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CHAPTER 7

Polymers: Structure, General Properties and Applications

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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Range of Mechanical Properties for Various Engineering Plastics


TABLE 7.1 Material ABS ABS, reinforced Acetal Acetal, reinforced Acrylic Cellulosic Epoxy Epoxy, reinforced Fluorocarbon Nylon Nylon, reinforced Phenolic Polycarbonate Polycarbonate, reinforced Polyester Polyester, reinforced Polyethylene Polypropylene Polypropylene, reinforced Polystyrene Polyvinyl chloride
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UTS (MPa) 2855 100 5570 135 4075 1048 35140 701400 748 5583 70210 2870 5570 110 55 110160 740 2035 40100 1483 755

E (GPa) 1.42.8 7.5 1.43.5 10 1.43.5 0.41.4 3.517 2152 0.72 1.42.8 210 2.821 2.53 6 2 8.312 0.11.4 0.71.2 3.56 1.44 0.0144

Elongation (%) 755 7525 505 1005 101 42 300100 20060 101 20 12510 64 3005 31 100015 50010 42 601 45040

Poissons ratio () 0.35 0.350.40 0.460.48 0.320.40 0.38 0.38 0.46 0.35

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Chapter 7 Outline

Figure 7.1 Outline of the topics described in Chapter 7

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Structure of Polymer Molecules

Figure 7.2 Basic structure of polymer molecules: (a) ethylene molecule; (b) polyethylene, a linear chain of many ethylene molecules; molecular structure of various polymers. These are examples of the basic building blocks for plastics
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 7-4

Molecular Weight and Degree of Polymerization


Figure 7.3 Effect of molecular weight and degree of polymerization on the strength and viscosity of polymers.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

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Polymer Chains
Figure 7.4 Schematic illustration of polymer chains. (a) Linear structure-thermoplastics such as acrylics, nylons, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride have linear structures. (b) Branched structure, such as in polyethylene. (c) Cross-linked structure--many rubbers or elastomers have this structure, and the vulcanization of rubber produces this structure. (d) Network structure, which is basically highly cross-linked-examples are thermosetting plastics, such as epoxies and phenolics.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Polymer Behavior
Figure 7.5 Behavior of polymers as a function of temperature and (a) degree of crystallinity and (b) cross-linking. The combined elastic and viscous behavior of polymers is known as viscoelasticity.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Crystallinity
Figure 7.6 Amorphous and crystalline regions in a polymer. The crystalline region (crystallite) has an orderly arrangement of molecules. The higher the crystallinity, the harder, stiffer, and less ductile the polymer.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Specific Volume as a Function of Temperature


Figure 7.7 Specific volume of polymers as a function of temperature. Amorphous polymers, such as acrylic and polycarbonate, have a glass-transition temperature, Tg, but do not have a specific melting point, Tm. Partly crystalline polymers, such as polyethylene and nylons, contract sharply while passing through their melting temperatures during cooling.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Glass-Transition and Melting Temperatures of Some Polymers


TABLE 7.2 Material Nylon 6,6 Polycarbonate Polyester Polyethylene High density Low density Polymethylmethacrylate Polypropylene Polystyrene Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyvinyl chloride Rubber Tg (C) 57 150 73 90 110 105 14 100 90 87 73 Tm (C) 265 265 265 137 115 176 239 327 212

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

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Behavior of Plastics

Figure 7.8 General terminology describing the behavior of three types of plastics. PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) has Teflon as its trade name. Source: R. L. E. Brown.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Temperature Effects

Figure 7.9 Effect of temperature on the stress-strain curve for cellulose acetate, a thermoplastic. Note the large drop in strength and the large increase in ductility with a relatively small increase in temperature. Source: After T. S. Carswell and H. K. Nason.

Figure 7.10 Effect of temperature on the impact strength of various plastics. Small changes in temperature can have a significant effect on impact strength. Source: P. C. Powell.
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Elongation
(a) (b) Figure 7.11 (a) Loadelongation curve for polycarbonate, a thermoplastic. Source: R. P. Kambour and R. E. Robertson. (b) High-density polyethylene tensile-test specimen, showing uniform elongation (the long, narrow region in the specimen).

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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General Recommendations for Plastic Products


TABLE 7.3 Design requirement Mechanical strength Functional and decorative Applications Gears, cams, rollers, valves, fan blades, impellers, pistons Handles, knobs, camera and battery cases, trim moldings, pipe fittings Power tools, pumps, housings, sport helmets, telephone cases Lenses, goggles, safety glazing, signs, food-processing equipment, laboratory hardware Gears, wear strips and liners, bearings, bushings, roller-skate wheels Plastics Acetal, nylon, phenolic, polycarbonate ABS, acrylic, cellulosic, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride ABS, cellulosic, phenolic, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene Acrylic, polycarbonate, polystyrene, polysulfone Acetal, nylon, phenolic, polyimide, polyurethane, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

Housings and hollow shapes

Functional and transparent

Wear resistance

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Load-Elongation Curve for Rubber

Figure 7.12 Typical load-elongation curve for rubbers. The clockwise lop, indicating the loading and the unloading paths, displays the hysteresis loss. Hysteresis gives rubbers the capacity to dissipate energy, damp vibraion, and absorb shock loading, as is necessary in automobile tires and in vibration dampers placed under machinery.

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