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AV 472 Embedded Systems and RTOS

B. S. Manoj ES Lecture-1

General Updates
Course website will soon be setup
Same as your other courses

General Plan on how to proceed


Mondays: Myself Thursdays:
1st Hour: Priyadarshanam 2nd Hour: Project Discussions/Tutorials/etc Comup with project ideas if you have any
You may use your preferred hardware and softwares As long as you accomplish something as part of the project Those who publish some new ideas may be given extra credits Joint projects with other course are possible Good embedded systems component is required

Otherwise, we may give you a project idea

Definitions of Embedded System: Raj Kamal


An embedded system is a system that has software embedded into computer-hardware, which makes a system dedicated for an application (s) or specific part of an application or product or part of a larger system. An embedded system is one that has a dedicated purpose software embedded in a computer hardware. It is a dedicated computer based system for an application(s) or product. It may be an independent system or a part of large system.

Other (better) definitions


Wayne Wolf
It is any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself intended to be a general purpose computer.

Todd D. Morton
Embedded Systems are the electronic systems that contain a microprocessor or a microcontroller, but we do not think of them as computers the computer is hidden or embedded in the system.

Examples of Embedded Systems

A Brief comparison
General Purpose Computer
One or more Microprocessor(s) Large primary memory
RAM, ROM, multiple levels of Caches

Embedded System
Microcontroller/Microprocessor Mostly only one memory
Typically no secondary memory Some ESs have secondary memory

Secondary memory
HDD, Semiconductor memory, TAPE etc

Input device
Mouse, touch pad/screen, Keyboard, scanner etc

Main application software is in Flash or ROM Input devices


Very specific to the application domain of the system

Output device
LCD/LED display, touch screen, printer,

Output device
Specific to the application domain Most dont have a visual display

General purpose softwares


OS, General Application softwares, Communication softwares, GUIs etc.

Application specific softwares


OS: Real-time OS
Prioritizes the resource access meets timing constraints of the system

Other application-specific softwares

Why Embedded Systems Design is Challenging?


Limited system-memory
Few KBs to few GBs (in comparison to GBs to TBs)

Limited processing power (far less than general purpose processors)


Few KHz to MHz (in comparison to several GHz)

Limited power source (most applications)


Milliwatt-hour to a Few watt-hours

Limited form factor


Few CM2 area and much smaller

Limited heat dissipation possibility


During long cycles of start, wait, process input, produce output, sleep, and stop cycles

Non-recurring Design costs

Week-1 assignment
List 2-3 strangest embedded systems that you know If you dont know, try finding out some and list.
Submission through Web. Will be updated later.

We covered
Definitions of Embedded Systems
Comparison of Embedded Systems and General purpose computing Systems