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CHAPTER 6 : TRANSVERSE SHEAR

OBJECTIVE
EXPLAIN THE SHEAR IN
STRAIGHT MEMBERS
EXPLAIN THE SHEAR FORMULA
SOLVE THE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
Fig. 1
The shear V is result of
transverse shear stress
distribution that acts
over the beams cross
section (shown in fig.1)
Due to the
complementary property
of shear stress, the shear
stress developed in a
beam acts on both the
cross section and on
longitudinal planes
When the load is
applied, the boards
slide relative to one
another
LONGITUDINAL SHEAR STRESS
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
But when they are
bonded,
sliding is prevented
Longitudinal shear
stress develops
When a shear V is applied, non-uniform
shear-strain distribution over the cross
section will cause the cross section to
warp.
The relationship between moment and
shear
is
dx dM V =
SHEAR IN STRAIGHT MEMBERS
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
For rectangular cross section, shear stress
varies parabolically with depth and
maximum shear stress is along the neutral
axis.
Rectangular x-section
Consider beam to have rectangular
x-section of width b and height h as
shown.
Distribution of shear stress
throughout x-section can be
determined by computing shear
stress at arbitrary height y from
neutral axis, and plotting the
function. Hence,
Q = y
2
b
( )
1
2
h
2
4
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
Rectangular x-section
After deriving Q and applying
the shear formula, we have
t = y
2
( )
6V
bh
3
h
2
4
Equation 7-4
Eqn 7-4 indicates that
shear-stress distribution
over x-section is parabolic.
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
Rectangular x-section
At y = 0, we have
t
max
= 1.5
V
A
Equation 7-5
By comparison, t
max
is 50%
greater than the average
shear stress determined
from t
avg
= V/A.
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
Wide-flange beam
A wide-flange beam
consists of two (wide)
flanges and a
web.
Using analysis similar
to a rectangular x-
section, the shear
stress distribution
acting over x-section
is shown
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
Wide-flange beam
The shear-stress distribution
also varies parabolically over
beams depth
Note there is a jump in shear
stress at the flange-web junction
since x-sectional thickness
changes at this pt
The web carries significantly
more shear force than the
flanges
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
One major
assumption in the
development of the
shear formula is that
shear stress is
uniformly distributed
over width t at
section where shear
stress is to be
determined
By comparison with
exact mathematical
analysis based on
theory of elasticity,
the magnitude
difference can reach
40%
This is especially so
for the flange of a
wide-flange beam
LIMITATIONS ON USE OF SHEAR FORMULA
The shear formula will
also give inaccurate
results for the shear
stress at the flange-
web junction of a wide-
flange beam, since this
is a pt of sudden x-
sectional change
(stress concentration
occurs here)
Furthermore, inner
regions of flanges are
free boundaries, thus
shear stress at these
boundaries should be
zero
However, shear
formula calculated at
these pts will not be
zero
Fortunately, engineers
are often interested in
the average maximum
shear stress, which
occurs at the neutral
axis, where b/h ratio is
very small
Also, shear formula
does not give
accurate results when
applied to members
having x-sections that
are short or flat, or at
pts where the x-
section suddenly
changes
It should also not be
applied across a
section that intersects
the boundary of a
member at an angle
other than 90
o
DERIVATION OF THE SHEAR FORMULA
Recall that the flexure formula assumes that x-
sections must remain plane and perpendicular to
longitudinal axis of beam after deformation
This is violated when beam is subjected to both
bending and shear, we assume that the warping is so
small it can be neglected. This is true for a slender
beam (small depth compared with its length)
For transverse shear, shear-strain distribution
throughout the depth of a beam cannot be easily
expressed mathematically
THE SHEAR FORMULA
The shear formula was derived by considering horizontal
force equilibrium of the longitudinal shear stress and
bending stress distribution acting on a portion of a
differential segment of the beam
The shear formula is to be used on straight prismatic
members made of homogeneous material that has linear
elastic behavior.
Also the internal resultant shear force must be directed
along an axis of symmetry for the cross sectional area
The Shear Formula
The shear formula is used to
find the transverse shear
stress on the beams cross-
sectional area.
' ' where

'
A y ydA Q
It
VQ
A
= =
=
}
t
By first principles, flexure
formula and V = dM/dx, we
obtain
t = shear stress in member at the pt located a
distance y from the neutral axis. Assumed to
be constant and therefore averaged across the
width t of member
V = internal resultant shear force, determined from
method of sections and equations of
equilibrium
I = moment of inertia of entire x-sectional area computed
about the neutral axis
t = width of the members x-sectional area, measured at
the pt where t is to be determined
Q =
A
y dA = yA, where A is the top (or bottom)
portion of members x-sectional area, defined
from section where t is measured, and y is
distance of centroid of A, measured from neutral
axis
The Shear formula should not be used to
determine the shear stress on cross sections
that are short or flat, or at points of sudden
cross-sectional changes, or at a point on an
inclined boundary
THE STEPS
3 steps to apply the
shearing stress
1. Cut the member
perpendicular to
its axis at the
point where the
shear stress to
be determined
(obtain the
internal shear
V).
The neutral axis
for the cross
section must be
known.
2. Determined the
moment of
inertia (I) of the
cross sectional
area about the
neutral axis.
3. Specify the
width t, pass
an imaginary
horizontal
section through
the point where
the shear
stress is to be
determined
4. Determine Q
either by
integration
Q = ydA or by
using Q = A
(where A is the
top or bottom
portion of the
memberscross-
sectional area.
is the distance
to the centroid
of A measured
from the neutral
axis)
Beam shown is made from two boards. Determine the maximum
shear stress in the glue necessary to hold the boards together
along the seams where they are joined. Supports at B and C
exert only vertical reactions on the beam.
PROBLEM NO.1(1/5)
Internal shear
Support reactions and shear diagram for beam
are shown below. Maximum shear in the beam
is 19.5 kN.
SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(2/5)
Section properties
The centroid and therefore the neutral axis will be
determined from the reference axis placed at bottom
of the x-sectional area. Working in units of meters,
we have
y = = ... = 0.120 m
E yA
E A
Thus, the moment of inertia, computed about the
neutral axis is,
I = ... = 27.0(10
-6
) m
4
SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(3/5)
Section properties
The top board (flange) is being held onto the bottom
board (web) by the glue, which is applied over the
thickness t = 0.03m. Consequently A is defined as
the area of the top board, we have
Q = yA = [(0.180 m 0.015 m 0.120 m]
(0.03 m)(0.150 m)
Q = 0.2025(10
-3
) m
3
SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(4/5)
Shear stress
Using above data, and applying shear
formula yields
t
max
= = ... = 4.88 MPa
VQ
It
Shear stress acting at top of
bottom board is shown here.
It is the glues resistance to this
lateral or horizontal shear stress
that is necessary to hold the
boards from slipping at support C.
SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(5/5)
The beam is made of wood and is subjected to a resultant internal vertical shear force of
V = 3 kN. (a) Determine the shear stress in the beam at point P, and (b) compute the
maximum shear stress in the beam.
( ) ( )( )
3 4
mm 10 75 . 18 100 50 50
2
1
125 ' =
(

+ = = A y Q
( )( )
4 6
3
3
mm 10 28 . 16 125 100
12
1
12
1
= = = bh I
(a) The moment of inertia of the cross
sectional area computed about the neutral axis
is
Applying the shear formula, we have
( )( )
( )( )
(Ans) MPa 346 . 0
100 10 28 . 16
10 75 . 18 3
6
4
=


= =
It
VQ
p
t
PROBLEM NO.2(1/2)
(b) Maximum shear stress occurs at the neutral axis, since t is
constant throughout the cross section,
( )( )
( )( )
(Ans) MPa 360 . 0
100 10 28 . 16
10 53 . 19 3
6
4
max
=


= =
It
VQ
t
( )( )
3 4
mm 10 53 . 19 5 . 62 100
2
2 . 65
' ' =
|
.
|

\
|
= = A y Q
Applying the shear formula yields
SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.2(2/2)
7.72
7.75
7.80
SOLVING PROBLEMS
PROBLEM 7.72
PROBLEM 7.75
PROBLEM 7.80
PROBLEM 7.80
CO2 Analyze the determinate beams to
obtain SFD & BMD and determine the
bending and shearing stresses