experimental andmodeling
substantially processes diagenic

results suggest irrigation periodicity


both pore-water (Marinelli distributions and and Boudreau,

suspension to predict the distribution (Kranck et al, 1996b). The ecological ramifications of variation in hydrologie interaction
between were revealed streams studied. and alluvial of uptake Modeling that nitrate aquifers transient length in contrasting hydrologie correlated with catchments solute storage hydraulic

sediments

1996). A Bayesian model for fate and transport of poly chlori nated biphenyls in the upper Hudson Bay was made. The
method half-life, provides aerobic estimates biod?gradation for the plus anaerobic biod?gradation volatilization half-life,

760

Water

Environment

Research,

Volume

69, Number

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants


contaminated-sediment and

depth,

resuspension

velocity

phytoplankton
mixed-layer

growth

in the model
than that

was more

sensitive

to

(Steinberg et al, 1996). The finite element model was applied successfully to predict the Pb-210 and total extractable fatty acid concentrations at different depths in two sediment cores from Lake Ontario by using different transport parameters. Im
proved results were observed in a two-layer model accounting

thickness

in the ocean

(McCreary elements

et al,

1996). To understand the patterns of lithofacies, marine faunas,


organic-carbon enrichment, isotopes, and trace depos turbu a climate

ited in the early Turonian Western


experiments lent-flow, were coastal conducted ocean model

Interior seaway, circulation

for bioturbation in the upper 4 to 6 cm of sediment (Bobba et mass al, 1996). A recycling model was developed using 13C/12C
balance (Corg) for net reservoir. growth/loss The key carbon organic sedimentary was that observation of the model of the

a three-dimensional, using driven by GENESIS,

model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric search (NCAR) (Slingerland et al, 1996).
Geological rence of Features. shallow, A study was conducted oceanic on fracture-zone-parallel, to normal (less than

Re

the occur transverse

photosynthetic
gae and (Deny activity ments.

carbon isotope fractionation by both marine al


has decreased 1996). during Measurements fallout the Cenozoic were nuclear made weap era of

plants and France-Lanord, depth A model profiles was of

terrestrial

ridges formed on seafloor. Numerical models


of the lithosph?re response est amounts of extension faulting 5 km)

of the flexural
suggest along that mod low-angle

I37Cs from

from

ons testing and from the Chernobyl accident in two lakes' sedi
developed to simulate the transport of

137Csin these sediments (Smith and Comans, 1996). A simple algorithm was presented that decomposes the size distribution
of marine Oth order. nents compo suggested study broader meaning than do convenient may potentially and Fournier, mathematical constructs 1996). A one (Jonasz was developed for the predic vertical dimensional, grid model wave-current in combined flow under tion of sediment transport have sheet flow conditions. Comparison with recent experimental into particles of The results a sum the of log-normal components that such of the

faults (less than 45 deg) are responsible for the transverse ridges (Pockalny et al, 1996). The Upper Jurassic Humber Group on the South Central Graben is one of the least understood and
most complex hydrocarbon illustrated geometry reservoirs of the North Sea. A new

sedimentological model, based on the distribution of facies and


facies associations, basin consequent were structure and that Upper Jurassic on the the principal controls

distribution of depositional environments (Howell et al,

1996).

METHODS
Kriging methods of geostatistical set analysis were Use PCB of used for anal is from ysis of sediment-contamination on a data demonstrated problems. of sediment the method samples matter

data showed that themodel gives good predictions (within 30%)


of the measured net sediment-transport for on/offshore was developed. rates under different

conditions
with

(Li and Davies,

1996). A finite-difference
sediment The model

model
pre

boundaries moving in the surf zone diction

transport

the upper Hudson River


measurement of biologically was described.

(Butcher, 1996). A method


available organic shown

for the
in inter

reasonably

predicts the erosion of beaches with berms and dunes and the
movement The model also is used of breaking point. to analyze sedi the evolution of different of beaches consisting et al, ment characteristics (Lee, C, 1996). offshore

tidal or subtidal marine elements subject to input of sea coal or


colliery wastes It was that organic content

should not be determined merely by ashing sediment (Hyslop and Davies, 1996). A study reports the development of an
NaOH-leaching technique The in marine sediments. to extract technique the was authigenic applied Al and Be of to the study

Heat Transfer. Sediment permeability plays a key role in controlling both the flux of solute and heat through marine sediments and patterns of hydrothermal circulation within the
underlying fluid flow ability across oceanic and heat the crust. transfer two Numerical illustrate sediment simulations how types differences can influence of coupled in perme patterns

26Al and 10Be in opal-rich sediments from the North Pacific


et al, 1996). (Wang was to estimate used oxidation Rise and CaC03 Pore-water the rates by in situ techniques sampling matter of sedimentary organic at seven sites on the Ceara Atlantic Ocean. Results indicate

between

dissolution equatorial

of hydrothermal circulation and the flux of heat and solute


the seafloor The (Snelgrove and Forster, response 1996). of sediment sus Suspension. surements and ity time-dependent in the surf zone were created

in the western

that the dissolution


accumulation

of CaC03 may mask


in deep-sea

the effects on the


(Martin and

rate of CaC03

sediments

pension to flow velocity was explored by modeling


collected models and nonlinear as input the

field mea

suspended-sediment time and of

a large storm. Linear during and tested using flow veloc as output concentration

Sayles, 1996). The relationships between pore geometry and Walker Creek field in south reservoir quality in the rocks of the
ern Arkansas mercury-injection were evaluated capillary Three on using pressure p?trographie analyses. methods Results and indicate

(Jaffe and Rubin,


estimate pects affecting as stratification, and hydrodynamics,

1996). A numerical model was developed


a sediment Various sedimentation

to
as

that reservoir quality is controlled by pore geometry (Bliefnick


and Kaldi, for their 1996). effects Bay, treatments preservative of macrobenthic biomass It was proposed were compared collected species macro that estuarine

residence transport

flocculation were

plume. such of the plume, water in a sediment-laden column, (Jankowski et al, 1996).

at Biloxi

Mississippi.

discussed

benthos be fixed in formalin, then transferred to ethanol for


was given et al, 1996). An outline (Gaston procedures a a portable that allows and sampling apparatus technique on reef surfaces. to collect diver sediment This method permits biomass of the measurement sedimentation on algae-covered ganophosphorous ter-contaminating with combined mine a variety of rate, the of instantaneous and (net) load, rather than sediments the reef-derived

Biological
microbial

Processes. A mathematical model, which includes


reactions, inorganic chemical speci

and geochemical

ation of the dissolved components, and diffusion of the individ ual species between different compartments, was developed to
calculate the pore-water of ammonium profiles and at steady state. The model pre

dicted calcite precipitation


profiles and Wehrli,

in the zone of Fe reduction and the


remarkably well (Furrer

logical model of biological

phosphate 1996). A four-component ecosystem, physical-bio was used to study the processes of an annual cycle that in the Arabian Sea. It was determined activity 761

terrigenous substrata 1996). (Purcell, was detected insecticide, agent. Solid-phase were detection

an or Chlorpyrifos, to be a surface-wa extraction techniques to deter effectively and surface water

GC-MS

used

of pesticides

in groundwater

Literature

Review

1997

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Fate & Effects

of

Pollutants_

samples (Thompson and Treble,


and mass accumulation rates

1996). Iridium concentrations


nine deep-sea cores, one

performance studies of metals and Biota sediments (Cofino and


Pedersen, 1996). Laboratory performance studies were under

from

from theAtlantic Ocean and eight from the Pacific Ocean, were
to evaluate compiled rates. accumulation in some slowly of magnitude Tertiary combined m depth a new technique It is observed that sediments those mass for determining iridium concentrations were of the same order

taken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) inmarine sediments and biota as part of the QUASIMEME project's ongoing laboratory
testing scheme. A considerable improvement was obtained in

accumulating as some of

event boundary with time-series were used

for the Cretaceous reported sensors et al, (Bruns 1996). Optical sediment 900 traps at approximately short-term peaks in pigment

the long-term precision of participating laboratories (De Boer andWells, 1996). Three urban wet detention ponds in the piedmont of North
Carolina moval were monitored of as a function area surface to investigate long-term area ratios. It was re pollutant demonstrated

to observe

fluorescence
Canary containing Island

and backscattering
region. Well-preserved coccoliths packed variations

in an oligotrophic

site in the

densely

fecal pellets Zooplankton and large amounts of chlo

that surface mance Remote correlated for

rophyll-derived pigments were observed (Fischer et al,


Comparison of systematic in sediment magnetic

1996).
prop

of wet pond perfor predictor et al, of pollutants J.S., (Wu, 1996). of a remote The results Sensing. sensing study were on estuarine with previous research processes mixing ratios the removal

are a useful

erties with changes in pollen assemblages inmiddle Pleistocene lake sediments from Buck Lake indicated that the magnetic
properties were sensitive to changes in climate. Climatically snow of A

and with ground sampling investigations to appraise the dis persal of effluent in the Tay estuary. The advantages of using
remote sensing techniques to study the distribution of conver

controlled factors that would affect peak runoff levels include


the accumulation seasonality cover of the land technique structures for the of and subsequent precipitation, surface (Rosenbaum restoration Airy are used and (Rowan isostasy melting and the et al, of of winter degree 1996). pack, vegetation systematic extensional the load

gent fronts and their effect of the dispersal of effluent were


demonstrated mesoscale (Ferner oc?anographie and Anderson, features was 1996). A rich revealed of spectrum in the analyzed

sequential

salt-related

imagery of aNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite receiving station. The AVHRR imagery was
proven et al, to be a valuable tool for spatial mapping of oc?ano

incorporates The results

to quantify

both

ing subsidence and the change in water depth during any time
interval. plates ment for restoration to generate paleo-seafloor to reconstruct salt and evolving et al, 1996). Approximate tem sedi

graphie formation in dynamic and modeling


1996).

studies (Burrage

geometries

methods

were introduced for estimating pool sediment trapping, upward supply of sand from the bed subsurface, and the rate of gravel
entrainment. These were combined in a sand routing algorithm

INORGANICS
The measured vane shear strength The of of marine soil samples an in

was shown to vary with depth and was correlated strongly with
the calcium carbonate content. results showed an increase that crease in calcium carbonate 1% caused in shear

to estimate sand removal (Wilcock et al, 1996b). Four methods commonly used for the collection of sublittoral sediments and
their associated fauna structure, were such community compared. as diversity Univariate indices, measures did not of reveal

strength of approximately
Studies on sodium, and River calcium, in groundwater to the Tarawera data obtained

10 kPa (Fukue and Nakamura,


and total resin from and samples acid samples conducted water

1996).

concentrations

any significant difference between the sampling methods (Som erfield and Clarke, 1996). Two types of sampling methods to
determine soft soil parameters for coastal construction were

sediment were

in downstream

two sites adjacent with the compared from the river in

discussed
nyl)methane

(Tanaka et al, 1996). Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol


were determined

(TCP) and tris(4-chlorophe


organisms and GC-MS and sedi

in aquatic over

ment by a method based on Soxhlet extraction, gel permeation


chromatography, fractionation silica, analysis

1991 and 1992. An unusual aspect of this investigation was the detection of an appreciable level of resin acid (Wilkins et al, 1996a). Petrography demonstrated the presence of three types of fibrous calcite cement in buildup deposits of the Kullsberg Limestone (middle Caradoc), central Sweden. Positive oxygen
isotope values were attributed to lower seawater temperatures

(De Boer et al,


A method

1996).

two to compute number between the correlation was match the sand samples method of ratio developed using numbers numerical values of the correlation among ing. The on beaches of littoral drift the sand movement and the sources

and/or slightly elevated salinity on the Baltic platform relative to seawater from which other marine precipitates formed (Tobin andWalker, 1996). Acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) was measured
at regular positions along eight transects through Mangrove

of sand were found (Mizumura et al,


Transport. tion of water hypersaline Settling bioclastic was Field and and analytical solute

1996).
for the characteriza

methods

Forest in the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. The spatial variability of potential bioavailability was high and depended,
to a great chemical the surface extent, on which metals were considered part P and of the

environment velocity fractions

zone of a in the unsaturated transport were et al, 1996). (Ronen developed were to interpret and used transport mean of and fractions deposition

AVS complexing
approaches sediment

system (Mackey andMackay,


were of Lake used to characterize Southern, Vesijarvi,

1996). Various
Si in Finland. The

deposition by studying the hydraulic behavior of heterogeneous


sediments. The method settling velocity transport an acceptable to interpret

dynamic equilibrium between


and anaerobic sediment was

solid and solution P in aerobic


investigated by means et al, 1996). Greenland of desorp The major from deter

(Kench and McLean, 1996). Studies. In the 1994 QUASIMEME Interlaboratory


gram, metals tissue, was laboratory in marine and good. performance sediments, studies were conducted on

pro
trace

isotherms (Hartikainen tion-sorption trace element and concentrations fjords mined. and open the coastal waters

in surficial

sediments were

around

of marine mussel sediments, digests The of participants muscle tissue. response plicae in the laboratory laboratories took part Sixty-one

Provenance

controlling

were factors and glacial the main deposition and and distribution of the major abundance

trace elements inGreenland coastal and fjord sediments (Loring


762 Water Environment Research, Volume 69, Number 4

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants and Asmund, 1996). Element variation with time in different overbank sediment profiles was documented. Evaluation of the vertical distribution of elements in overbank sediments was a powerful tool for investigating the geochemical characteristics
of drainage areas on a large scale and examining variation in

the mean levels of pulp mill source compounds and sodium levels in effluents discharged to the Tarawera River to assess the extent towhich these compounds were persistent in downstream
water samples and to determine sediment loading characteristics

element content with

time (Hindel et al,

1996). The global


other were

(Wilkins et al, 1996b). Field and laboratory evidence showed that deeply buried (90 to 888 m) fine-grained sediments of the
Atlantic isms acids. and An Coastal that Plain these contain viable acetogenic actively these microorgan produce organic microorganisms culture of from one

a geochemical for marine uranium demands sink budget than deep-sea shown It was that salt marshes systems.

even stronger sinks at all salinities than subtidal estuaries for different reasons (Church et al, 1996). A study evaluated Na Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusion-hosted brines in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits from the Appalachian Basin. The results of this study indicated that Na-Cl-Br systematics can provide valuable insights into the nature, distribution, and origin of brines responsible for MVT mineralization (Kesler et al, 1996).
Chemistry postdepositional studied were in saline environment was at the time discussed. and mica. weathering kaolinite, of deposition and The clay minerals salinity in pore

enrichment recovered of

acetogenic incubation distinct of growth

isms was the presence rod-shaped

long-term

microorgan that showed Gram-positive, autotro under

several

bacteria

morphologically that were capable

phic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions (Chapelle and Bradley, 1996). Temporal and spatial changes in pools of prewa
ter methane, corresponding accumulation flux were sulfate, methane of acetate dependent on and acetate fluxes and (a methanogenic were investigated. substrate) The and seasonal and in the

long-term

methane production subsequent anaerobic conditions

smectite,

The

upper 20 cm of surface peat (Shannon andWhite,


rent organic-rich were sediments subsidization layers enriched (sapropels) in Corg, of S sulfide in eastern Fe, and S.

1996). Recur
Mediterranean The downward accumula

water depended on type of clay?nonquick et al, 1996).

or quick (Ohtsubo

mechanism as much

diffusion

allows

ORGANICS
The sorption of a commercial-grade in marine sediments sorption process. with linear alkylbenzenesulfo

tion

of

twice

ganic-poor-suboxic in organic-rich served

in alternating sediments compared sediments (Passier were

organic-rich-anoxic/or was what with et al, 1996).

pre

nate (LAS) and of its constituent homologous


characterized from of marine The a threefold alkylbenzenesulfonate to be an irreversible homologue Cn-LAS,

compounds was
Linear found for the of

Hydrocarbons.
surficial bottom

Distributions,
sediment samples

structures, and applicability of


analyzed and character

of Cadiz. Bay was sediment was linear

ized in terms of content of biogenic and anthropogenic hydro


carbon biomarkers. The aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations

relation

increase

in the value

and the statistical findings from themultivariate


cated strong signals of petroleum/industrial

techniques indi

K as salinity increased (Rubio et al, 1996). The fate, bioconcen tration, and effects of tributylin (TBT) for three decades after
its introduction tropod, mations, to the coastal environment failure, and were oyster reviewed. Gas oyster imposex, concentrations recruitment in water, shell malfor data were re

and biogenic/terres

trial aliphatic hydrocarbons in the Alexandria coastal region (Aboul-Kassim and Simoneit, 1996). Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the central part of the Gulf were
measured substantial using inputs fluorescence of oil spectrophotometry. to the Gulf, contamination Despite can be all con

sediment

vised and reinterpreted (Ruiz et al, 1996). Sterols of different origin were analyzed in sediment samples
collected in the Venice Lagoon. The degree of wastewater con

sidered comparatively
cesses and biological Marine were to detect used

low, possibly
degradation that

reflecting physical pro


accelerate removal of

tamination within
epicoprostanol, of organic and

the lagoon using fecal sterols (coprostanol,


coprostanone) was investigated. The differ

petroleum from the marine


Omran, 1996). cores and piston seafloor ments Rise

environment

(Al-Lihaibi and Al
in the sedi

ence in pattern of sterols was used to indicate difference


origin matter (Fattore et al, 1996). Biotransformation

in

sulfate measured pore-water profiles to estimate methane flux toward within

of pyridine (PYR), three isomers of hydroxypyridine (OHPYR), and five isomers of dihydroxypyridine (diOHPYR) were investi
gated in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries (salinity, 1.3%; So4

overlying and Blake and

anomalous methane gradients a major at gas hydrate deposit The linear sulfate Ridge. gradients assess in situ methane flux, which

the Carolina can be used

to quantify

is a function

Among
2,3-, 110

2, 13.5 mM; pH 7.48) collected from the Tansui River, Taiwan. the five isomers of diOHPYR (7.5 to 12 ppm) tested,
2,5-, days, and 3,4-diOHPYR 2,4and were removed whereas 2,6-diOHPYR within completely were in persistent

the nonadapted sediment slurries during 6 months' incubation (Kuo and Liu, 1996). A study to find the extent of organic contamination in the San Quintin Bay was done. The study indicated that the sedimentary concentrations of the organic analytes in the bay are not likely
to the commercial oyster cultivation market (Galindo et al,

of themethane inventory (Borowski etal, 1996). Measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in 77 core samples collected in 1992 from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf were used to delineate oil pollution levels and their distribution in the region. A definite relationship was found between the grain-size distribution and TPH content of bottom sediments (Massoud et al, 1996). The amounts and types of
extractable hydrocarbon components in sediment cores from the

Rochester Basin of eastern Lake Ontario provided a record of


that accompanied environmental changes of the surrounding land population growth carbon and concentrations ganic hydrocarbon the areas. settlement Sediment and or re

1996). Long-chain methyl and ethyl alkenones (C37-C4o) con taining two to four double bonds have been detected in sedi
ments pounds from Qinghai Lake, as paleotemperature China. use Widespread indicators in marine of these sediments com in

compositions of

corded progressively
lake lake as a result

greater delivery of organic matter to the


disturbances to the ecosystems 1996b). to determine the the (Bourbonniere A and Meyers, study was done

of human

troduces
lacustrine taken (Li,

the possibility
environments J., et al, 1996).

of extrapolating
if appropriate A study was

this approach
can be under to identify

to

and watershed

calibrations performed

Aromatic

Hydrocarbons.

concentration

levels and the distribution of selected purgeable

Literature

Review

1997

763

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Fate & Effects

of Pollutants

aromatics catchment

in the water of the River

and

sediment and

Morava

samples to evaluate

collected the water

from

the

Correlation of log K with eight different structural parameters


showed that the electronic properties of the Sn atom are the

quality.

Polycyclic
linear ture (UCM), off

aromatic hydrocarbon

(PAH) concentrations
complex sediments border. mix

of

or n-hydrocarbons, PAHs and unresolved were measured in recent marine the coastal region sources at the Mexico-U.S.

in 24 Depo

principal factors controlling the adsorption behavior of organo tins (Sun et al, 1996). Spatial and temporal distribution of methylmercury was determined in surficial sediments collected
from wastes. a river reservoir system affected were Concentrations of MeHg by Hg-contaminated well correlated mine with the

stations

sition of the n-hydrocarbons and UCM apparently was dictated


by ment closeness pore-water of the to point (Zamora, partition fines coefficients in situ sedi 1996). The to six of a suite of three-

biotic and abiotic activity of the sediment (Chen, Y., et al, 1996).
Halogenated rophenolic Organics. compounds, Concentrations and resin-acid-derived tetrahydroretene, and below above of resin acids, neutral and chlo com retene)

ring PAHs
amount

increased with
in surface

organic
sediments

carbon content and the


collected from a mud

flat in San Francisco Bay along an intertidal gradient during the dry and wet seasons in 1993 and 1994 (Maruya et al, 1996). Sediments were analyzed for PAH and 210Pb to obtain
accumulation mine the role rates, of and inventories of PAHs in contaminant were used loading to deter to Lake the atmosphere

(fichtelite, pounds dehydroabietin, were measured in river sediments

the effluent

discharges of two New Zealand pulp and paper mills. High


concentrations were present examined Japan. of chlorophenolic in sediments from compounds a downstream and resin acids lagoon estuarine

Michigan. The relative abundance of individual PAH com pounds from Lake Michigan sediments, PM-10 aerosol of Chi
cago, lishing and a coke oven a linkage were signature between combustion statistically sources similar, in the estab at south,

(Judd et al,
were umi River,

1996). The kinetics of halogen-substituted


in estuarine Octanol/water sediment collected from partition coefficients

anilines
the Tsur and solu

bility were
The

included in the correlation (Susarla et al,


of organochlorine In general, indicated compounds

1996).

mospheric deposition, and sediment accumulation (Simicik et al, 1996). The objective of this study was to assess the levels of PAHs inmarine sediments from Shuaiba. This study stated
that the PAH levels were higher now than those reported from

concentrations

in sediments

and shellfish from the estuarine and coastal areas around Fiji
were rines determined. were low the concentrations little contamination of organochlo (Morrison et and

the same general area before the Gulf War


Organic Macromolecules. Curie-point the macromolecular sediment traps concluded

(Saeed et al,
pyrolysis content gas of

1996).
chro

matography
chemically particles iterranean of known

and Curie-point pyrolysis GC-MS were applied to


characterize from in the northwestern large Med

al, 1996). The distribution and concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and PCBs in Humber Estuary bed sediment and in
suspended paniculate matter were studied extensively. This

collected

It was microscopy. and some presently unknown

that the preservation biomacromolecules bio

work demonstrated the importance of solid geochemistry and the dynamics of estuarine sediment regimes in determining the
distribution of organochlorine contaminants in estuarine envi

synthesized by algae, either by selective preservation or by rapid sinking, could be a major process determining the quality and
quantity (Peulve matter of sinking and depositing in the ocean organic et al, 1996a). gas Curie-point chromatogra pyrolysis were GC-MS and Curie-point used to characterize pyrolysis organic at intermediate delta of content water and suspended and depths, of in particles in the surface

ronments (Tyler and Millward,

1996).

METALS
An investigation described
in the surface

phy the macromolecular surface sediments Siberia. a fraction degradation polyunsaturated, manganese waters, of The

the large-scale distribution pat


and discussed the vertical

terns of metals

sediment

distribution and its relationship to the anthropogenic


the development The of lamination in the increasing of metals number

load and
of areas

the Lena presence

of marine-derived (Peulve and nodules

the adjacent Sea, eastern Laptev some algal constituents that suggested were to macromolecules resistant 1996b). acids Saturated, were monosaturated,

with anoxic conditions in the bottom waters of the Baltic Sea.


large-scale distribution pattern in surface sedi

et al, iso and

fatty

surrounding

in iron investigated in the Pacific sediments

showed elevated levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the Baltic proper (Borg and Johnson, 1996). From 1860 to 1890, approxi mately 7 100metric tons of metallic mercury (Hg) was released
into the Carson River-Lahonton Reservoir watershed as a by

ments

and Indian Oceans. Their composition displayed a high content of labile unsaturated compounds with bacterial markers (Alek
sandrova and Poluyaktov, 1996).

product of Comstock Lode silver (Ag) and gold (Au) ore refin
ing. Hg concentrations in the Carson River and the Lahontan

Pesticides. Huntsville Spring Branch-Indian Creek (HSB-IC) was selected as a field location at which to evaluate equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP) to predict the bioavailability of non
ionic organic chemicals to measure associated o,p'and with sediments. DDD, An cal method p,p'-DDE, analyti and DDT

Reservoir are among the highest known worldwide (100 to 1 000 ng/L) (Wayne et al, 1996). Geomorphic and geochemical
data were combined and physical in a study dispersal to document the distribution, materials quantity, of Hg-contaminated

at low concentrations (less than 1 ng/mL) in small volumes (approximately 30 mL) of sediment pore water was developed
DDT contamination Long-term was in a small lake that previously of ported recipient with from a plant nursery. ticide wastes Comparison (Cotter 1996). et al, was re the insec 1975 data

from Sixmile Canyon to the Carson River. The study illustrated that the effects of Hg may be displaced temporally and spatially
from the penod and location of milling activities (Miller, J.R.,

et al, 1996). A total of 162 fish and shellfish samples were collected from different coastal areas of Bahrain in the Arabian
Gulf and analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic.

showed that DDT levels in fish had been reduced by approxi mately 90% and a rough estimate indicated a "half life" of DDT of 5 to 7 years (Brevik et al, 1996). The adsorption behavior of eight organotin Organometalics.
species, Sn4+, and SnC14 on estuarine sediments was reported.

The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As indicate higher levels of metals in shellfish when compared with fish and reveal that
the generally than existing 1996). Metal levels of metals except were in these for guidelines concentrations were organisms arsenic (Madany in sediments examined lower et al, from

764

Water

Environment

Research,

Volume

69, Number

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Fate & Effects

of Pollutants

497 sites within the estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico


EPA's Environmental Monitoring occurred near and Assessment

by the U.S.
Program industrial

sediment, Leinen,

1996).

sedimentary The

rock,

and

trace metal

settling contents

particles of 71

and (Murray core samples

(EMAP). Approximately
at least one metal sites, used discharge tests were ing agents:

39% of sites with contamination by


population centers,

collected in 1992 from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf were used to determine the regional distribution of concen
tration Positive and pollution correlations and levels were of found these substances to between increasing content and the region. trace metal

or military et al, bases (Summers 1996). Batch to study remobilization abilities of three chelat DTPA, and ethylene glycol-bis-N-N'te

EDTA,

concentration

traacetic acid (EGTA) on zinc. DTPA had a higher remobiliza tion on zinc than EDTA (Yu et al, 1996). A field study was
done of an assessment of toxic metals content in the marine

verifying of trace metal

carbonate decreasing onto muds was that adsorption concentration in marine

size, grain the primary mechanism et sediments (Al-Abdali

sediments of the Shuaiba Industrial area inKuwait after the oil


spill during the Gulf War. The results of toxic metals measure

al, 1996). The spatial and temporal distribution of tracemetals was studied in sediments of the Scheldt estuary to identify
trends content because poor in space and time. Results of the sediments decreases showed that the trace metal direction and metal in the downstream fluvial et al, sediments 1996). metals in bottom and

ments were 17.3 mg/kg for V, 30.8 mg/kg for Ni, and 55.5 mg/ kg for Pb (Al-Muzaini and Jacob, 1996). Detailed time-depth
distributions C (DOC), of dissolved with together near-surface (Esthwaite and dissolved Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, organic obtained for the water-column pH, were of a seasonably sediment anoxic pore waters a 1-year period. The Water, U.K.) during study of Esthwaite of various Water in

of mixing of metal-rich marine sediments (Zwolsman Metals. from The urban concentrations

and lake

Heavy sediments MacRitchie centrations

of heavy Kranji

Reservoir of heavy

waters, receiving were in Singapore,

Reservoir

showed that concentrations of dissolved Zn and Cu in thewaters


and surface sediments continually processes vary directly response to the rates bigeochemical

metals

The con investigated. water were in the interstitial signifi

cantly high and exceeded the water-quality


eleven cally times averaged toxic (Chen, W., et al, 1996). model A was finite-element

criteria by three to
verti to predict extended

two-dimensional

or indirectly driven by events taking place in the water column


(Hamilton-Taylor Trace Metals. sediments sented. directly natural creases The et al, New data 1996). on trace metal Bay of (the Sea distribution of Japan) outside in bottom were pre the areas

the spatial and temporal distribution of cohesive sediments and


associated heavy system. metals The as a result of a pollutant input into an estuarine comparison of model performance

of Peter spatial influenced

the Great distribution

trace metals

against field observations


of representing hesive sediments 1996). in of The extent

indicated that the model

is capable

processes in the

was by wastewater discharges regulated by such as sediment In size. sorting by grain near trace metal content sediments of bottom

the fate of co important phenomena governing and associated nickel and Orlob, (Shrestha

Vladivostok began around 1945 (Tkalin et al, 1996). Longitudi nal distribution of dissolved nickel and cobalt along the English Coast of the Channel was similar to that previously observed
for dissolved of salinity, of aluminum. the The concentration exponential of a decay, relatively elements as a function conservative

the Bidasoa surficial and

bivalve

sources and possible of heavy-metal pollution were evaluated by chemical Estuary analysis and associated sediments the macrofauna, namely was the polychaete. The Bidasoa contami Estuary of heavy metal in Taiwan capacity the characterization of sediments The sedi and

nated considerably by Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn (Saiz- S ali?as et al,


1996). The was ments adsorption influenced by chemical

element such as nickel strongly supports the hypothesis


significant The amounts of dissolved trace could be

that
ex

ported from the North Sea to the Channel (Zhanh et al,


conditions of trace metals (Al, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni,

1996).
Fe, and

the physical and tions between those

of seawater. properties and parameters adsorption

correla of

capacities

Mn)
and

prevailing

in summer were
phases) Gulf. of and The

studied in waters
of of the Louros sediment fraction of

(dissolved

heavy metal were discussed (Hung and Chen, 1996). A recently developed collection technique for benthic diatoms was used to
assess the concentration diatoms and of the heavy sediments metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn It in benthic was along provides an estuarine a valuable gradient. tool to moni

particulate the Amvrakikos

sediments

an enrichment (particularly the mouth

analysis the nonlabile metal and Pb) at the relatively

in Estuary cores revealed the sediments sections (Scoullos of

concluded

that the method

for Cu area,

indicating of

top, near surface recent pollution

et al,

1996). Dissolved

Re, Mo, and U concentrations and the

concentrations

in groundwaters from U.S. Similar Re.Mo.U carbonate quantitative three size aquifer uptake fractions of

were measured and anions, the major cations in the southern 23 springs Great Basin, for the groundwaters from the ratios and of seawater these were trace strongly elements of suggestive seawater from

tor availability of heavy metals for biota in intertidal areas (Absil and Scheppingen, 1996). Sedimentation was studied by experimentally adding cadmium and Kd in Lake 382, Experi mental Lakes Area, Canada, from 1987 to 1992. Extractions showed that weak surfaces had high Kd and bottom sediments have lower Kd (Stephenson et al, 1996). In this study, the
dewater and reuse ability, heavy-metal Horn of Golden the factors like release surface and sediment reuse were characteristics, investigated to filtration and did not

(Hodge et al,
unfiltered) sect from

1996). The spatial and temporal distribution of


than 0.2 (less total Fe were studied of Delaware There was pm, less than 0.4 in four Bay cruises along the Gulf and pm, a tran Stream less

to determine moisture contain tioning ment was

the mouth

across

type to effect toxic heavy metals (Karpuzcu in six separated sediment-size analyzed by sequential

resistance specific volume reduction. The et al, fractions The

leachate 1996). Metal of riverbed extraction

parti sedi data

to the Sargasso Sea. than 0.2 and greater were Results 1996). and Ti in surface

than 0.2

variation temporal (Wu pm Fe fractions chemical along two

in both

extraction.

and Luther, of Al

from presented sediment sampled It was shown

analyses

showed increasing potential bioavailability of metals with de creasing grain size (Stone and Droppo, 1996). The effects of
water ents pollution in sediments metals on the accumulation were examined. in low of heavy The strong metals and nutri of high accumulation in water and

cross-Equator as

latitudinal transects at 135 and 140 degW


rial Pacific an by index of Ocean. material terrigenous of two, of the true

in the central equato

use of Al that quantitative lead to an overestimation, may terrigenous loads in a marine

heavy concentrations nese

resulted

concentrations

in sediments offered

a factor

concretions

et al, (Ferreira 1996). Ferromanga to study environmental condi potential

Literature

Review

1997

765

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Fate & Effects of

Pollutants_
below the sediment-water interface were measured at randomly

tions of the Baltic Sea and to record the influence of heavy metal pollution (Glasby et al, 1996). Distribution of heavy metals in bottom sediments in interstitial water and overlying
water mined of heavy was The analyzed. to be an important metals from buffering capacity the remobilization parameter affecting et al, sediments (Chen, W., 1996). were tracers in lake used sediments of lead in Eastern Canada. sediment was deter

sampled locations within anoxic sediments originating from the


North Sea. In the that displayed events. continuous redox laboratory, a transient increase and decrease records potential when in contact

with oxygen for a limited time were used to record oxidation


Continuous redox measurements showed that oxidized to

Isotopes. Isotopic assess atmospheric

conditions fluctuate with the oxygen (Forster, 1996).


Rivers to estimate and Lakes. A 4-year fire-related changes postfire study was in suspended sediment sediment conducted transport

transport

Data

showed that the U.S. contributions to the total lead burden in surficial sediments across much of southern Quebec and Ontario were often in excess of 50% (Biais, 1996). Lead isotope dating
was and mining, the trends used to show information on from its relative smelting, contributions and geochemical sources such emissions. origins as coal The of lead burning,

on the Yellowstone
River. Fire-related

River and its principal tributary, the Lamar


changes in suspended sediment were distin

guished from natural climatic variations by two methods. Both


methods indicated postfire increases that varied ac

car-exhaust

206Pb/207Pb

cording to season (Ewing, 1996). A study was done on spatial


variations in sediment transport and in surface sediment charac

for dated bottom sediments inLoch Lomond, Scotland, showed


clearly related to the varying nature and extent of

teristics that affect transport during offshore winds


al, ment ment 1996). was Effect of explored concentrations.

(Gares et

anthropogenic lead inputs after 1630 (Farmer et al,


files of lead concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb ratios

1996). Pro
were deter

mined in cores from Lake Zug. Pb concentrations in the sedi ment and lead emissions in Switzerland correlated well (Moor
et al, 1996). The transfer rate organic 95mTc, of 95mTc was determined columns in close in the at natural laboratory using rates for 15?C. Transfer sediment-water 61ICo, and

on the transport land-use of sedi changes and sedi rainfall, runoff, using measured on the land use of the Goodwin A survey

Creek watershed showed a cultivated land decrease from 26% in 1982 to 12% in 1990 (Kuhnle etal, 1996). Bed-load transport
measurements of different grain-size fractions in a sand-bed

134Cs were

agreement with those measured in Canadian Shield Lakes, were higher (Bird and Evenden, whereas those for 65Znand 235U concentrations of osmium (OS) and silver (Ag) 1996). High
and low 187Os/186Os sensitive ratios tracers in Boston of the wastewater made these on elements influence of wastewater

river in southwest Denmark showed that the transport rate in the central grain sizes varied less than in all other fractions in the bed load. This was argued to be related to the role of point
bars 1996). River, as sediment reservoirs Constant-discharge California, flow and (Bartholdy reservoir releases unusual Kisling-Moller, on the Trinity

marine sediments inMassachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. The results of this investigation suggested that osmium isotopes may
as be widely applicable on sediments in estuarine tracers of the influence (Ravizza of wastewater and Bothner, environments

unambiguously bed river. Both tions suggested et al,

an provided and gravel and

entrainment

entrainment that maximum

to relate opportunity on a large gravel cumulative observa transport depth for plane-bed trans

scour

port was
(Wilcock mine

slightly less than twice the surface layer thickness


1996a). of rates In a study, pit traps were to deter used and estimate transport transport equivalent on a coarse and sediment stream sand-gravel have the same rate

1996).

relative

TRANSPORT
Experiments sorted on the entrainment sands were threshold performed of well-sorted and carbonate

sizes

of cassiterite

bed inMalaysia. Results showed that for grain sizes finer than
180 pm, cassiterite grains average transport using naturally freshwater flume. and density,

poorly

occurring Results

sediments indicate

that when

in a tilting, recirculating of similar size,

as sediment grains roughly three times larger (Fletcher and Loh, 1996).
Beaches. continental Seven terrace cores from collected subsamples offshore from northern Israel were from examined the

shape,

the transport threshold of carbonate sands is similar to that of quartz (Prager et al, 1996). Waves. A field experiment designed to investigate the influ
ence of wave conducted importance on suspended-sediment breaking at Duck, The results North Carolina. of breaking waves was transport the emphasize as a mecha sediment-suspending

by TEM and SEM to form a model for sediment transport over the continental slope. The analysis of the TEM and SEM
photomicrographs were terns, which supports evaluated the model from of sediment radiographie flux to pat dispersal studies of the

cores and other data (Almagore and Karnieli,


aeolian transport that related sediment

1996). Models
shear velocity and of

of

nism and the need to incorporate their influence in any general model of surf-zone sediment transport (Beach and Sternberg, 1996). Laboratory Experiments. The effect of local dispersion on solute transport of dissolved constituents through randomly het
erogeneous was studied. The showed media theory geologic on the first and second concen that the effect of local dispersion with of the magnitude varies tration moments monotonically

were analyzed. Analysis of data from field experiments designed


to provide ment flux simultaneous across beaches measurements underscores of wind the speed limitations sedi these

models
sands downstream found

(Bauer et al,
in a single from

1996). Grain-size

distributions of three

to be

after transport transport-mode experiment were the brink of an experimental microdelta nor log-hyperbolic. neither Gaussian the Instead, into 1996). the flume at the microdelta's differences in relation end upstream in wind speed and con to beach surface

the local dispersion


Results of sediment-trap

coefficient
surveys

(Zhang and Neuman,


to determine the scale

1996).
of trans

sands derived many of their grain-sized attributes from those


of sand fed et al, (Endo aeolian Cross-shore rate

port of suspended tailings with fjords were reported. The sedi ment trap fluxes show that suspended solids tend to settle out within 10 km of outfall. Once tailings discharge ceased, the
particle tial and fluxes in the deep distributions waters returned to normal or near

sediment-transport at Carrick Finn

ditions in the lee of a 6-m-high dune during 2 days of offshore


winds Strand, Ireland, were examined. Rates of

normal in 3 months
temporal

(MacDonald and O'Brien,


of oxidation

1996). The spa


events occurring

offshore aeolian transport on the beach in the lee of the dune were affected by shore parallel zones differing in wind speed
766 Water Environment Research, Volume 69, Number 4

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants


surface moisture and sediment characteristics that in

change

location through time (Nordstorm et al,


Estuaries. ments ogy, from The the transition coastal trends, ocean and zone were

1996).

sedimentary seasons ocean-

estuarine environ separating characterized by morphol forces. Wave and hydrodynamic storms wave

current measurements made near Thimbel Shoal Light during


five winter produce both showed and that most bay-generated simultaneously trains that appear

as distinct bimodal peaks in directional spectra (Boon et al, 1996). Dissolved and particulate matter and living organisms
were exchanged between estuaries and the sea. Net material

Boskalis' dredging and subsidiary groups have been working on environmentally beneficial projects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the recycling of sandy sedimentary material with the purpose of producing a secondary building material (Royal Boskalis, 1996). A summary evaluation was presented of the distribution and qualitative ranking of the Plio-Pleistocene results obtained to date from Deep Sea magnetostratigraphic Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) piston cored sites. The distribution of the high-quality record correlated well with both areas of terrigenous sediment input and regions of moderate biological productivity (Clement et al, 1996). A
simple mass-balance approach was presented to evaluate the

fluxes, import or export, appeared to depend on physical and


biological processes within both estuarine and coastal ecosys in the crest

efficiency of dredged sedimentation traps for the elimination of


matter suspended in situated trap, serve and P. The presentation showed that such a a morphometrically can favorable position, a particular area as an ecotechnological measure to relieve

tems (Dame and Allen,


ogy, Fraser velocity, River and estuary were

1996). Measurements
carried transport out. Dune of six

of bed morphol
large dunes and

sediment

symmetry

rounding of symmetric dunes were associated with high sedi ment-transport rates (Kostachuk and Villaed, 1996). Erosion. The downstream effects of freshwater flow diver
sion from a small, active-continental-margin river basin, the

from the burden of being particle bound (Kleeberg, 1996). The possible effects of dredging activities on the growth of Lami
naria ments. saccharina The field were study studied showed in field and laboratory growth that Laminaria experi was af

Skokomish River delta, were analyzed. It was concluded that sediment transport constitutes the critical link between fluvial
alterations and the remote downstream, estuarine consequences

fected significantly by the fine-grained material (Lyngby and Mortensen, 1996). A systematic methodology for predicting the fate and stability of dredged-material disposal sites during long
periods ing of time was was described. It was concluded realistic that the model simulations of concept capable of producing

(Jay and Simenstad,

1996).

RADIONUCLIDES
The available data on radionuclide concentrations in various

sediment transport and bathymetry (Scheffner, 1996). The Maastrichian and Danian intervals of the ODP Hole 738C con
tain numerous extinction, ties microfossils either above the sea level of across of

environmental
tide-washed

compartments and in foodstuffs


were reviewed. Places

derived from
deposition

pastures

of high

of radionuclides were found to have lower contamination of agricultural products from tide-washed pastures than predicted from terrestrial studies (Howard et al, 1996). Sedimentation rates as determined by 226radiumactivity inmarine barite were studied. In Holocene sediments less than 8 000 years old, the decay of excess 226Ra in barite provided reliable sedimentation rates (Paytan et al, 1996). The isotopic composition of osmium
(Os) in continental surface waters and shallow groundwaters of old era

suggesting long after species or large-scale globe

the persistence turnover occurred Strontium

local

their putative communi rest of the

the

reworking.

isotopic

evidence

suggested that extensive and pervasive reworking throughout theMaastrichian and lower Danian strata in ODP Hole 73 8C (MacLeod and Huber, 1996). Drilling during ODP Leg 160
new the composition, revealed evidence concerning important and age of two mud within volcanoes processes, depositional the Mediterranean The Ridge accretionary driving complex. was in mud back volcanism collision-related force possibly

that empty into the Baltic Sea was determined by analyzing


freshwater Fe-Mn nodules and bog ores. Glaciation

thrusting of theMediterranean Ridge accretionary (Robertson, 1996).


Andrew Castro, uate N. assistant and Robert professor and Mohammed K. Ali are grad Bosquez, at in the Environmental Engineering Department Ernest is an

tonic shields might


very radiogenic

therefore modulate riverine supply of this


(Peucker-Ehrenbrink and Ravizza, Jr., Armando students

cratonic

1996). A 4-m-long sediment core from the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea, was investigated by means of biostratigraphical and chemi
cal parameters and ,4C datings. According to the diatom assem

Texas A&M University


be addressed Department, to Andrew Texas A&M

in Kingsville.
N. Ernest,

Correspondence

should

blages and 14Cdatings, the sediments were deposited in the brackish and freshwater phases of theYolida Sea, the freshwater Ancylus Lake, and the brackish-water Litorina Sea (Sohlenius
et al, 1996). Profiles of excess 234Th were measured in cores

Environmental

University?Kingsville,

Engineering Box Campus

213, Kingsville,

TX 78363.

at six abyssal sites along the JGOFS equatorial Pacific transect


to evaluate results fully bioturbation suggested characterize in equatorial that measurements the sediment mixing Pacific on a single regime sediments. The core may not in a particular

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Fate & Effects

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Fate & Effects of Pollutants


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and Chung

Properties

Scl,

for unit

cells

(Lee,

C.K.,

et al,

1996).

The

cell

problems

were

Groundwater

Alex S. Mayer, Patrick P.E. Carri?re, Claudio Gallo, Kurt D. Pennell, Tammy P. Taylor, Glenn A. Williams, Lirong Zhong INTRODUCTION
In this review, in groundwater port dose papers systems are and

quality

derived from the asymptotic theory of homogenization,


accounts for systematically on the macroscale processes. numerical simulation of the effects Dilution

which

of pore-scale mechanics in two-dimen of solute

sionally (2-D) periodic heterogeneous media was assessed by


advection-dispersion (AD) concentra

tion fluctuations induced by advective heterogeneity (Kapoor and Kitanidis, 1996). The plumes became increasingly irregular
with tions time, and at large times, the relative concentration fluctua weakened.

fate and transport considering are discussed first. The fate divided systems among containing saturated

processes and trans va

process papers zone systems, between

systems,

models and four-layer with two-, three-, Experimental peri were to investigate odic heterogeneities constructed the effect of heterogeneity size on the scale of dispersion dependence

nonaqueous-phase

liquids (NAPLs). Within


made as physical, hydrodynamics, and biod?gradation.

these categories,

subdivisions

are

or biological such processes chemical reactions, sorption-desorption, chemical, papers concerning groundwater qual

Next,

(Irwin et al, 1996). Because the experimentally determined dispersion coefficients appeared to be scale dependent up to a distance of approximatley 20 to 30 times the size of the repeated heterogeneity group (hydraulic unit), it was concluded that a medium with periodic heterogeneity likely may be characterized
by the scale of its hydraulic unit. A method based on piecewise

itymonitoring
various

and groundwater remediation are divided among


or specific phases. Papers that are concerned

techniques source and

with general field studies of fate and transport are ordered by


or compound risk assessment classifications. groundwater Finally, protection papers describing are discussed.

bilinear functions was presented for upscaling of permeability in heterogeneous porous media (Nilsen and Espedal, 1996).
Numerical results showed that this method classical spatial conserves block-based upscaling tensors, may more upsca result of the heterogeneous fingering It was shown ling methods. in nonsymmetric tion was large-scale than that

SINGLE-PHASE SYSTEMS
Hydrodynamics. Dispersion Theory. The permeability and dispersivities of solute and heat for a periodic medium were
described by numerical solution of boundary value problems

permeability

for which

principal axes do not exist (Zijl, 1996). A symmetry approxima


introduced for that resulted Various in a difference non-Fickian the nonsymmetric between flux transient permeability and transport tensors direction. were

dispersion

relationships

Literature

Review

1997

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