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24: nuLrlLlon & MeLabollsm

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A. A nuLrlenL ls used by Lhe body Lo promoLe normal growLh and developmenL. 1hose caLegorlzed as ma[or
nuLrlenLs are carbohydraLes, llplds, and proLelns, vlLamlns and mlnerals are mlcronuLrlenLs (p. 911, llg.
24.1).
8. CarbohydraLes conslsL of sugars (monosaccharldes and dlsaccharldes) from frulLs, sugarcane, sugar beeLs,
honey, and mllk, and polysaccharldes from gralns, frulLs, and vegeLables (p. 912, 1able 24.1).
1. Clucose ls used by Lhe body as fuel for Lhe reacLlons LhaL synLheslze A1, and ls requlred by neurons
and red blood cells.
C. 1he mosL abundanL dleLary llplds are Lrlglycerldes, or neuLral faLs, and may be saLuraLed-derlved from
anlmal sources, coconuL olls, and hydrogenaLed shorLenlngs (Lrans faLs)-or unsaLuraLed-derlved from
planL sources (pp. 912-913, 1able 24.1).
1. LssenLlal faLLy aclds llnolelc acld and llnolenlc acld cannoL be made by Lhe body, so Lhese musL be
consumed ln Lhe dleL.
2. CholesLerol ls found ln egg yolk, meaLs, organ meaLs, shellflsh, and mllk, buL abouL 83 of Lhe body's
cholesLerol ls made by Lhe llver.
3. Llplds help Lhe body absorb faL-soluble vlLamlns, serve as a cellular fuel, are an lnLegral componenL of
myelln sheaLhs and cell membranes, form adlpose Llssues, and serve as regulaLory molecules.
u. roLelns LhaL have all essenLlal amlno aclds are compleLe proLelns, and are found ln eggs, mllk, flsh, and
meaLs, proLelns LhaL are low or lacklng ln one or more of Lhe essenLlal amlno aclds are lncompleLe, and
are found ln legumes, nuLs, and cereals (pp. 914-913, llg. 24.2, 1able 24.1).
1. roLelns are lmporLanL sLrucLural and funcLlonal molecules ln Lhe body.
2. 1he amlno aclds from proLelns may be used for synLhesls of new molecules, or may be burned for
energy.
3. PealLhy raLes of proLeln synLhesls requlre a homeosLaLlcally regulaLed nlLrogen balance, whlch
compares Lhe raLe of lncorporaLlon of new proLelns lnLo Llssue Lo Lhe raLe of proLeln breakdown Lo
supply energy demands.
L. vlLamlns are mlcronuLrlenLs LhaL mosLly serve as coenzymes, many of whlch are noL made by Lhe body
and musL be consumed (pp. 913-916, 1able 24.2).
1. vlLamlns A, u, L, and k are faL soluble, and are absorbed when bound Lo lngesLed llplds.
2. WaLer-soluble vlLamlns, such as 8-complex vlLamlns and vlLamln C, are absorbed along wlLh waLer ln
Lhe gasLrolnLesLlnal LracL.
l. Mlnerals are used by Lhe body Lo work wlLh oLher molecules, may be lncorporaLed lnLo Llssues Lo glve
added sLrengLh, or may be lonlzed ln body flulds or bound Lo organlc compounds (pp. 917-918, 1able
24.3). ModeraLe amounLs of seven mlnerals are requlred by Lhe body: calclum, phosphorus, poLasslum,
sulfur, sodlum, chlorlne, and magneslum.

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A. MeLabollc processes are elLher anabollc, ln whlch larger molecules are synLheslzed from smaller ones, or
caLabollc, ln whlch large molecules are broken down Lo slmpler ones (pp. 918-920, llg. 24.3).
8. CxldaLlon-reducLlon reacLlons are coupled reacLlons LhaL lnvolve Lhe Lransfer of elecLrons from one
molecule Lo anoLher, resulLlng ln a Lransfer of energy beLween molecules (pp. 920-921).
1. ln Lhe body, oxldaLlon-reducLlon reacLlons are enzyme-caLalyzed reacLlons requlrlng speclflc
coenzymes LhaL Lransfer Lhe energy conLalned ln food fuels Lo oLher molecules, ulLlmaLely leadlng Lo
Lhe synLhesls of A1 from Au.
C. A1 synLhesls may occur Lhrough Lwo mechanlsms: subsLraLe-level phosphorylaLlon, ln whlch hlgh-energy
phosphaLe groups are Lransferred dlrecLly from phosphorylaLed subsLraLes Lo Au, or oxldaLlve
phosphorylaLlon, ln whlch some energy from food fuels ls used Lo creaLe a proLon gradlenL LhaL ls used Lo
aLLach phosphaLes Lo Au (pp. 921-922, llgs. 24.4-24.3).
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A. CarbohydraLe MeLabollsm (pp. 922-930, llgs. 24.6-24.13, 1able 24.4)
1. Clucose enLers Lhe cell by faclllLaLed dlffuslon, and ls phosphorylaLed Lo glucose-6-phosphaLe,
essenLlally Lrapplng glucose wlLhln Lhe cell.
2. Clucose enLers glycolysls, an anaeroblc process LhaL occurs ln Lhe cyLosol.
a. 1he flnal producLs of Lhls serles of reacLlons are Lwo pyruvlc acld molecules, Lwo molecules of
nAuP, and four molecules of A1, alLhough Lwo A1s were consumed aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe
process.
3. 1he Lwo pyruvlc acld molecules can follow Lwo dlsLlncL paLhways, dependlng on Lhe avallablllLy of
oxygen.
a. lf adequaLe oxygen ls presenL ln Lhe cell, glycolysls conLlnues, and nAuP dellvers lLs elecLrons Lo
Lhe elecLron LransporL chaln.
b. lf Lhere ls noL adequaLe oxygen avallable, nAuP reLurns lLs hydrogen Lo pyruvlc acld, formlng lacLlc
acld, whlch allows nAu
+
Lo conLlnue Lo acL as an elecLron accepLor.
c. Cnce enough oxygen ls avallable wlLhln Lhe cell, lacLlc acld ls oxldlzed back Lo pyruvlc acld and
enLers aeroblc paLhways.
4. ln aeroblc paLhways, pyruvlc acld ls LransporLed lnLo Lhe mlLochondrlon, where lL enLers Lhe krebs
cycle.
a. yruvlc acld ls converLed Lo aceLyl CoA by removlng a carbon and addlng coenzyme A.
b. AceLyl CoA enLers Lhe krebs cycle, where lL proceeds Lhrough elghL successlve sLeps LhaL produce a
serles of keLoaclds, ulLlmaLely endlng aL Lhe producLlon of oxaloaceLlc acld.
c. 1he neL yleld of Lhe krebs cycle ls four molecules of CC
2
, slx molecules of nAuP, Lwo molecules of
lAuP
2
, and Lwo molecules of A1 per palr of aceLyl CoA molecules LhaL were produced from
glucose.
3. 1he elecLron LransporL chaln ls Lhe oxygen-requlrlng process of aeroblc resplraLlon lnvolvlng Lhe
plckup of hydrogens removed from food fuels durlng oxldaLlon by C
2
, resulLlng ln Lhe formaLlon of
waLer, a process called oxldaLlve phosphorylaLlon.
6. 8ecause Lhe cell cannoL sLore large amounLs of A1, oLher processes are used Lo handle glucose ln
excess of whaL can be used ln A1 synLheLlc paLhways.
a. Clycogenesls ls a process LhaL forms glycogen from glucose when hlgh cellular A1 beglns Lo
lnhlblL glycolysls.
b. Clycogenolysls ls a process LhaL breaks down glycogen Lo glucose when blood glucose levels begln
Lo fall.
c. Cluconeogenesls ls a process LhaL forms glucose from nonglucose molecules Lo malnLaln blood
glucose when dleLary sources and glucose reserves begln Lo be depleLed.
8. Llpld MeLabollsm (pp. 930-932, llgs. 24.14-24.13, 1able 24.4)
1. Llplds are Lhe body's mosL concenLraLed source of energy, produclng approxlmaLely Lwlce Lhe energy
of elLher carbohydraLes or proLelns.
2. CaLabollsm of Lrlglycerldes lnvolves Lhe spllLLlng of Lhe molecule lnLo glycerol and faLLy aclds: Lhe
glycerol porLlon ls converLed Lo glyceraldehyde phosphaLe, whlch enLers lnLo glycolysls, and Lhe faLLy
aclds are converLed Lo aceLyl CoA Lhrough beLa oxldaLlon.
3. Llpogenesls ls a process used Lo sLore excess glycerol and faLLy aclds ln adlpose Llssue as Lrlglycerldes.
4. Llpolysls ls a process LhaL breaks down sLored Lrlglycerldes lnLo glycerol and faLLy aclds, Lo be dlrecLed
lnLo llpld caLabollsm.
C. roLeln MeLabollsm (pp. 932-934, llg. 24.16, 1able 24.4)
1. 8efore amlno aclds can be oxldlzed for energy, Lhey musL have Lhe amlne group removed, a process
called deamlnaLlon.
2. 1he deamlnaLed amlno acld molecule ls converLed Lo pyruvlc acld, or a krebs cycle keLoacld
lnLermedlaLe.
3. ueamlnaLed amlno aclds may also be reconverLed Lo glucose and conLrlbuLe Lo gluconeogenesls.
4. Amlno aclds are Lhe mosL lmporLanL anabollc nuLrlenL, and can be used Lo synLheslze sLrucLural and
funcLlonal proLelns of Lhe body.
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A. CaLabollc-Anabollc SLeady SLaLe of Lhe 8ody (pp. 933-936, llgs. 24.17-24.18, 1able 24.3)
1. 1here ls a dynamlc caLabollc-anabollc sLaLe of Lhe body as molecules are broken down and rebullL.
2. 1he body draws molecules Lo meeL Lhese needs from varlous nuLrlenL pools: amlno acld,
carbohydraLe, and faL sLores.
8. uurlng Lhe absorpLlve sLaLe, anabollsm exceeds caLabollsm (pp. 936-938, llgs. 24.19-24.20).
1. All absorbed monosaccharldes are made lnLo glucose by Lhe llver, and released Lo Lhe blood or
converLed Lo glycogen or faL.
2. MosL faLs enLer Lhe lymph as chylomlcrons, whlch are broken down Lo glycerol and faLLy aclds Lo
enable Lhem Lo pass lnLo caplllarles.
a. Adlpose cells, skeleLal and cardlac muscle cells, and Lhe llver use Lrlglycerldes Lo synLheslze plasma
proLelns, whlle mosL amlno aclds passlng Lhrough Lhe llver remaln ln Lhe blood for upLake by oLher
body cells.
C. ln Lhe posLabsorpLlve sLaLe, neL synLhesls of faL, glycogen, and proLelns ends, and Lhe body shlfLs Lo
caLabollsm of Lhese molecules (pp. 938-941, llgs. 24.21-24.22, 1able 24.6).
1. 8lood glucose ls obLalned by promoLlng glycogenolysls ln Lhe llver and skeleLal muscle, llpolysls ln Lhe
llver and adlpose Llssues, and caLabollsm of cellular proLeln.
2. lf Lhe body experlences prolonged fasLlng, lL wlll enLer glucose sparlng, whlch ls almed aL
conservaLlon of blood glucose by promoLlng lncreased use of noncarbohydraLe fuel molecules,
especlally Lrlglycerldes.
a. 1he braln conLlnues Lo use glucose, unless fasLlng conLlnues for longer Lhan four or flve days, aL
whlch Llme lL beglns Lo use keLone bodles as an alLernaLe fuel source.
3. Pormonal conLrols of Lhe posLabsorpLlve sLaLe lnhlblL Lhe release of lnsulln and promoLe release of
glucagon, whlch sLlmulaLes a rlse ln blood glucose level by causlng enhanced glycogenolysls, llpolysls,
and gluconeogenesls.
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A. CholesLerol MeLabollsm and 8egulaLlon of 8lood CholesLerol Levels (pp. 943-944, llg. 24.23)
1. CholesLerol ls LransporLed ln Lhe blood bound Lo llpoproLeln complexes, whlch solublllze llplds and
regulaLe enLry and exlL aL speclflc LargeL cells.
2. LlpoproLeln complexes vary ln Lhe percenLage of llpld Lhey conLaln, buL all conLaln Lrlglycerldes,
phosphollplds, and cholesLerol, ln addlLlon Lo proLeln.
3. 1he greaLer Lhe proporLlon of llpld ln Lhe llpoproLeln, Lhe lower lLs denslLy, and Lhere are very-low-
denslLy llpoproLelns (vLuLs), low-denslLy llpoproLelns (LuLs), and hlgh-denslLy llpoproLelns (PuLs).
a. vLuLs LransporL Lrlglycerldes from Lhe llver Lo perlpheral Llssues, LuLs LransporL cholesLerol Lo
perlpheral Llssues, and PuLs LransporL excess cholesLerol from perlpheral Llssues Lo Lhe llver and
provlde cholesLerol Lo sLerold-produclng organs.
4. Plgh levels of PuL are consldered beneflclal, as Lhe cholesLerol Lhey conLaln ls bound for removal, buL
hlgh levels of LuL are consldered a rlsk, because Lhe cholesLerol Lhey conLaln may be lald down on
vessel walls, formlng plaques.
3. 8lood levels of cholesLerol are parLly regulaLed Lhrough negaLlve feedback, and a hlgh lnLake of
cholesLerol wlll somewhaL lnhlblL cholesLerol synLhesls by Lhe llver.
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A. 1here ls a balance beLween Lhe body's energy lnLake, deflned as Lhe energy produced durlng food
oxldaLlon, and energy ouLpuL, whlch lncludes energy losL as heaL, used Lo do work, or sLored as faL or
glycogen (pp. 944-943).
1. When energy lnLake and energy ouLpuL are balanced, body welghL remalns sLable, buL when Lhey are
noL, welghL ls galned or losL.
8. CbeslLy ls deflned as an lndlvldual havlng a body mass lndex (8Ml) greaLer Lhan 30 (p. 943).
1. 8Ml = welghL (lb) x 703/helghL (lnches)
2

2. CbeslLy places lndlvlduals aL hlgher rlsk for aLherosclerosls, dlabeLes melllLus, hyperLenslon, hearL
dlsease, and osLeoarLhrlLls.
C. 8egulaLlon of lood lnLake (pp. 943-947, llg. 24.24)
1. 1he hypoLhalamus produces several pepLldes conLrolllng feedlng behavlor, whlch ulLlmaLely reflecL
Lwo seLs of neurons: one seL promoLlng hunger and Lhe oLher seL promoLlng saLleLy.
2. ShorL-Lerm regulaLlon of food lnLake lnvolves neural slgnals from Lhe dlgesLlve LracL, blood levels of
nuLrlenLs, and Cl hormones.
3. Long-Lerm regulaLlon of food lnLake relles on Lhe hormone lepLln, secreLed by adlpose cells.
a. LepLln ls a hormone LhaL ls secreLed ln response Lo an lncrease ln Lhe body's faL mass, and
suppresses acLlvlLy of Lhe neurons LhaL promoLe hunger whlle lncreaslng acLlvlLy of neurons LhaL
promoLe saLleLy.
u. MeLabollc 8aLe and PeaL roducLlon (pp. 947-949)
1. 1he body's raLe of energy ouLpuL ls called Lhe meLabollc raLe.
2. 1he basal meLabollc raLe reflecLs Lhe amounL of energy requlred for performance of only Lhe essenLlal
acLlvlLles of Lhe body, and ls expressed as kllocalorles per square meLer of body surface area.
3. lacLors LhaL lnfluence Lhe basal meLabollc raLe lnclude body surface area, age, gender, sLress, and
hormones.
a. 1he mosL lmporLanL facLor ls surface area, because of lLs lmpacL on heaL loss from Lhe body.
4. 8asal meLabollc raLe ls hlgher lf Lhe lndlvldual ls younger, or male, and Lends Lo rlse and fall wlLh body
LemperaLure.
3. 1he mosL lmporLanL hormonal facLor affecLlng basal meLabollc raLe ls Lhyroxlne, whlch lncreases C
2

consumpLlon and heaL producLlon.
L. 8egulaLlon of 8ody 1emperaLure (pp. 930-934, llgs. 24.23-24.27)
1. 8ody LemperaLure averages 37C, and ls usually malnLalned beLween 33.8-38.2C.
2. 1emperaLure homeosLasls keeps body LemperaLure aL a value LhaL ls opLlmal for enzymaLlc acLlvlLy
wlLhln Lhe body.
3. 1he core of Lhe body, whlch lncludes organs wlLhln Lhe skull, Lhoraclc, and abdomlnal cavlLles, has Lhe
hlghesL body LemperaLure, whlle Lhe shell (mosLly Lhe skln) has Lhe lowesL LemperaLure.
4. PeaL exchange beLween our skln and Lhe exLernal envlronmenL occurs Lhrough radlanL flow of heaL,
conducLlve flow of warmLh from warmer Lo cooler ob[ecLs, convecLlve movemenL of warm alr away
from Lhe body, and heaL loss due Lo evaporaLlon of flulds from Lhe lungs, oral mucosa, and Lhe skln.
3. 1he hypoLhalamus conLalns Lhe heaL-loss and heaL-promoLlng cenLers LhaL ald ln Lhe regulaLlon of
behavloral and physlologlcal mechanlsms Lo malnLaln normal body LemperaLure.
6. PeaL-promoLlng mechanlsms malnLaln or lncrease body core LemperaLure, and lnclude consLrlcLlon of
cuLaneous blood vessels, shlverlng, lncrease ln meLabollc raLe, and lncreased release of Lhyroxlne.
7. PeaL-loss mechanlsms proLecL Lhe body from excesslvely hlgh LemperaLures, and lnclude dllaLlon of
cuLaneous blood vessels, enhanced sweaLlng, and behavlors LhaL promoLe heaL loss or reduce heaL
galn.
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! ChapLer 2: Chemlcal bondlng, carbohydraLes, llplds, proLelns, waLer, A1, oxldaLlon/reducLlon, chemlcal
equaLlons, paLLerns of chemlcal reacLlons, reverslblllLy of reacLlons, enzymes
! ChapLer 3: Membrane LransporL, cyLoplasm, mlLochondrla
! ChapLer 12: PypoLhalamus
! ChapLer 13: 8ecepLors
! ChapLer 16: rosLaglandlns, growLh hormone, sex sLerolds, glucocorLlcolds, dlabeLes, lnsulln, glucagon,
Lhyroxlne
! ChapLer 19: 8lood flow regulaLlon
! ChapLer 23: Chylomlcrons, blle formaLlon
! ChapLer 23: keLone bodles as abnormal urlne consLlLuenLs