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Using the resilience matrix to make sense of assessment information and evaluate childrens needs

Resilience can be defined as: Normal development under difficult conditions (Fonagy et al 1994) !n t"eir t"ree #or$boo$s on assessing and promoting resilience in vulnerable c"ildren% &aniel and 'assell describe t"e protective factors t"at are associated #it" long term social and emotional #ell(being in t"e c"ilds #"ole #orld
)"e e*istence of protective factors can "elp to e*plain #"y one c"ild may cope better #it" adverse life events t"an anot"er )"e level of individual resilience can be seen as falling on a dimension of resilience and vulnerability (+ee Figure 1 )

Vulnerability
Figure 1. Dimension on which individual resilience can be located

Resilience

)"is dimension is usually used to refer to intrinsic ,ualities of an individual +ome c"ildren are more intrinsically resilient t"an ot"ers because of a #"ole range of factors - For e*ample% an easy temperament is associated #it" resilience in infancy . furt"er dimension for t"e understanding of individual differences is t"at of protective and adverse environments/ t"is dimension covers e*trinsic factors and is t"erefore located in t"e parts of t"e 0y 'orld )riangle t"at are concerned #it" #ider family% sc"ool and community 1*amples of protective environment mig"t include an adult in a c"ilds #ider #orld% suc" as a teac"er or yout" leader% or a grandparent (see Figure 2)

Adversity

Protective environment

Figure 2. Dimension on which factors of resilience around the young person can be located

Getting it right for every child: 3sing t"e resilience matri* to ma$e sense of assessment information and evaluate c"ildrens needs 45649647 8 91 4

'"en considered toget"er% t"ese dimensions provide a frame#or$ for t"e assessment of adverse and positive factors in every part of t"e My World Triangle (see Figure 5)

Protective environment

Vulnerability

Resilience

Adversity
Figure . Framewor! for the assessment of resilience factors

)"e t#o dimensions #ill interact% and an increase in protective factors #ill "elp to boost a c"ilds individual resilience
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&aniel and 'assell do point out t"at resilience is a comple* issue and t"at not"ing can be ta$en for granted #"en assessing "o# resilient a c"ild is .lt"oug" pointers to resilience may be present t"ese "ave al#ays to be ta$en in t"e conte*t of an individual c"ilds situation For e*ample% some c"ildren may appear on t"e surface to be coping #ell #it" adversity% but t"ey may be feeling very stressed internally (&aniel and 'assell 2442% p 12) )"is is #"y it is important to get to $no# a c"ild during t"e process of assessment and also #"y vie#s of t"e c"ild from different adults in t"eir #orld are so valuable )"ere are many factors associated #it" resilience% but :illigan (199;) suggests t"at t"ere are t"ree fundamental building bloc$ of resilience: 1 . secure base #"ereby t"e c"ild feels a sense of belonging and security 2 :ood self esteem% t"at is an internal sense of #ort" and competence 5 . sense of self efficacy t"at is% a sense of mastery and control% along #it" an accurate understanding of personal strengt"s and limitations

"dapted from Daniel and Wassell# $2%%2& "ssessing and 'romoting (esilience in )ulnerable *hildren )ols. 1# 2 + # ,ondon + 'hiladelphia# -essica .ingsley 'ublishers ,td. /ee also0 &aniel% < % 'assell% + and :illigan% R (1999) *hild Development for *hild *are and *hild 'rotection Wor!ers% =ondon and >"iladelp"ia% ?essica @ingsley >ublis"ers =td

Getting it right for every child: 3sing t"e resilience matri* to ma$e sense of assessment information and evaluate c"ildrens needs 45649647 8 91 4

How can the resilience matrix be used in Getting it right for every child? >ractitioners #ill "ave gat"ered information around t"e My World Triangle and may also "ave more specialist information about certain aspects of an individual c"ilds #ell(being !t is important to see every c"ild in a family as an individual because eac" c"ild may e*perience t"e same conditions in a very different #ay Ane #ay practitioners "ave found "elpful to ma$e sense of t"is information and identify resilience and vulnerability% as #ell as adversity and protective factors is to ta$e a blan$ matri* and plot on t"is matri* t"e strengt"s and pressures t"e c"ild is e*periencing in relation to t"e t#o sets of factors at eac" point of t"e matri* Bello# post(its are a good #ay of #riting do#n and grouping t"e information .long t"e a*is of adversity and t"e protective environment% all t"e factors t"at provide strengt"s in t"e environment% suc" as t"e c"ild getting in #ell at sc"ool s"ould be placed from t"e centre along t"e protective environment a*is =i$e#ise% all t"e factors in t"e environment #"ic" are causing adversity% suc" as insufficient money or a dangerous neig"bour"ood s"ould be placed from t"e centre along t"e adversity a*is )"e same process can be repeated for factors #it" t"e c"ild t"at are li$ely to promote resilience and for t"ose #"ic" are ma$ing a c"ild vulnerable <elo# is t"e template for t"e blan$ (esilience Matri1

Getting it right for every child: 3sing t"e resilience matri* to ma$e sense of assessment information and evaluate c"ildrens needs 45649647 8 91 4

he Resilience !atrix for Analysing "nformation

Resilience C"aracteristics t"at en"ance normal development under difficult conditions

Adversity Protective environment =ife events or circumstances posing a t"reat to "ealt"y development Vulnerability C"aracteristics of t"e c"ild% t"e family circle and #ider community #"ic" mig"t t"reaten or c"allenge "ealt"y development Factors in t"e c"ilds environment acting as buffers to t"e negative effects of adverse e*perience

)"ere are some factors #"ic" may be bot" protective and also suggest vulnerability or adversity !n ma$ing decisions about #"ere to plot t"is information #"ere t"e meanings may be not so straig"tfor#ard% practitioners need to e*ercise Dudgement about "o# to ma$e sense of t"ese different aspects of information and #eig" t"e competing influences ?udgement #ill be needed to #eig" #"ic" factors are most important !t #ill also be "elpful to loo$ at t"e interactions bet#een factors because t"is may also be a dimension t"at influences #"et"er t"e impact is negative or positive Ance t"ese Dudgements "ave been made% it #ill be possible to see #"at needs to be done to "elp t"e c"ild and family in order to strengt"en protective factors and resilience% and reduce adversity and vulnerabilities .c"ieving small improvements is a good #ay to accumulate success rat"er t"an "aving over ambitious aims

Getting it right for every child: 3sing t"e resilience matri* to ma$e sense of assessment information and evaluate c"ildrens needs 45649647 8 91 4

Eaving plotted t"e factors on t"e matri* and given some t"oug"t to t"e c"ilds needs and possible actions% t"e needs and actions can be plotted briefly against t"e eig"t #ell(being indicators of safe% "ealt"y% ac"ieving% nurtured% active% respected% responsible and included .ction may not be needed against every indicator and t"e "elp "as to be proportionate to t"e issues identified )"is analysis t"en forms t"e basis for discussion #it" t"e c"ild% family and ot"er practitioners on #"at s"ould go into t"e C"ilds >lan )"is #ill include #"at needs to be done and #"o is going to do it Revie#ing a c"ilds progress #ill be an essential part of a c"ilds plan !n some circumstance% especially in comple* cases% it may be useful to revisit t"e (esilience Matri1 in revie#ing t"e c"ilds progress

References &aniel% < % 'assell% + and :illigan% R (1999) *hild Development for *hild *are and *hild 'rotection Wor!ers% =ondon and >"iladelp"ia% ?essica @ingsley >ublis"ers =td &aniel% < and 'assell% + (2442) "ssessing and 'romoting (esilience in )ulnerable *hildren# volumes 1# 2 and % =ondon and >"iladelp"ia% ?essica @ingsley >ublis"ers =td Fonagy% > % +teele% E % Eiggitt% . and )arget% 0 (1994) )"e 1mmanuel 0iller 0emorial =ecture 1992: )"e t"eory and practice of resilience% -ournal of *hild 'sychology and 'sychiatry# 5F% 2% 251(2F; :illigan% R (199;) <eyond >ermanenceG )"e importance of resilience in c"ild placement practice and planning% "doption and Fostering# 21%1%12(24

Getting it right for every child: 3sing t"e resilience matri* to ma$e sense of assessment information and evaluate c"ildrens needs 45649647 8 91 4