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You are on page 1of 5

Chapter 1

1-5

(a) Point vehicles

v

cars v 42.1v − v 2

Q= = =

hour x 0.324

Seek stationary point maximum

dQ 42.1 − 2v

=0= ∴ v* = 21.05 mph

dv 0.324

42.1(21.05) − 21.052

Q* = = 1368 cars/h Ans.

0.324

(b) v

l x l

2 2

−1

v 0.324 l

Q= = +

x +l v(42.1) − v 2 v

Maximize Q with l = 10/5280 mi

v Q

22.18 1221.431

22.19 1221.433

22.20 1221.435 ←

22.21 1221.435

22.22 1221.434

1368 − 1221

% loss of throughput = = 12% Ans.

1221

22.2 − 21.05

(c) % increase in speed = 5.5%

21.05

Modest change in optimal speed Ans.

budy_sm_ch01.qxd 11/21/2006 15:23 Page 2

1-6 This and the following problem may be the student’s first experience with a figure of merit.

• Formulate fom to reflect larger figure of merit for larger merit.

• Use a maximization optimization algorithm. When one gets into computer implementa-

tion and answers are not known, minimizing instead of maximizing is the largest error

one can make.

FV = F1 sin θ − W = 0

FH = −F1 cos θ − F2 = 0

From which

F1 = W/sin θ

F2 = −W cos θ/sin θ

fom = −$ = −¢γ (volume)

.

= −¢γ(l1 A1 + l2 A2 )

F1 W l1

A1 = = , l2 =

S S sin θ cos θ

F2 W cos θ

A2 = =

S S sin θ

l2 W l2 W cos θ

fom = −¢γ +

cos θ S sin θ S sin θ

−¢γ W l2 1 + cos2 θ

=

S cos θ sin θ

Set leading constant to unity

θ◦ fom

θ* = 54.736◦ Ans.

0 −∞ fom* = −2.828

20 −5.86

30 −4.04 Alternative:

40 −3.22 d 1 + cos2 θ

45 −3.00 =0

dθ cos θ sin θ

50 −2.87

54.736 −2.828 And solve resulting tran-

60 −2.886 scendental for θ*.

Check second derivative to see if a maximum, minimum, or point of inflection has been

found. Or, evaluate fom on either side of θ*.

budy_sm_ch01.qxd 11/21/2006 15:23 Page 3

Chapter 1 3

1-7

(a) x1 + x2 = X 1 + e1 + X 2 + e2

error = e = (x1 + x2 ) − ( X 1 + X 2 )

= e1 + e2 Ans.

(b) x1 − x2 = X 1 + e1 − ( X 2 + e2 )

e = (x1 − x2 ) − ( X 1 − X 2 ) = e1 − e2 Ans.

(c) x1 x2 = ( X 1 + e1 )( X 2 + e2 )

e = x1 x2 − X 1 X 2 = X 1 e2 + X 2 e1 + e1 e2

. e1 e2

= X 1 e2 + X 2 e1 = X 1 X 2 + Ans.

X1 X2

x1 X 1 + e1 X 1 1 + e1 / X 1

(d) = =

x2 X 2 + e2 X 2 1 + e2 / X 2

−1

e2 . e2 e1 e2 . e1 e2

1+ =1− and 1+ 1− =1+ −

X2 X2 X1 X2 X1 X2

x1 X 1 . X 1 e1 e2

e= − = − Ans.

x2 X2 X2 X1 X2

1-8 √

(a) x1 = 5 = 2.236 067 977 5

X 1 = 2.23 3-correct digits

√

x2 = 6 = 2.449 487 742 78

X 2 = 2.44 3-correct digits

√ √

x1 + x2 = 5 + 6 = 4.685 557 720 28

√

e1 = x1 − X 1 = 5 − 2.23 = 0.006 067 977 5

√

e2 = x2 − X 2 = 6 − 2.44 = 0.009 489 742 78

√ √

e = e1 + e2 = 5 − 2.23 + 6 − 2.44 = 0.015 557 720 28

Sum = x1 + x2 = X 1 + X 2 + e

= 2.23 + 2.44 + 0.015 557 720 28

= 4.685 557 720 28 (Checks) Ans.

√

e1 = 5 − 2.24 = −0.003 932 022 50

√

e2 = 6 − 2.45 = −0.000 510 257 22

e = e1 + e2 = −0.004 442 279 72

Sum = X 1 + X 2 + e

= 2.24 + 2.45 + (−0.004 442 279 72)

= 4.685 557 720 28 Ans.

budy_sm_ch01.qxd 11/21/2006 15:23 Page 4

1-9

(a) σ = 20(6.89) = 137.8 MPa

(b) F = 350(4.45) = 1558 N = 1.558 kN

(c) M = 1200 lbf · in (0.113) = 135.6 N · m

(d) A = 2.4(645) = 1548 mm2

(e) I = 17.4 in4 (2.54) 4 = 724.2 cm4

(f) A = 3.6(1.610) 2 = 9.332 km2

(g) E = 21(1000)(6.89) = 144.69(103 ) MPa = 144.7 GPa

(h) v = 45 mi/h (1.61) = 72.45 km/h

(i) V = 60 in3 (2.54) 3 = 983.2 cm3 = 0.983 liter

1-10

(a) l = 1.5/0.305 = 4.918 ft = 59.02 in

(b) σ = 600/6.89 = 86.96 kpsi

(c) p = 160/6.89 = 23.22 psi

(d) Z = 1.84(105 )/(25.4) 3 = 11.23 in3

(e) w = 38.1/175 = 0.218 lbf/in

(f) δ = 0.05/25.4 = 0.00197 in

(g) v = 6.12/0.0051 = 1200 ft/min

(h) = 0.0021 in/in

(i) V = 30/(0.254) 3 = 1831 in3

1-11

200

(a) σ = = 13.1 MPa

15.3

42(103 )

(b) σ = = 70(106 ) N/m2 = 70 MPa

6(10−2 ) 2

1200(800) 3 (10−3 ) 3

(c) y = = 1.546(10−2 ) m = 15.5 mm

3(207)109 (64)103 (10−3 ) 4

1100(250)(10−3 )

(d) θ = 9 4 −3 4

= 9.043(10−2 ) rad = 5.18◦

79.3(10 )(π/32)(25) (10 )

1-12

600

(a) σ = = 5 MPa

20(6)

1

(b) I = 8(24) 3 = 9216 mm4

12

π

(c) I = 324 (10−1 ) 4 = 5.147 cm4

64

16(16)

(d) τ = = 5.215(106 ) N/m2 = 5.215 MPa

π(253 )(10−3 ) 3

budy_sm_ch01.qxd 11/21/2006 15:23 Page 5

Chapter 1 5

1-13

120(103 )

(a) τ = = 382 MPa

(π/4)(202 )

32(800)(800)(10−3 )

(b) σ = = 198.9(106 ) N/m2 = 198.9 MPa

π(32) 3 (10−3 ) 3

π

(c) Z = (364 − 264 ) = 3334 mm3

32(36)

(1.6) 4 (10−3 ) 4 (79.3)(109 )

(d) k = = 286.8 N/m

8(19.2) 3 (10−3 ) 3 (32)

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