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Node Elimination by Matrix Partitioning Node Elimination by Kron Reduction Inclusion of Line Charging Capacitors

Consider the voltage source VS with a source (series) impedance of ZS as shown in Fig. 3.1 (a). Using Norton's theorem this circuit can be replaced by a current source IS with a parallel admittance of YS as shown in Fig. 3.1 (b). The relations between the original system and the Norton equivalent are

We shall use this Norton's theorem for the formulation of the Ybus matrix.

Fig. 3.1 (a) Voltage source with a source impedance and (b) its Norton equivalent.

For the time being we shall assume the short line approximation for the formulation of the bus admittance matrix. We shall thereafter relax this assumption and use the -representation of the network for power flow studies. Consider the 4-bus power system shown in Fig. 3.2. This contains two generators G1 and G2 that are connected through transformers T1 and T2 to buses 1 and 2. Let us denote the synchronous reactances of G1 and G2 by XG1 and XG2 respectively and the leakage reactances of T1 and T2 by XT1 and XT2 respectively. Let Zij, i = 1, ..., 4 and j = 1, ... , 4 denote the line impedance between buses i and j .

Then the system impedance diagram is as shown in Fig. 3.3 where Z11 = j ( XG1 + XT1 ) and Z22 = j ( XG2 + XT2 ).

In this figure the nodes with the node voltages of V1 to V4 indicate the buses 1 to 4 respectively. Bus 0 indicates the reference node that is usually the neutral of the Y-connected system. The impedance diagram is converted into an equivalent admittance diagram shown in Fig. 3.4. In this diagram Yij = 1/ Zij , i = 1,..., 4 and j = 1, ... , 4. The voltage sources EG1 and EG2 are converted into the equivalent current sources I1 and I2 respectively using the Norton's theorem discussed before.

We would like to determine the voltage-current relationships of the network shown in Fig. 3.4. It is to be noted that this relation can be written in terms of the node (bus) voltages V1 to V4 and

(3.3)

(3.4)

or, It can be easily seen that we get (3.1) from (3.3) and (3.4). Consider node (bus) 1 that is connected to the nodes 2 and 3. Then applying KCL at this node we

(3.5) get

(3.6)

(3.7)

(3.8) In a similar way application of KCL at nodes 2, 3 and 4 results in the following equations

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.11)

(3.12)

Sometimes it is desirable to reduce the network by eliminating the nodes in which the current do

In the above equation IA is a vector containing the currents that are injected, Ix is a null vector and the Ybus matrix is portioned with the matrices K , L and M . Note that the Ybus matrix contains both T L and L due to its symmetric nature.

(3.14) (3.15) We get the following two sets of equations from (3.13)

(3.16)

Example 3.2

Let us consider the system of Example 3.1. Since there is no current injection in either bus 3 or bus 4, from the Ybus computed we can write

We then have

per unit Substituting I1 = 460 per unit and I2 = 490 per unit we shall get the same values of V1 and V2 as given in Example 3.1. Inspecting the reduced Ybus matrix we can state that the admittance between buses 1 and 2 is - j 6.8978. Therefore the self admittance (the admittance that is connected in shunt) of the buses 1 and 2 is - j4 per unit (= - j 10.8978 + j 6.8978). The reduced admittance diagram obtained by eliminating nodes 3 and 4 is shown in Fig. 3.5. It is to be noted that the impedance between buses 1 and 2 is the Thevenin impedance between these two buses. The value of this impedance is 1/( - j 6.8978) = j 0.145 per unit.

Fig. 3.5 Reduced admittance diagram after the elimination of buses 3 and 4.

Adding a New Bus to the Reference Bus Adding a New Bus to an Existing Bus through an Impedance Adding an Impedance to the Reference Bus from an Existing Bus Adding an Impedance between two Existing Buses Direct Determination of Zbus Matrix

Equation (3.1) gives the relation between the bus impedance and admittance matrices. However it may be possible that the topology of the power system changes by the inclusion of a new bus or line. In that case it is not necessary to recompute the Ybus matrix again for the formation of Zbus matrix. We shall discuss four possible cases by which an existing bus impedance matrix can be modified. Let us assume that an n -bus power system exists in which the voltage-current relations are given in

The aim is to modify the matrix Zorig when a new bus or line is connected to the power system.

It is assumed that a new bus p ( p > n ) is added to the reference bus through an impedance Zp . The schematic diagram for this case is shown in Fig. 3.7. Since this bus is only connected to the reference

(3.31)

This is the case when a bus, which has not been a part of the original network, is added to an existing bus through a transmission line with an impedance of Zb . Let us assume that p ( p > n ) is the new bus that is connected to bus k ( k < n ) through Zb. Then the schematic diagram of the circuit is as shown in Fig. 3.8. Note from this figure that the current Ip flowing from bus p will alter the voltage of the bus k . We

(3.33) In a similar way the current Ip will also alter the voltages of all the other buses as

(3.35)

To accomplish this we first assume that an impedance Zb is added from a new bus p to an existing bus k . This can be accomplished using the method discussed in Section 3.3.2. Then to add this bus k to the reference bus through Zb, we set the voltage Vp of the new bus to zero. However now we have an ( n + 1) X ( n + 1) Z bus matrix instead of an n X n matrix. We can then remove the last row and last column of the new Zbus matrix using the Kron's reduction given in (3.21).

Let us assume that we add an impedance Zb between two existing buses k and j as shown in Fig. 3.9. Therefore the current injected into the network from the bus k side will be Ik - Ib instead of Ik. Similarly the current injected into the network from the bus j side will be Ij + Ib instead of Ij. Consequently the th voltage of the i bus will be

(3.36)

and (3.38)

We shall now have to eliminate Ib from the above equations. To do that we note from Fig. 3.9 that (3.39) Substituting (3.37) and (3.38) in (3.39) we get

(3.40)

(3.41)

where (3.42)

We shall now use the methods given in Sections 3.3.1 to 3.3.4 for the direct determination of the Zbus matrix without forming the Ybus matrix first. To accomplish this we shall consider the system of Fig. 3.2 and shall use the system data given in Example 3.1. Note that for the construction of the Z bus matrix we first eliminate all the voltage sources from the system. Step-1 : Start with bus-1. Assume that no other buses or lines exist in the system. We add this bus to the

(3.43) reference bus with the impedance of j 0.25 per unit. Then the Zbus matrix is

Step-2 : We now add bus-2 to the reference bus using (3.31). The system impedance diagram is shown

Step-3 : We now add an impedance of j 0.2 per unit between buses 1 and 2 as shown in Fig. 3.11. The

(3.45) Eliminating the last row and last column using the Kron's reduction of (3.31) we get

Step-4 : We now add bus-3 to bus-1 through an impedance of j 0.25 per unit as shown in Fig. 3.12. The application of (3.35) on (3.45) will then result in the following matrix

(3.46)

Step-5 : Connect buses 2 and 3 through an impedance of j 0.4 per unit as shown in Fig. 3.13. The interim Zbus matrix is then formed from (3.41) and (3.46) as

Step-6 : We now add a new bus-4 to bus-2 through an impedance of j 0.5 as shown in Fig. 3.14. Then

(3.48)

Step-7 : Finally we add buses 3 and 4 through an impedance of j 0.4 to obtain the network of Fig. 3.3

minus the voltage sources. The application of (3.41) on (3.48) results in the interim Zbus matrix of

(3.49)

Eliminating the 5 row and column through Kron's reduction we get the final Zbus as

th

The Zbus matrix given in (3.49) is the as that given in Example 3.1 which is obtained by inverting the Ybus

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