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1. Speaking - Discuss your answers to the following questions with your partner. ● Have you
  • 1. Speaking - Discuss your answers to the following questions with your partner.

Have you ever broken a bone? How did you do it?

When was the last time you had an x-ray taken? Why?

Have you ever dislocated your shoulder?

Do you consume a lot of calcium in your diet?

  • 2. Vocabulary development - Match the words on the left to the meanings on the right.

    • a. 1. the head bones, including the cranium and mandible

vertebra

  • b. 2. a break

ligaments

  • c. 3. one of the bones of the spinal column

skeleton

  • d. 4. soft tissue found in the interior of bones

skull

  • e. 5. the framework of bones that supports the body

cartilage

  • f. calcium

6. a bone disease where bones become brittle and fragile

  • g. 7. a firm, flexible connective tissue covering joints

marrow

  • h. detoxification

8. fibrous tissue that connects bones together

  • i. fracture

9. the chemical element essential for bones and teeth

  • j. osteoporosis

10. the removal of harmful substances from the body

  • 3. Speaking and Reading - Discuss the following statements with your partner and decide if they are true or false. Read the article on page 2 and check your answers.

    • 1. There are slightly less than 200 bones in the body of an average adult.

    • 2. Bones are held together with ligaments, tendons, muscles and joints.

    • 3. The skull is one large single bone.

    • 4. There are thirty-three rib bones.

    • 5. Vertebrae are cushioned by cartilage.

    • 6. The foot is the boniest part of the body.

    • 7. The skull is the strongest bone in the body.

    • 8. The smallest bone in the body is located in the middle ear.

    • 9. Bones mainly consist of carbon.

      • 10. Bones play a part in detoxification.

      • 11. The most commonly broken bone is in the foot.

      • 12. An open fracture is one which breaks the surface of the skin.

Medical English - Reading & Speaking - Skeletons & Bones

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the English

1. Speaking - Discuss your answers to the following questions with your partner. ● Have you

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Them bones, them bones ... The average adult has between 206 and 350 bones in their
Them bones, them bones ... The average adult has between 206 and 350 bones in their
Them bones, them bones ... The average adult has between 206 and 350 bones in their
Them bones, them bones ... The average adult has between 206 and 350 bones in their

Them bones, them bones ...

The average adult has between 206 and 350 bones in their body. The number of bones varies from person to person depending on such factors as age and anatomical variations. Some people, for example, may have an extra rib and others may have an extra lumbar vertebra.

Types of bones

There are five types of bones; long bones which are longer than they are wide, short bones which are as wide as they are tall, flat bones are thin and generally curved, including the sternum (breastbone) and the scapula (shoulder blade), irregular bones, such as the vertebrae, which have complicated shapes, and sesamoid bones which are embedded in tendons. All these bones, held together by ligaments, tendons, muscles and joints, make your skeletal form.

The skeleton

The skeleton can be divided into two parts; the axial skeleton and the

mandible. The bones of the chest protect the heart and lungs and consist of the sternum and 24 ribs. The trunk is supported by the spinal column (backbone) which has 33 vertebrae cushioned by discs of cartilage.

protecting the

brain. Bones,

interacting with muscles, allow the

body to move. Marrow, located in the hollow interior of bones, produces blood cells. Bones are a

store

of

minerals, particularly

calcium and phosphorus. Bones play

The appendicular skeleton consists

The smallest

a role in detoxification and pH balance of the blood. Finally, the

of 126 bones and includes all the

ossicle bones

transmit sound to the

bones of the shoulder, arm, hand,

inner ear.

pelvis, leg and foot. The boniest part of the body is the hand followed by

Bad breaks

the foot. There are 27 bones in each hand and 26 bones in each foot. The longest and strongest bone in the body is the femur, the thigh bone.

Broken bones can occur as a result of injury or certain diseases such as osteoporosis. The most common bone fracture for people under 65 years of age is the wrist, while the over 65s most commonly break the

The smallest bone in the body is

hip bone. In a complete fracture the

called the stapes

and

is

located in

bone breaks into two or more

the middle ear. There are three bones in the middle ear which are called the ossicles, meaning little bones. Measuring just 2.6 - 3.4mm and weighing only 2 - 4.3mg the stapes is also known as the stirrup due to its shape.

pieces. In an incomplete fracture the bone does not break all the way across. In an open fracture the broken bone pierces the surface of the skin, while in closed fractures it does not.

The function

appendicular skeleton.

Formed

mostly

 

of

calcium

phosphate

there

are

main

eight

The axial skeleton consists of 80

functions

of

bones.

As

well

as

bones of the head and trunk. There

providing structural support for the

are 26 bones in the skull which

body

they

also

protect

internal

consists of both the cranium and the

organs,

such

as

the

cranium

Medical English - Reading & Speaking - Skeletons & Bones

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the English
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4. Reading - comprehension check. Read the article on page 2 and answer the following questions.
  • 4. Reading - comprehension check. Read the article on page 2 and answer the following questions.

    • a. What factors influence the number of bones in a person’s body?

    • b. What are the characteristics of the five different bone types?

    • c. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeletons?

    • d. What is the collective name of the bones in the middle ear? What is their function?

    • e. What are bones predominantly made of?

    • f. What are the functions of bones?

    • g. Which are the most commonly broken bones?

    • h. What is the difference between a complete and an incomplete fracture?

  • 5. Reading - What do the following numbers refer to?

  • 5

    350

    27

    8

    4.3

    26

    80

    126

    33

    3.4

    • 6. Vocabulary development - Match the list of bones a- h to their definitions 1- 8.

      • a. 1. the shoulder blade

    vertebra

    • b. 2. the main head bone

    sternum

    • c. 3. the bone of the middle ear shaped like a stirrup

    scapula

    • d. 4. the breastbone

    cranium

    mandible

    • e. 5. the thigh bone

    • f. 6. one of the thirty-three bones that make up the spinal cord

    rib

    • g. 7. one of the twenty-four bones that protects the chest

    femur

    • h. 8. the bone of the lower jaw

    stapes

    Medical English - Reading & Speaking - Skeletons & Bones

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    4. Reading - comprehension check. Read the article on page 2 and answer the following questions.

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    Reading - Skeletons & Bones - Teacher’s notes – Procedure and Answers

    This is a reading skills lesson, providing vocabulary practice. Timing = 90+ minutes.

    • 1. Exercise 1, page 1 - Discussion. Students work in pairs or small groups to discuss their answers to the questions. Conduct class feedback, eliciting any interesting information or stories. Do not conduct a correction session.

    • 2. Exercise 2, page 1 - Vocabulary. Individually, students match the words numbered a-j to their definitions 1-10. They may use dictionaries to help with unfamiliar words. Students check their answers in pairs. Conduct class feedback. All the words relate to bones and appear in the reading text on page 2.

    • 3. Exercise 3, page 1 - Pre-reading task. Students work in pairs and decide if the twelve statements about bones are true or false. If they don’t know an answer they can either guess or just leave it and move on.

    • 4. Page 2 - Reading. Give each student a copy of the reading passage on page 2. Students read the article and check their answers to exercise 3, page 1. Once finished students check their answers with their partner. Conduct class feedback

    • 5. Exercise 4, page 3 - Reading comprehension. Individually students answer questions a-h referring to the text. As they have already read the passage once this exercise encourages the reading skill of scanning. You may want to set a time limit on this exercise to further encourage this reading sub-skill. Students check their answers in pairs. Conduct class feedback.

    • 6. Exercise 5, page 3. Go through this exercise as a whole class, eliciting answers from around the class.

    • 7. Exercise 6, page 3 - Vocabulary. Individually, students match the words numbered a-h to their definitions 1-8. All the words are names of bones and appear in the text on page 2. Students check their answers in pairs. Conduct class feedback and elicit any more names of bones the students might know, e.g. ulna, incus, patella, etc.

    Answers

    Exercise 2, Page 1 - Vocabulary

    a. 3.

    b. 8.

    c. 5.

    d. 1.

    e. 7.

    Exercise 3, Page 2 - Reading - true or false

    • 1. false - there are between 205 and 350 bones

    • 2. true

    • 3. false - there are 26 bones in the skull

    • 4. false - there are 24 ribs and 33 vertebrae

    • 5. true

    • 6. false - the hand has the most bones

    Exercise 4, Page 3 - Reading comprehension

    f. 9.

    g. 4.

    h. 10.

    i. 2.

    j. 6.

    7. false - the femur (thigh bone) is the strongest 8. true 9. false - bones mainly consist of calcium phosphate 10. true 11. false - for under 65s the wrist, for over 65s the hip 12. true

    • a. The number of bones in the body is influenced by such factors as age and anatomical variations.

    • b. Long bones are longer than they are wide / short bones are as wide as they are tall / flat bones are thin and generally

    curved / irregular bones have complicated shapes / sesamoid bones are embedded in tendons.

    • c. The axial skeleton is comprised of the bones of the head and trunk while the appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the shoulder, arm, hand, pelvis, leg and foot.

    • d. There are three bones of the middle ear, collectively known as ossicles. Their purpose is to transmit sound to the inner ear.

    • e. Bones are predominantly made of calcium phosphate.

    • f. There are eight functions of bones - structural support, protection, movement, blood cell production, mineral storage,

    detoxification, pH balance, sound transduction.

    • g. Among the under 65 year olds the most commonly broken bone is the wrist bone. For the over 65s the most commonly

    broken bone is the hip bone.

    • h. A complete fracture is one in which the bone breaks into separate pieces while in an incomplete fracture the bone does not

    break all the way across.

    Medical English - Reading & Speaking - Skeletons & Bones

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    Reading - Skeletons & Bones - Teacher’s notes – Procedure and Answers This is a reading

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    Reading - Skeletons & Bones - Teacher’s notes – Procedure and Answers

    Answers

    Exercise 5, Page 3 - Numbers 5 - there are 5 bones types - long, short,
    Exercise 5, Page 3 - Numbers
    5 - there are 5 bones types - long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
    350 - the maximum number of bones in an adult body
    27 - the number of bones in each hand
    8 - there are 8 functions of bones
    4.3 - the maximum weight, in milligrammes, of the stapes bone
    26 - the number of bones in the skull and the number of bones in the foot
    80 - the number of bones in the axial skeleton
    126 - the number of bones in the appendicular skeleton
    33 - the number of vertebrae that make the spinal column
    3.4 - the maximum length, in millimetres, of the stapes bone

    Exercise 6, Page 3 - Vocabulary

    a. 6.

    b. 4.

    c. 1.

    d. 2.

    e. 8.

    f. 7.

    g. 5.

    h. 3.

    Further development Medical Crosswords - Skeletons & Bones - Advanced, complements this lesson.

    Medical English - Reading & Speaking - Skeletons & Bones

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    Reading - Skeletons & Bones - Teacher’s notes – Procedure and Answers Answers Exercise 5, Page

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