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DES February 23, 2006

DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) is a mix of LES and RANS.

The aim is to treat the boundary layer with RANS and cap-

ture the outer detached eddies with LES. The model was

originally developed for wings at very high angles of attack.

The RANS model that was originally used was the one-

equation model by Spalart & Allmaras (1992). It can be

written (Spalart & Allmaras, 1992; Davidson et al., 2003a,

Sect. 4.6)

t

t

+

u

j

t

x

j

=

x

j

_

+

t

t

t

x

j

_

+

C

b2

t

t

x

j

t

x

j

+ P Y

t

=

t

f

1

(132)

The production term G and the destruction term Y have

the form

P = C

b1

S +

t

2

d

2

f

2

_

t

S =

_

2

S

ij

S

ij

_

1/2

,

S

ij

=

U

i

x

j

+

U

j

x

i

Y = C

w1

f

w

_

t

d

_

2

(133)

d in the RANS SA model is equal to the distance to the

nearest wall.

In Spalart et al. (1997) the DES model was proposed in

which d is taken as the minimum of the RANS turbulent

length scale d and the cell length = max(x

, x

, x

),

i.e.

d = min(d, C

des

) (134)

DES

Lars Davidson: MTF270 Turbulence Modelling

http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/doct/comp turb model 78

x

, x

and x

directions , and . The constant C

des

is usually set to

0.65.

In the boundary layer d < C

des

and thus the model

operates in RANS mode. Outside the turbulent boundary

layer C

des

< d so that the model operates in LES mode.

The modelled length scale is reduced and the consequence

is that the destruction term Y increases, which gives a re-

duction in the turbulent viscosity

t

. A reduced

t

gives a

smaller production term P so that the turbulent viscosity

is further reduced.

At rst sight it may seem that as the model switches

from RANS mode to LES mode thus reducing d, this would

give rise to an increased production term P through the

second term (see Eq. 133). However, this second term is a

viscous term and is active only close to the wall. This term

is sometimes neglected (Menter et al., 2003a)

DES based on two-equation models February 23, 2006

The model described above is a one-equation model. In

RANS mode it takes its length scale from the wall distance,

which in many situations is not a relevant turbulent length

scale. Recently, DES models based on two-equation models

have been formulated by Travin et al. (2002); De Langhe

et al. (2003); Kok et al. (2004). In these models the turbu-

lent length scale is either obtained from the two turbulent

quantities (e.g. k

3/2

/ or k

1/2

/) or the lter width . A

DES

Lars Davidson: MTF270 Turbulence Modelling

http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/doct/comp turb model 79

model based on the k model can read

k

t

+

x

j

(

U

j

k) =

x

j

_

( +

t

)

k

x

j

_

+ P

k

k

3/2

t

+

x

j

(

U

j

) =

x

j

__

+

t

_

x

j

_

+

k

(C

1

P

k

C

2

)

P

k

= 2

t

S

ij

S

ij

,

t

= C

k

1/2

t

The turbulent length scales

t

and

are computed as

t

= min

_

k

3/2

, C

k

/C

= min

_

k

3/2

, /C

_

The values of the constants can be (C

, C

k

, C

, C

1

, C

2

) =

(0.09, 1.31, 0.07, 1.09, 1.44, 1.92). Note that a low-Re k model

should be used. The AKN model Abe et al. (1994) could be

a suitable one.

In regions where the turbulent length scales are taken

from(LES mode) the -equation is still solved, but is not

used. However, it is needed as soon as the model switches

to RANS model again.

In the RANS mode the major part of the turbulence is

modelled. When the model switches to LES mode, the tur-

bulence is supposed to be represented by resolved turbu-

lence. This poses a major problem with this type of models.

If the switch occurs at location x

1

, it will take some dis-

tance L before the momentum starts to resolve any turbu-

lence. This is exactly what happens at an inlet in an LES

simulation if no real turbulence is given as inlet boundary

conditions. One way to get around this is to impose turbu-

lence uctuations as forcing conditions (Batten et al., 2004;

DES

Lars Davidson: MTF270 Turbulence Modelling

http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/doct/comp turb model 80

Piomelli et al., 2003; Davidson & Billson, 2006; Davidson &

Dahlstr om, 2006) at the location where the model switches

from RANS to LES mode.

DES based on the k SST model

The standard k model SST reads (Menter, 1994)

k

t

+

x

j

(

U

j

k) =

x

j

__

+

t

k

_

k

x

j

_

+ P

k

t

+

x

j

(

U

j

) =

x

j

__

+

t

_

x

j

_

+

P

k

2

+ 2(1 F

1

)

2

1

k

x

i

x

i

F

1

= tanh(

4

), = min

_

max

_

k

y

,

4

2

k

CD

y

2

__

t

=

a

1

k

max(a

1

, SF

2

)

F

2

= tanh(

2

), = max

_

2k

1/2

y

,

500

y

2

_

(135)

The SST model behaves as a k model near the wall

where F

1

= 1 and a k model far from walls (F

1

= 0).

All coefcients are blended between the k and the k

model using the function F

1

.

In DES the dissipation termin the k equation is modied

as Menter et al. (2003b)

DES

Lars Davidson: MTF270 Turbulence Modelling

http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/doct/comp turb model 81

kF

DES

, F

DES

= max

_

L

t

C

DES

, 1

_

= max {x, y, z}, L

t

=

k

1/2

bulent length scale from a RANS length scale ( k

1/2

/) to

a LES length scale ( ) when the grid is sufciently ne.

When F

DES

is larger than one, the dissipation term in the

k equation increases which in turn decreases k and thereby

also the turbulent viscosity. With a smaller turbulent vis-

cosity in the momentum equations, the modelled dissipa-

tion (i.e the damping) is reduced and the ow is induced to

go unsteady. The result is, hopefully, that a large part of

the turbulence is resolved rather than being modelled.

In some ows it may occur that the F

DES

term switches

to DES in the boundary layer because z is too small (smaller

than the boundary layer thickness, ). Different proposals

have been made (Menter & Kunz, 2004; Strelets, 2001) to

protect the boundary layer from the DES mode

F

DES

= max

_

L

t

C

DES

(1 F

S

), 1

_

, F

S

= 0, F

1

or F

2

DES

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