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Module 5:

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

5.0 5.$.5 Introduction Instructional &oals 5.1 5.$.) The curriculum Instructional ob(ectives 5.5 development Instructional ob(ectives process or 5.2 learnin& Models of outcomes curriculum 5.) development 'lassifyin& instructional 5.2.1 Tylers ob(ectives or learnin& model 5.2.2 Tabas model outcomes 5.2.3 'o&nitive 5.).1 Ale ander domain ! Taylors 5.).2 model Affective domain 5.3 5.).3 "oals*sychomotor of #ducation domain 5.$ %evels of &oals 5.$.1 #ducational +iscussion ,uestions philosophy 5.$.2 -eadin&s #ducation &oals 5.$.3 'urriculum &oals 5.$.$ 'urriculum ob(ectives

OVERVIEW

LE"RNIN# O$%&O'E( When you co!plete this !odule you )ill *e a*le to+ +escribe Tylers model of curriculum development # plain the features of Tabas curriculum development model +escribe the .aylor and Ale ander model 'ompare the Tyler/ Taba and the .aylor ! Ale ander models +ifferentiate bet0een the levels of educational &oals 'ompare the co&nitive/ affective and psychomotor domains 1ormulate ob(ectives usin& the different ta onomies.
Ethics, !oral education, religious education Drug prevention, road safety education

Language & uantitative literacy

National unity, racial tolerance, citizenship education

(cience and technology, Environ!ental education #lo*alisation, 0no)ledge econo!y 1o) can )e help children !a0e sense of these2

2Source+ adaptation of ))),freeclipart,co!-

5.0 Introduction In Module 2/ 3 and $/ 0e discussed ho0 philosophy/ psycholo&y/ society and history events influence curriculum. In Modules 5/ )/ 3 and 4/ 0e 0ill e amine the different phases of the curriculum development process. The first phase is curriculum plannin& follo0ed by curriculum desi&n/ curriculum implementation and curriculum evaluation. In this chapter 0e e amine in &eneral the curriculum development process by referrin& to three 0ell56no0n curriculum development model7 namely/ the Tyler model/ the Taba model and the .aylor ! Ale ander model. In the second part of the chapter/ 0e focus on the first phase of the process namely/ curriculum planning )hich involves esta*lishing the goals and o*.ectives of a curriculu! *ased on the agreed educational philosophy,
/Source+ ))),iconandclipart,co!-

$CTIVIT% $CTIVIT% 5.1 5.1 9hat 9hat is is the the messa&e messa&e of of the the cartoon: cartoon: ;o0 far is this characteristic ;o0 far is this characteristic of of your your education education system: system:

5.1 The Curriculu

De!elo" ent Proce##

'urriculum is the foundation of the teachin&5learnin& process 0hether it is a school/ colle&e/ university or trainin& or&anisation. The te tboo6s used/ ho0 teachers are trained/ development of instructional plans/ evaluation of students/ preparation of &uides for both students and teachers/ and settin& of standards/ are all based on the curriculum. Thus 0ithout a curriculum no educational institution can function efficiently. "iven such importance to curriculum a number of 8uestions are raised. 2

;o0 is it developed: ;o0 is it or&anised: 9ho develops it: 9hat are the principles in developin& a curriculum: ;o0 do 0e 6no0 0hether the curriculum is successful: 'urriculum is a plan for orderin& and directin& the teachin&5learnin& e periences that students encounter in an educational institution. The process of providin& the plan and 6eepin& it runnin& smoothly is 6no0n as curriculum development. 'urriculum development is the more comprehensive term/ 0hich includes plannin& <determination of aims and &oals=/ desi&n/ implementation and evaluation. .ince curriculum development implies chan&e and betterment/ curriculum improvement is often used synonymously 0ith curriculum development/ thou&h in some cases improvement is vie0ed as the result of development <>liva/ 1?42=. 'urriculum development is a process that continuously strives to find ne0er/ better and more efficient means to accomplish the tas6 of educatin& the ne t &eneration. 5.& Model# o' Curriculu De!elo" ent

9hat is a model: A model consist of interactin& parts that serves as a &uide or procedures for action. .ome models are simple 0hile others are very comple . In many instances/ models are more similar that different and are often refinements or revisions of earlier models. There are many models of curriculum development/ but in this chapter/ 0e 0ill discuss three 0ell56no0n models@ the Tyler Model/ the Taba Model and the .aylor ! Ale ander Model. #ach of these models is named after their ori&inator. 3,4,5 %he %yler 'odel >ne of the best 6no0n curriculum models is The Tyler Model introduced in 1?$? by -alph Tyler in his classic boo6 Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction in 0hich he as6ed $ 8uestions@ 1. 9hat educational purposes should the school see6 to attain: 2. 9hat educational experiences can be provided that are li6ely to attain these purposes: 3. ;o0 can these educational e periences be effectively organised: $. ;o0 can 0e determine 0hether these purposes are bein& attained: In essence/ Tylers 8uestions represent the four5step se8uence of <1= identifyin& purposes or ob(ectives/ <2= selectin& the means for the attainment or achievement of these ob(ectives i.e. 0hat educational or teachin&5learnin& e periences have to be provided for students/ <3= or&anisin& these educational or teachin&5learnin& e periences/ and <$= evaluatin& the outcomes or 0hat have students attained or achieved. Ay BpurposesC/ Tyler 0as referrin& to Bob(ectivesC and 0hen developin& curriculum ob(ectives data should be &athered from three sources/ namely7 the sub(ect area <e&. science/ mathematics/ &eo&raphy/ history=/ the learners <e&. economically disadvanta&ed/ &ifted/ varyin& academic abilities= and society <e&. ethics/ patriotism/ national unity/ environmental a0areness/ employment/ mar6et needs=. 1i&ure 5.1 presents Tylers model of curriculum development. After identifyin& the objectives <0hich are the desired learnin& outcomes=/ the curriculum developer has to pass them throu&h t0o screens@ the philosophy screen and the psycholo&y screen. -esultin& from this are specific instructional objectives 0hich state the 6ind of outcomes that are observable are measurable. The ne t step is the selection of educational e periences 0hich enable the attainment of the stipulated ob(ectives. The learnin& e periences have to ta6e into account the previous 3

e periences learners brin& to a situation. The learnin& e periences 0ill have to be selected based on 0hat is 6no0n about human learnin& and human development. De t/ Tyler tal6ed about the organisation and se8uencin& of these learnin& e periences. ;e emphasised that the e periences should be properly or&anised so as to enhance learnin& and su&&ested that ideas/ concept/ values and s6ills be used as or&anisin& elements 0oven into the curriculum. These elements 0ould serve as or&anisers lin6in& content 0ithin a particular sub(ect <e&. history/ economics/ science= and also determine the method of instruction or delivery of content. 2 We will discuss curriculum design in more detail in module 6E. 1inally/ Tyler proposed that evaluation should be an important part of the curriculum development process. It 0as necessary for educators to 6no0 0hether the selected learnin& e periences produced the intended results. 1or e ample/ if the ob(ective is to develop critical thin6in& amon& students/ did the learnin& e periences selected achieve this ob(ective. Throu&h evaluation it 0ill be possible to determine 0hether the curriculum 0as effective or ineffective. 2 We will discuss curriculum evaluation in more detail in Module 8E. There is no denyin& that Tylers thin6in& has &reatly influenced the field of curriculum/ especially curriculum development. The four 8uestions that he raised had and still have &reat appeal because it is very reasonable and 0or6able. +espite much criticism of the model as bein& too linear/ that is/ cause and effect/ there is no denyin& that his thin6in& continues to be popular <>rnstein and ;un6ins/ 1??4=. SELF-TEST SELF-TEST 5.1 5.1 9hat 9hat is is the the role role of of ob(ectives ob(ectives in in Tylers Tylers model: model: 9hy do ob(ectives have to be screened by 9hy do ob(ectives have to be screened by philosophy philosophy and and psycholo&y: psycholo&y: "ive "ive 3 3 specific specific e e amples amples of of Flearnin& Flearnin& e e periences periences accordin& accordin& to to the the Tyler Tyler Model/ Model/ 9hat 9hat are are elements: elements: "ive "ive specific specific e e amples amples 9hat is the purpose of evaluation: 9hat is the purpose of evaluation:

&urriculu! 6lanning

(ociety

Philosophy Philosophy

(u*.ect !atter

(O$R&E(

>b(ectives

(cree ns Learner

Instructional >b(ectives Psychology Psychology

.election of %earnin& # periences

>r&anisation of %earnin& # periences

#valuation

&urriculu! Design

&urriculu! Evaluation

7igure 3,5 %yler8s &urriculu! Develop!ent 'odel


2Source@ adapted from Allan '. >rnstein ! 1rancis *. ;un6ins/ Curriculum !oundations" Principles and Issues/ <Aoston@ Allyn and Aacon/ 1??4=/ p.1?4.E

3,4,4 %he %a*a 'odel Another approach to curriculum development 0as proposed by ;ilda Taba in her boo6 Curriculum #evelopment $%eor& and Practice published in 1?)2. .he ar&ued that there 0as a definite order in creatin& a curriculum. .he believed that teachers/ 0ho teach the curriculum/ should participate in developin& it 0hich led to the model bein& called the grass'roots approac%. .he noted 3 ma(or steps to her &rass5roots model in 0hich teachers 0ould have ma(or input <see 1i&ure 5.2=. .he 0as of the opinion that the Tyler model 0as more of an administrative model. The Tyler model involved too much top5do0n decision ma6in&/ The &reater portion of curriculum decisions 0ere made by administrators in the 'entral >ffice or the Ministry of #ducation. Taba felt that a curriculum should be desi&ned by the users of the pro&ramme. Teachers should be&in the process by creatin& specific teachin&5learnin& units for their students. .he advocated that teachers ta6e an inductive approach to curriculum development. This meant startin& 0ith the specifics and buildin& to0ard a &eneral desi&n This 0as (ust the opposite to the more traditional deductive approach 0hich starts 0ith the &eneral desi&n and than 0or6in& to0ard the specifics.

%eacher Input

Evaluation

Diagnosis of Needs Organisatio n of Learning "ctivities

%each Input

7or!ulatio n of O*.ectives

er

(election of Learning "ctivities

(election of &ontent

Organisatio n of &ontent

%eacher Input 7igure 3,4 %a*a8s &urriculu! Develop!ent 'odel Taba proposed 3 ma(or steps to her &rass5roots model in 0hich teachers 0ould have ma(or input throu&hout the curriculum development process@ 1. #iagnosis of need The teacher 0ho is also the curriculum desi&ner starts the process by identifyin& the needs of students for 0hom the curriculum is planned. 1or e ample/ the ma(ority of students are unable to thin6 critically. 2. !ormulation of objectives After the teacher has identified needs that re8uire attention/ he or she specifies ob(ectives to be accomplished. 3. Selection of content The ob(ectives selected or created su&&est the sub(ect matter or content of the curriculum. Dot only should ob(ectives and content match/ but also the validity and si&nificance of the content chosen needs to be determined. i.e. the relevancy and si&nificance of content. $. (rganisation of content A teacher cannot (ust select content/ but must or&anise it in some type of se8uence/ ta6in& into consideration the maturity of learners/ their academic achievement/ and their interests. 2We will discuss curriculum design in more detail in Module 6E. 5. Selection of learning experiences 'ontent must be presented to students and students must be en&a&ed 0ith the content. At this point/ the teacher selects instructional methods that 0ill involve the students 0ith the content. ). (rganisation of learning activities Gust as content must be se8uenced and or&anised/ so must the learnin& activities. >ften/ the se8uence of the learnin& activities is determined by the content. Aut the teacher needs to 6eep in mind the particular students 0hom he or she 0ill be teachin&. 3. )valuation and means of evaluation The curriculum planner must determine (ust 0hat ob(ectives have been accomplished. #valuation procedures need to be desi&ned to evaluate learnin& outcomes. 2We will discuss curriculum evaluation in more detail in Module 8E. )

Taba model has much merit. ;o0ever/ some ar&ue that teacher involvement throu&hout the process assumes that they have the e pertise and/ perhaps more importantly/ the time to en&a&e in such an e tensive and intensive curricular activity. Teachers bein& involved in the early sta&es of curriculum development may not necessarily be an advanta&e as it 0ill not necessarily &uarantee an effective curriculum since it is a hi&hly specialised process. ;o0ever/ it cannot be denied that curriculum development re8uires the involvement of many parties at various sta&es of the process. It involves individuals from the 'entral >ffice or the Ministry of #ducation/ district education officers/ principals/ teachers/ community leaders/ sub(ect matter e perts/ academics and even students. Hsually/ curriculum developers at the 'entral >ffice are &iven the tas6 of directin& those actions that brin& to&ether various participants in curriculum development. Teachers may only be involved in implementin& the curriculum 0hile the main part of the curriculum is determined by the Ministry of #ducation/ academics/ content specialists and employers. SELF-TEST SELF-TEST 5.2 5.2 # plain 0hy Tabas # plain 0hy Tabas model model is is called called the the &rass5roots &rass5roots model model +o +o you you thin6 thin6 teachers teachers should should be be the the main main decision decision ma6ers ma6ers in in the the development of a curriculum: 9hy: development of a curriculum: 9hy: To To 0hat 0hat e e tent tent are are teachers teachers involved involved in in developin& developin& curriculum curriculum in in your your country: country:

3,4,9 %he (aylor and "le:ander 'odel "alen .aylor and 9illiam Ale ander <1?3$= vie0ed curriculum development as consistin& of four steps <1i&ure 5.3=. Accordin& to them/ curriculum is Ba plan for providin& sets of learnin& opportunities to achieve broad educational &oals and related specific ob(ectives for an identifiable population served by a sin&le school centreC <p.2$=. Aases <e ternal variables=

#oals, o*.ectives and do!ains

&urriculu! designing

&urriculu! i!ple!entation 7eed*ac0

&urriculu! evaluation

7igure 3,9 (aylor and "le:ander8s &urriculu! Develop!ent 'odel 3

a= *oals" (bjectives and #omains@ The model indicates that curriculum planners be&in by specifyin& the ma(or educational &oals and specific ob(ectives they 0ish to accomplish. #ach ma(or &oal represents a curriculum domain and they advocate $ ma(or &oals or domains@ personal development/ human relations/ continued learnin& s6ills and specialisation. The &oals/ ob(ectives and domains are selected after careful consideration of several e ternal variables such as findin&s from educational research/ accreditation standards/ vie0s of community &roups and others. b= Curriculum #esigning@ >nce the &oals/ ob(ectives and domains have been established/ planners move into the process of desi&nin& the curriculum. ;ere decision is made on the appropriate learnin& opportunities for each domain and ho0 and 0hen these opportunities 0ill be provided. 9ill the curriculum be desi&ned alon& the lines of academic disciplines/ or accordin& to student needs and interests or alon& themes: These are some of the 8uestions that need to be ans0ered at this sta&e of the development process 2 We will discuss curriculum design in more detail in Module 6E. c= Curriculum Implementation@ After the desi&ns have been created the ne t step is implementation of the desi&ns by teachers. Aased on the desi&n of the curriculum plan teachers 0ould specify instructional ob(ectives and then select relevant teachin& methods and strate&ies to achieve the desired learnin& outcomes amon& students in the classroom 2We will discuss curriculum implementation in more detail in Module +E. d= )valuation@ 1inally/ curriculum planner and teachers en&a&e in evaluation. The model proposed that evaluation should be comprehensive usin& a variety of evaluation techni8ues. #valuation should involve the total educational pro&ramme of the school and the curriculum plan/ the effectiveness of instruction and the achievement of students. Throu&h the evaluation process/ curriculum planner and developers can determine 0hether or nor the &oals of the school and the ob(ectives of instruction have been met. 2 We will discuss curriculum evaluation in more detail in Module 8E.

SELF-CHECK 5.3 1= 9hat is meant by Fdomains in the .aylor and Ale ander model: 2= 9hat must teachers do to implement a curriculum: 3= 9hat is the role of evaluation in the .aylor and Ale ander model:

The three models (ust discussed reveal both similarities and differences. All models outline a se8uence of steps to be ta6en in curriculum development. Interestin&ly/ the Taba model emphasises the role of teachers in curriculum development 0hile the Tyler model focuses on the t0o screens ob(ectives have to pass throu&h. ;o0ever/ you should 6eep in mind that models often are incomplete7 they do not and cannot sho0 every detail and aspect of the complicated curriculum process. To depict every aspect in detail of the curriculum development process 0ould re8uire an e ceedin&ly comple and intricate model.

In loo6in& at the three models 0e cannot say that any one model is superior to another model. .ome curriculum planners have follo0ed the Tyler model 0ith considerable success. Aut this does not mean that the Tyler model represents the ultimate in models for curriculum development or that all educators are satisfied 0ith it. 5.( )o*l# o' Educ*tion The cartoon at the be&innin& of this chapter sho0s the 6inds of decisions that curriculum 0or6ers have to ma6e in some education system some0here in the 0orld. .ome decisions are relatively simple such as addin& a course/ deletin& a course or ma6in& some minor chan&es to content. >ther decisions are s0eepin& and far5 reachin& such as chan&in& the levels of schoolin& from )535252 <si years of primary or elementary school/ three years of lo0er secondary/ t0o years of upper secondary and t0o years pre5university or matriculation= to )5$52 <si years of primary or elementary school/ four years of secondary and t0o years of pre5university or matriculation=. ;o0 does one decide: All the three models of curriculum development emphasised the need from the onset to plan statements of purpose of the education system. 9hat do you 0ant students to be able to do after completin& primary school or after completin& secondary school: In 'hapter 2/ 0e discussed the vie0s of various 9estern and #astern philosophers on 0hat they thou&ht the school should be and aim to achieve. In 'hapter 3/ 0e discussed various psycholo&ical e planations of human learnin& 0hich provide &uidelines as to 0hat students 0ill be able to achieve and ho0 they should be tau&ht. In 'hapter $/ 0e e amined 0hat society demands of its education system providin& some insi&ht into 0hat schools should aspire. Aased on these sources/ the curriculum planner 0ill have to decide on an education philosophy from 0hich the &oals of education may be derived. 5.+. Le!el# o' )o*l# "oals can be 0ritten at several levels of &enerality involvin& many curriculum 0or6ers such as teachers/ sub(ect specialists/ academics/ principals/ teacher trainers/ administrators and others 0ho may be en&a&ed in curriculum efforts on several levels at the same time <see 1i&ure 5.$=. The model flo0s from a broad and 0ide educational philosophy to the more specific instructional ob(ectives implemented at the classroom level. 3,;,5 Educational philosophy The initial tas6 of curriculum planners is identification of an educational vision or philosophy 0hich 0ill form the basis of plannin&. It reflects the desires of the nation and the ma(or theme pavin& the 0ay for the future. The vision statement or philosophy provides &uidelines for curriculum developers in or&anisin& and incorporatin& pro&rammes and activities into the curriculum. The philosophic vision is usually derived throu&h discussions 0ith various persons in the country and also from readin& the literature. Then it is reformulated in the li&ht of realities to enable the vision to be achieved throu&h a process of learnin& in schools rather remainin& an ideal that is unachievable.

The educational philosophy of an educational system is a reflection of national policies. 1or e ample/ use of one lan&ua&e of instruction to unite the different communities7 free primary education to reduce drop5outs and a common national curriculum to reduce varyin& interpretations. The educational philosophy 0ill also reflect national priorities such as the development aspects of the nation/ socio5 cultural needs of the people and levels of achievement of the children at different cycles. +evelopment needs have to be identified in relation to the priorities. 1or e ample does the country 0ant more &raduates or should the emphasis be on basic education. In relation to socio5cultural needs/ the culture of peace/ conflict resolutions etc. could emer&e as important aspects that should be hi&hli&hted in the school curriculum. The needs of disabled persons and adults 0ho have lost opportunities for learnin& have to be incorporated too. >pportunities for vocational and career education have to be provided in the curriculum. Therefore/ vocational interests of students have to be assessed. In addition/ curriculum planners should not only study current best practices/ customs/ and beliefs about education in the local schools but should compare these to the educational research literature on best practices in teachin&/ learnin&/ and curriculum desi&n. %evels of achievements relate to understandin& of concepts at different &rades by children to enable them to complete the s6ills needed to move on to hi&her &rades. These have to be identified in order to brin& 8uality to learnin& and avoid 0asta&e in the learnin& pro&rammes. &"(E (%$D< + %he Vision of (outh "frica8s &urriculu! 7ra!e)or0 4==3

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The curriculum frame0or6 is a set of principles and &uidelines 0hich provides both a philosophical base and an or&anisational structure for curriculum development initiatives at all levels/ be they nationally/ provincially/ community or school5based. The vision for .outh Africa encompasses a prosperous/ truly united/ democratic and internationally competitive country 0ith literate/ creative and critical citiKens/ leadin& productive/ self5fulfilled lives in a country free of violence/ discrimination and pre(udice. The realisation of this vision re8uires appropriate/ lifelon& education/ trainin& and development to empo0er people to participate effectively in all the processes of a democratic society and to e cel in fields li6e human and natural resource development/ human and natural sciences/ the arts and technolo&y. The primary tas6 of educational policy ma6ers is the establishment of a (ust and e8uitable education and trainin& system 0hich is relevant/ of hi&h 8uality and is accessible to all learners/ irrespective of race/ colour/ &ender/ a&e/ reli&ion/ ability or lan&ua&e. A priority for both national and provincial education departments is/ therefore/ the creation of a transformative/ democratic/ open learnin& system/ fosterin& in all its users/ a stron& commitment to lifelon& learnin& and development. The curriculum frame0or6 serves as a strate&ic intervention desi&ned to facilitate and &uide the development of a transformed education and trainin& system in a practicable and sustainable 0ay. It ta6es as point of departure/ that successful modern economies and societies re8uire citiKens 0ith a stron& foundation of &eneral education/ the desire and ability to continue to learn to adapt to/ and develop ne0 6no0led&e/ s6ills and technolo&ies/ to move fle ibly bet0een occupations/ to ta6e responsibility for personal performance/ to set and achieve hi&h standards/ and to 0or6 cooperatively.
2Source 'H--I'H%HM 2005 %ifelon& %earnin& for the 21st 'entury@ A HserIs "uide. National 6olicies & Research and >est http@JJ000.polity.or&.KaJhtmlJ&ovdocsJmiscJcurr2005.html:reboo6mar6L1M*rinciplesE National 6olicies & Research and >est

6riorities 6riorities

6ractices 6ractices

$CTIVIT% $CTIVIT% 5.& 5.& Educational Educational 6hilosophy 6hilosophy -ead -ead the the 'ase 'ase .tudy .tudy and and ans0er ans0er the the follo0in& follo0in& 8uestions@ 8uestions@ 9hy the 9hy do do you you thin6 thin6 that that in in the vision vision it it is is emphasised emphasised that that .outh .outh Africa Africa Educational Educational should discrimination and prejudice : should be be free free of of violence" violence" discrimination and prejudice : #oals #oals 9hat 9hat are are the the &oals &oals of of the the curriculum curriculum frame0or6 frame0or6 of of .outh .outh Africa: Africa: &urriculu! &urriculu! ;o0 &oals ;o0 are are these these educational educational &oals similar similar or or different different from from those those of of your your #oals #oals country: country: &urriculu! &urriculu! O*.ectives O*.ectives Instructional Instructional #oals #oals Instructional Instructional O*.ectives 11

&urriculu! 6hase

Instructional *hase

7igure 3,; Levels of &urriculu! 6lanning 3,;,4 Education #oals

12

#ducational &oals are outcomes to be achieved by students at the end of a particular period of time in school. 9hile certain &oals are universal and run

$CTIVIT% $CTIVIT% 5.( 5.(


In In 1??0/ 1??0/ the the *resident *resident of of the the Hnited Hnited .tates .tates and and state state &overnors &overnors issued issued a list of si &oals for the nations schools 0hich stated a list of si &oals for the nations schools 0hich stated that that by by the the year year 2000@ 2000@ all all children children in in America America 0ill 0ill start start school school ready ready to to learn learn the the hi&h hi&h school school &raduation &raduation rate rate 0ill 0ill increase increase to to at at least least ?0N ?0N American American students students 0ill 0ill leave leave &rades &rades $/ $/ 4 4 and and 12 12 havin& havin& demonstrated demonstrated competency in challen&in& sub(ect mater <#n&lish/ mathematics/ competency in challen&in& sub(ect mater <#n&lish/ mathematics/ science science // history history and and &eo&raphy= &eo&raphy= H.. students 0ill H.. students 0ill be be first first in in the the 0orld 0orld in in science science and and mathematics mathematics achievement achievement #very #very adult adult American American 0ill 0ill be be literate literate and and 0ill 0ill possess possess the the 6no0led&e 6no0led&e and and s6ills s6ills necessary necessary to to compete compete in in a a &lobal &lobal economy economy and and e e ercise ercise the the ri&ht and responsibilities of citiKenship ri&ht and responsibilities of citiKenship #very #very school school in in America America 0ill 0ill be be free free of of dru&s dru&s and and violence violence and and 0ill offer a disciplined environment conducive 0ill offer a disciplined environment conducive to to learnin& learnin& 22Source Source Dational Dational "oals "oals for for #ducation/ #ducation/ 1??0. 1??0. 9ashin&ton 9ashin&ton +.'E. +.'E.

9hat 9hat seems seems to to be be the the emphasis emphasis in in these these &oals: &oals: 9hat 9hat is is lac6in&: lac6in&: 'ompare 'ompare these these &oals &oals 0ith 0ith the the &oals &oals of of your your education education system. system.

throu&hout the period some are specific to particular levels and times. This means that a child 0ill be facin& different &oals at different levels. The &oals are the basic elements in curriculum plannin& and should be clear and 0ell articulated 0ithout ambi&uities. All these relate to human behaviour. In a country recoverin& from a civil 0ar/ its 6ey educational &oals mi&ht be peace/ developin& self5confidence/ cooperation/ responsible citiKenship needed to overcome the e istin& conflicts. Actually/ there could be a plethora of &oals such as developin& creativity/ mental health/ copin& 0ith chan&e/ informed participation/ basic s6ills and so forth/ endin& on the vision and cultural needs of the society. 'onnectin& development needs to education is an important strate&y to achieve &reater impact of education on society. . 3,;,9 &urriculu! #oals A curriculum &oal is a purpose or desired end stated in &eneral terms. Do time period is specified 0hen the &oals must be reached. Deither is mention of the criteria for achievement or mastery. 'urriculum planners e pect students to accomplish it as

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a result of e posure to se&ments or all of a pro&ramme in a particular educational institution. "oals provide direction for the curriculum. 1or e ample@ B.tudents shall ac8uire 6no0led&e and s6ills necessary for functionin& as &ood citiKens in their o0n school and communityC. B.chools should see6 to promote the physical and emotional health of studentsC 3,;,; &urriculu! O*.ectives 'urriculum ob(ectives are derived from the curriculum &oal. A curriculum ob(ective is a purpose or end stated in specific/ measurable terms. It is a refinement of the curriculum &oals. They specify the performance standards for the students for 0hom the curriculum is desi&ned. 1rom the curriculum &oal7 B.tudents shall ac8uire 6no0led&e and s6ills necessary for functionin& on a daily basis/ as &ood citiKens in their o0n school and community settin&C7 the follo0in& curriculum ob(ectives can be derived@ BThe ma(ority of students 0ill obey the rules and re&ulations of the schoolC BMore than 40N of students 0ill be involved in at least one voluntary activityC Dote ho0 the curriculum ob(ective refines the curriculum &oal. Many curriculum ob(ectives can emanate from a sin&le curriculum &oal.

1$

&urriculu! &urriculu! #oal #oal or or "i! "i! *rimary .cience education *rimary .cience education aims aims to to develop develop 6no0led&eable/ 6no0led&eable/ s6ilful/ s6ilful/ thin6in&/ thin6in&/ carin&/ carin&/ dynamic dynamic and and pro&ressive pro&ressive individuals individuals able able to to contribute contribute to0ards to0ards the the creation creation of of a a society society that that practices practices science science and and technolo&y technolo&y culture/ culture/ responsible responsible to0ards to0ards the the environment environment and and appreciative appreciative of of nature nature and and "ods "ods creations. creations. (a!ple (a!ple &urriculu! &urriculu! O*.ectives O*.ectives The *rimary The *rimary .chool .chool .cience .cience 'urriculum 'urriculum 0ill 0ill enable enable students students to@ to@ Ac8uire an understandin& of science concepts and Ac8uire an understandin& of science concepts and principles principles in in an an inte&rated inte&rated manner and able to relate them 0ith natural phenomena and everyday e manner and able to relate them 0ith natural phenomena and everyday e periences/ periences/ Apply Apply science science 6no0led&e 6no0led&e and and s6ills s6ills creatively creatively and and intelli&ently intelli&ently in in problem problem solvin& solvin& and and decision decision ma6in& ma6in& +evelop +evelop further further the the intrinsic intrinsic values values of of science science such such as as in8uisitiveness/ in8uisitiveness/ open5 open5 mindedness/ mindedness/ intellectual intellectual honesty honesty and and perseverance/ perseverance/ +evelop +evelop scientific scientific and and manipulative manipulative s6ills s6ills throu&h throu&h the the discovery5in8uiry discovery5in8uiry approach approach +evelop s6ills in conductin& scientific investi&ations and +evelop s6ills in conductin& scientific investi&ations and research research (a!ple (a!ple Instructional Instructional #oals #oals for for <ear <ear ; ; A= A= Hnderstand Hnderstand that that breathin& breathin& is is a a &eneral &eneral characteristic characteristic of of livin& livin& thin&s thin&s A= A= Ono0 Ono0 that that li&ht li&ht can can be be dispersed dispersed (a!ple (a!ple Instructional Instructional O*.ectives O*.ectives A1= A1= # # plain plain ho0 ho0 breathin& breathin& ta6es ta6es place place in in humans humans A2= .tate the three methods of breathin& A2= .tate the three methods of breathin& in in animals animals A1= A1= .tate .tate that that sunli&ht sunli&ht consists consists of of seven seven colours colours A2= A2= # # plain plain the the formation formation of of a a rainbo0 rainbo0

$CTIVIT% $CTIVIT% 5.+ 5.+ 'alaysian 6ri!ary (chool 'alaysian 6ri!ary (chool (cience (cience &urriculu! &urriculu!

;o0 ;o0 is is the the goal goal of of the the Malaysian Malaysian primary primary school school curriculum curriculum different different from from the the stated stated curriculum curriculum objectives objectives: : 9hich 9hich curriculum curriculum ob(ectives ob(ectives focus focus on on the the 6no0led&e/ 6no0led&e/ s6ills s6ills and and attitudesJvalues attitudesJvalues to to be be ac8uired ac8uired by by students: students: ;o0 ;o0 is is FInstructional FInstructional "oal "oal A A implemented implemented in in the the classroom: classroom: 22Source Source 'urriculum 'urriculum .pecifications .pecifications for for .mart .mart .chools/ .chools/ 'urriculum 'urriculum +evelopment +evelopment 'entre/ 'entre/ Ministry Ministry of of #ducation #ducation Malaysia/ Malaysia/ Guly/ Guly/ 1??3E 1??3E

3,;,3 Instructional #oals At the instructional phase/ curriculum ob(ectives are translated initially into instructional &oals. An instructional &oal is a statement of performance e pected of each student in a class stated in &eneral terms. It is the &eneral intentions of a course of instruction 0ithout criteria of achievement. 1or e ample/ F.tudents 0ill sho0 an understandin& about the tropical rainforest. It indicates the performance expected; i.e.
understand, but the performance level or criteria is not stated. So it is not easily measured. Instructional goals points the way to instructional objectives.

3,;,? Instructional O*.ectives An instructional ob(ective is a statement of performance to be demonstrated by each student in a class. It is stated in a form that is measurable and observable. >ther names &iven for instructional ob(ectives are specific instructional objectives" specific 15

learning outcomes" be%avioural objectives performance objectives" and competencies. An e ample of an instructional ob(ective is@ FAt the end of the lesson students should be able to describe five characteristics of the tropical rainforest. It is important that you state clearly the instructional ob(ectives you intend to achieve at the end of a period of instruction. It determines the selection of content <te tboo6/ the internet/ reference boo6s=/ the teachin& learnin& methods <lectures/ practical sessions/ &roup discussions/ self study/ field visits= to be adopted/ learnin& resources <audio5visual aids/ e8uipment/ 6its= you 0ill utilise and ho0 you intend to evaluate 0hether the desired learnin& outcomes have been achieved. %et us e amine in detail about instructional ob(ectives. 5.5. In#truction*l O,-ecti!e# or Le*rnin. Outco e# Instructional ob(ectives are the learnin& outcomes desired and are of primary importance in developin& a curriculum. >b(ectives point to the appropriate content to be selected/ ho0 teachin& and learnin& is to be conducted and 0ays of assessin& performance in the sub(ect. In the past the traditional description of a course simply referred to content7 i.e. 0hat it 0as that the teacher 0ould cover. There has/ ho0ever/ been a shift in thin6in& about teachin& and learnin& 0ith learnin& and the learner no0 seen to be of primary importance. Teachin& then becomes the means of facilitatin& learnin& in the learner.
In the teacher centred approach, teaching is generally seen to be about the transmission of !nowledge. "ocus is on what the teacher did, and goals of the subject area were expressed in terms of the content which the teacher would transmit. In the learner centred approach, however, the focus is on what the learner does, and the intentions of a subject area are usually expressed in terms of how the learner will be changed as a result of learning that content. #he statements describing the change in student behaviour which should result from ta!ing the course are !nown as $intended learning objectives$ or $intended learning outcomes$; $objectives$ or $outcomes$ for short. #eaching then becomes a series of strategies which are devised in order to help students achieve these objectives % outcomes. & You will notice that at the beginning of each chapter in this course there is a list of learning outcomes or objectives '.

In statin& a instructional ob(ective or learnin& outcome/ active verbs are used to indicate 0hat it is that students must do in order to demonstrate learnin&. It is not enou&h to say Pyes/ I understand thatP. Aut ho0 do I 6no0 that you understand unless you can demonstrate that you do. ;ere are some e ample of learnin& outcomes@ >n completion of this $5 minute lesson on the tropical rainforest you should be able to@ #efine t%e terms evergreen" %umidit&" buttress roots" canop& ,ocate t%e distribution of t%e rainforest on a world map )xplain w%& t%ere is little undergrowt% in a rainforest

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5./. Cl*##i'0in. In#truction*l O,-ecti!e# or Le*rnin. Outco e# $CTIVIT% $CTIVIT% 5.5 5.5
6roponents 6roponents of of >ehavioural >ehavioural O*.ectives O*.ectives argue argue that that it+ it+ forces forces the the teachers teachers to to be be precise precise about about 0hat 0hat is is to to be be accomplished accomplished enables enables the the teacher teacher to to tell tell students students 0hat 0hat they they must must achieve achieve ma6es evaluation easier because it is measurable ma6es evaluation easier because it is measurable ma6es ma6es it it easier easier for for the the selection selection of of instructional instructional ob(ectives ob(ectives ma6es ma6es accountability accountability easier easier Opponents Opponents of of >ehavioural >ehavioural O*.ectives O*.ectives argue argue that that it+ it+ restricts restricts creativity creativity lead lead to to trivial trivial or or unimportant unimportant competencies competencies is dehumanisin& is dehumanisin& do0nplays do0nplays affective affective outcomes outcomes

;o0 ;o0 do do behavioural behavioural ob(ectives ob(ectives restrict restrict creativity creativity amon& amon& students: students: +o you a&ree 0ith the opponents of behavioural ob(ectives: +o you a&ree 0ith the opponents of behavioural ob(ectives: .tate .tate >D# >D# other other reason reason each each supportin& supportin& the the proponents proponents and and opponents opponents of of behavioural behavioural ob(ectives. ob(ectives.
22Source Source adapted adapted from from *eter *eter >liva >liva <1?42=. <1?42=. +evelopin& +evelopin& the the curriculum. curriculum. Aoston@ %ittle Aro0n Aoston@ %ittle Aro0n
- Co. Co. p. p. /012 /012

The classification of learnin& ob(ectives or outcomes was developed by a team led by (enjamin (loom in the )*+,s. #hree domains were addressed and for each taxonomy of abilities, emotions and s!ills were developed. - taxonomy is a system for classifying something, and in this case; the classifying of learning objectives or learning outcomes. #axonomies of learning objectives or learning outcomes are used to categorise goals for student learning. #axonomies are based on the assumption that different types of objectives are learned through different mental processes. #he three taxonomies are. The &ognitive Do!ain 0hich is concerned 0ith mental or intellectual s6ills and abilities The "ffective Do!ain 0hich is concerned 0ith feelin&s/ values and attitudes The 6sycho!otor Do!ain 0hich is concerned 0ith physical s6ills
of to to to

#he three taxonomies remain a useful conceptual tool for thin!ing about what a body content re/uire students to do, and for thin!ing about how students should be able demonstrate their learning through their behaviour. It is valuable because it draws attention the need to be clear about the complexity of intellectual tas!s which a subject might re/uire perform.

&ognitive Levels Knowledge

0escription

1xamples of 2erbs for Stating 3bjectives or 3utcomes 0efine, describe, identify, label, list, match, name, select, state, outline, recite

-ememberin& previously learned material. The s6ill may involve recall of a 0ide ran&e of material/ from specific facts to

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complete theories/ but all that is re8uired is the brin&in& to mind of the appropriate information. Comprehension The ability to &rasp meanin& of material. This s6ill may be sho0n by translatin& material from one form to another/ by interpretin& material <e plainin& or summarisin&=/ and by estimatin& future trends <predictin& conse8uences or effects=. The ability to use learned material in ne0 and concrete situations. This may include the application of such thin&s as rules/ methods/ concepts/ principles/ la0s and theories. The ability to put parts together to form
a new whole. #his may involve the production of a uni/ue communication 4theme or speech5, a plan of operations 4research proposal5, or a set of abstract relations 4scheme for classifying information5

'han&e/ decode/ defend/ distin&uish/ estimate/ e plain/ &eneralise/ infer/ &ive e ample/ illustrate/ paraphrase/ predict/ re0rite/ restate/ summarise/ solve

Applica ion

Apply/ compute/ demonstrate/ develop/ employ/ manipulate/ modify/ or&anise/ produce/ relate/ transfer/ discover 'ate&orise/
combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, devise, formulate, invent, generate, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, revise, rewrite, set up.

S!n hesis

E"al#a ion

The ability to judge the value of

material 4statement, novel, poem, research report5 for a given purpose. #he judgements are to be based on definite criteria. #hese may be internal criteria 4organisation5 or external criteria 4relevance to the purpose5 and the student may determine the criteria or be given them.

Appraise/ choose/ compare/ conclude/ contrast/ criticise/ decide/ defend/ discriminate/ (ustify/ resolve/ support/ validate/
write a review.

&Source: (enjamin (loom 4)*+65 7andboo! of #axonomy of 1ducational 3bjectives' #able +.) #he 8ognitive #axonomy

3,?,5 &ognitive Do!ain Alooms ta onomy of the co&nitive domain is perhaps the best 6no0n and most 0idely used. It 0as published in 1?5). It lists a persons observable and unobservable intellectual abilities such as comprehendin& information/ or&anisin& ideas/ and evaluatin& information and actions. It cate&orises the types of co&nitive learnin& outcomes that are featured at all levels of the curriculum. Aloom and his associated classified co&nitive learnin&s in ) ma(or cate&ories@ 6no0led&e/ comprehension/ application/ analysis/ synthesis and evaluation <see Table 5.1=.

&ognitive Levels $ecei"ing

0escription

1xamples of 2erbs for Stating 3bjectives or 3utcomes

9illingness to receive or to attend to


particular information or activity 4textboo!, classroom activity5.

Attend/ be a0are/ listen/ reply/ sho0/ alert/ use/ 0atch/ select,

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9eceiving involves the willingness to receive or accept and focussing attention

tolerate, follow, as!.

$esponding

-efers to active participation by the student. The student is actively attendin& by respondin& in the class and is involved in the teachin&5learnin& settin&. ;e or she &ains satisfaction from en&a&in& in activities.

A&ree/ ans0er/ communicate/ comply/ consent/ contribute/ cooperate/ help/ in8uire/ obey/ participate/ 8uestion/ re8uest/ report/ respond/ see6/ volunteer

%al#ing

The students sees 0orth or value in 0hat is bein& learned or the activity bein& done. The student does not merely obey or complies but does so because he or
she is intrinsically motivated.

Accept/ adopt/ approve/ complete/ commit/ desire/ display/ e hibit/ e press/ initiate/ invite/ prefer/ share/ study/ 0or6. Adapt/ alter/ arran&e/ classify/ compare/ defend/ establish/ &eneralise/ inte&rate/ modify/ order/ ran6/ synthesise.

&rganisa ion

The student brin&s to&ether many different values and attempt to resolve the conflicts bet0een the value. Throu&h this process he or she builds a value system. ;e or she sees ho0 ne0 values are related to e istin& values and tries to establish a balance. The student internalises the values. In other 0ords/ he or she adopts the values as his or her o0n. The values internalised determines the behaviour of the student. The behaviour is consistent and predictable.

Charac erisa ion

Act/ behave/ conform/ devote/ display/ endure/ e emplify/ function/ maintain/ practice/ perform/ uphold/ use/ influence.

2Source Aen(amin Aloom and +. Orath0ohl <1?)$= ;andboo6 of Ta onomy of #ducational >b(ectivesE

#able +.: #he -ffective #axonomy

3,?,4 "ffective Do!ain


-fter the appearance of the cognitive taxonomy, 0avid 9. ;rathwohl and others, including (enjamin (loom, developed a taxonomy of objectives in the affective domain in )*6< 4see #able +.:5. #he affective domain relates to the manner in which we deal with things involving our emotions; such as our feelings, our values, how we appreciate something, our enthusiasm for something, what motivates us to do something and our attitudes towards something.

3.6.= >sychomotor 0omain The psychomotor domain is less 6no0n compared to the other two taxonomies. #here are several interpretations of the domain and one of them was developed by 9. 0ave in )*?, 4see #able +.=5. #he psychomotor domain involves physical movement, coordination and use of the motor s!ill areas. 0evelopment of these s!ills re/uire practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techni/ues in execution.

1?

&ognitive Levels 'mi a ion

0escription

1xamples of 2erbs for Stating 3bjectives or 3utcomes

The student indicates a readiness to learn a certain complex s!ill. Imitation


includes repeating an act that has been demonstrated or explained. It includes trial and error until an appropriate response is achieved.

Assemble/ carryout/ copy/ construct/ repeat/ duplicate/ practice/ reproduce/ start/ try/ volunteer/ s6etch/ follo0.

(anip#la ion

The student continues to practice the s6ill until it becomes habitual and can be performed 0ith some confidence. The response is more comple but he or she is still not sure of himself or herself. The student attains the s6ill and proficiency is indicated by a 8uic6/ smooth and accurate performance. The response is comple and performed 0ithout hesitation. The student is involved at an even hi&her level of precision. The s6ill is 0ell developed. The student can adapt the s6ill accordin& to different re8uirements. The s6ill is automatic and the student is able to e periment and create ne0 0ays of usin& the s6ill.

2all the verbs for Imitation plus the follo0in&E@ ac8uire/ conduct/ do/ e ecute/ operate/ perform/ produce/ pro&ress/ use/ operate. 2all the verbs for Imitation and Manipulation plus the follo0in&E@ achieve/ automatise/ e ceed/ e cel,
master, reach, refine, surpass, accomplish.

)recision

Ar ic#la ion

Adapt/ chan&e/ alter/ reor&anise/ rearran&e/ revise.

*a #ralisa ion

Arran&e/ compose/ refine/ create/ desi&n/ ori&inate/ transcend.

&Source. 9. 0ave. >sychomotor 0omain, )*?<'

%a*le 3,= #he >sychomotor #axonomy The three ta onomies provide &uidelines for developin& instructional ob(ectives and learnin& outcomes in a curriculum plan. The ta onomies serve as a &uide to encoura&e teachers to move their learners from the lo0er outcomes to hi&her levels of learnin& in each domain.

20

DI(&$((ION DI(&$((ION @$E(%ION(+ @$E(%ION(+


1. 1. If If you you headin& headin& a a pro(ect pro(ect on on developin& developin& a a curriculum curriculum for for a a particular particular course course or or sub(ect/ sub(ect/ 0hich 0hich of of these these 3 3 models models of of curriculum curriculum development development 0ould 0ould you you adopt adopt to to &uide &uide you: you: 9hy: 9hy: 2. 2. ;ave ;ave a a loo6 loo6 at at any any course course or or pro&ramme. pro&ramme. Is Is there there a a clear clear statement statement of of curriculum curriculum ob(ectives ob(ectives and and instructional instructional ob(ectives to be achieved: ob(ectives to be achieved: b= b= 9ould 9ould you you say say that that students students 0ould 0ould be be clear clear about about 0hat 0hat they they are are e e pected pected to do in the course/ or do the ob(ectives simply delineate the content to do in the course/ or do the ob(ectives simply delineate the content areas areas that that the the course course 0ill 0ill cover: cover: c= c= Is Is there there an an e e plicit plicit relationship relationship bet0een bet0een the the ob(ectives ob(ectives and and the the teachin&5 teachin&5 learnin& learnin& methods methods employed employed in in the the sub(ect: sub(ect: d= d= Is Is summative summative assessment assessment carried carried out out by by anythin& anythin& other other than than class class tests tests and and e aminations: e aminations: e= e= Is Is there there any any mention mention in in them them of of the the affective affective side side to to learnin& learnin& in in the the f= f= If If not/ not/ 0hat 0hat do do you you thin6 thin6 0ould 0ould be be appropriate appropriate affective affective ob(ectives ob(ectives for for the the sub(ect: sub(ect:

RE"DIN#( ;enchey/ D. <1???=. The ne0 curriculum reform@ 0hat does it really mean: Mc*ill 3ournal of )ducation. Qol. 3$. <3=. p. 223. 2available at Pro4uestE. -eimer/ A. <1?4?=. A comprehensive arts curriculum model. #esign for 5rts in )ducation. vol. ?0<)=. pp. 3?5$3. 2available at Pro4uestE >rnstein/ A. and ;un6ins/ 1. 'urriculum@ 1oundations/ principle and issues. <1??4=. Aoston/ MA@ Allyn ! Aacon. C%apter 6 5ims" goals and objectives. .o0ell/ #. <2000=. 'urriculum@ An inte&rative introduction. Hpper .addle -iver/ DG@ *rentice5;all. C%apter 7 Studies of subject matter.

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