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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General:The city is one of the largest and fastest growing commercial and trading centers in the Middle-East. The city population has increased rabidly. The present populations over two million. During last years, there have been substantial increases in the number of industries, commercial establishments, parks and other recreational areas. This accelerated expansion and development of the city of Jeddah has resulted in generation of large quantities of wastewater from various sources such as residences, commercial establishments and industry. Due to the lack of a proper sewer system, the wastewater has been seeping into the ground through cesspools and septic tanks see the Fig 1. As a result, it is estimated that the groundwater levels are rising throughout Jeddah at an estimated approximate rate of half a meter per year. This problem has studied by many experts and students but in different districts in Jeddah .our study covered three affected areas namely Al-Salam, Al-Salmeeh, AlNakheel .These areas are located in the eastern sections of Jeddah and their boundaries are shown in Figure 1.1. And here a brief description for what we have seen in the studied areas. Study areas are newly developed areas (fig1.2) with mainly villas palaces and the rest is a mixture of Villas and 1-2-3 floor houses. Although the streets or roads, in some parts are narrow (1.5-2m wide), unplanned unpaved and not very easily accessible. But in general, these three districts are well-planned, wide and paved roads (some of these have been, already, repaired several times resulting large losses.) see the Fig 1.3. There are very few green areas (individual gardens or public areas see fig 1.4, 1.5). These districts are 80-85% residential and the remaining occupied by major ware houses. The western section of Al-Nakheel district consists of small shops related to food items, clothings, automobile workshops and spare part shops, etc. The rise of groundwater level at these areas has caused environmental and technical problems as well as potential health hazards. The problem has been most acute in Al-

Nakheel District and to a lesser degree; Al-Salmeh and Al-salam are also affected with the problems resulting from rising groundwater levels. The main damaging

consequences of rising water table have been the inundation of low lying areas, the flooding of the basements of houses, deterioration of roads and highways and the foundations of the buildings, the contamination of the soil, offensive smells and breeding of mosquitoes (figs 1.6, 1.7 , 1.8).

1.2 Objectives:There are numerous complaints from some residents in Jeddah especially in these three districts and many articles(in recent years) appearing in the local newspapers about the smelly water, flooding of the basements, settlement of roads, unsafe and hazardous conditions (see Figs 1.6, 1.7 , 1.8). Actually, the problem of the high ground water levels was discussed at a number of meetings by experts. Also a report on ground water problem was submitted to Jeddah municipality by a Dutch team. But we hope our report will be valuable too. This study attempts to investigate and reveals the level and causes of pollution at the mentioned districts and Investigation of causes of the rise in water table elevation for the study areas . Impact of construction on the selected areas and assessing their effects on soil percolation. . Solution of this hazard problem. So sampling and analysis program were carried out in order to find out whether the parameter of water and soil are within the water quality ranges or not.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
Acknowledgment Table of contents List of tables List of figures

Page
I II V VII

CHAPTER 1
1.1 1.2 1.3

INTRODUCTION
General Objectives Scope of the Project

1 1 2 12 14 14 15 15 20 20 20 21

CHAPTER 2
2.1

EXPERIMENTAL WORK
Soils
2.1.1 Materials 2.1.2 Sieve Analysis 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 Hydrometer Analysis Specific Gravity Classification of Soils Liquid Limit , Plastic limit ,

Shrinkage limit and Plasticity Index (Atteberg Limits) 2.1.7 Moisture Content 2.1.8 Salt Contents

21 21 22 22 23

2.2

Groundwater and Tap Water


2.2.1 Materials 2.2.2 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

III

2.2.3 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 2.2.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 Phosphorous Ammonia nitrogen Nitrates Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Temperature

23 23 24 24 25 28 29 29 30 31 32 32

2.2.10 Total Coliform 2.2.11 PH 2.2.12 Chloride

CHAPTER 3
3.1

TEST RESULTS
Test Results of Soils
3.1.1 Sieve Analysis 3.1.2 Hydrometer Analysis 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 Specific Gravity Atterberg Limits Moisture content Salt Contents

32 32 32 32 32 32
32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 54 54

3.2

Test Results of Ground Water and Tap Water


3.2.1 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 3.2.2 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 3.2.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 3.2.4 Phosphorous 3.2.5 Ammonia Nitrogen 3.2.6 Nitrates 3.2.7 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 3.2.8 Temperature 3.2.9 Total Coliform 3.2.10 pH 3.2.11 Chloride

CHAPTER 4
4.1

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


Ground Water

IV

4.1.1 Physical Parameter 4.1.2 Dissolved Oxygen 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 Total Suspended Soils Ammonia Nitrogen Phosphorous (BOD) and (COD) Chloride

57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 88 89 90

4.1.8 Total Coliform

4.2

Tap Water
4.2.1 Nitrate 4.2.2 Phosphorous 4.2.3 Total Coliform 4.2.4 Chloride

CHAPTVER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 5.2 Conclusions Recommendations

REFERENCES APPENDIXES
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Sieve Analysis Data Specific Gravity Data Classification of Soil Data Moisture Content Data Salt Content Data

91 106 116 123 133