You are on page 1of 15

COTTON

index
A SEED PLANTED........................... A GLOBAL APPEAL.......................... A SURE FIBER............................. A JUST EXCHANGE.......................... A REFINED COMFORT...................... THE HISTORICAL......................... THE VINTAGE............................ THE CONTEMPORARY....................... COTTON SWATCHES........................

3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

t is nearly impossible to trace the exact origin of cotton cloth, but it is believed that the Indiginous people of the Indu River Valley in Pakistan, called the Harappans, first fabricated cotton around 6,000 years ago. There is also evidence that cotton cloth existed amongst the Egyptians along the Nile River dating back to around 12,000 B.C., before flax was known. Traces of over 7,000 year old cotton was also discovered within Mexican cave sites making cotton indigenous to early South and Central American people. Cotton spinning and weaving as an industry began in India, and cotton fabrics were produced as early as 1500 B.C. The Pima Indians began to grow cotton once the Spaniards discovered the New World. Christopher Columbus brought back cotton to Europe that he had discovered in the Bahamas and presented it to Queen Isabella. More cultures quickly began to understand the quality of cotton, spicifically within the late 1800s in medieval Europe. As soon as the colonies were established in the New World, Cotton seeds from Egypt were planted in Jameston, Virginia along the James River. Cotton was grown amongst the Southern states because the soil and climate were ideal for growing. Cotton fibers were

originially seperated by hand from the seeds. This time consuming and tedious job was soon revolutionized by Eli Whitneys invention of the Saw Tooth Cotton Gin in 1793. This gave the ability to process over 50 pounds of cotton a day and could spin fabric 10 times faster than the human hand. Along with new machinery produced in England, called the Spinning Jenny, this Industrial Revolution allowed for textile production to become Britains leading export. Manchester was founded on the manufacture and export of the crop and acquired the nickname cottonopolis In the Southern States in America, plantations required unskilled labor forces, or slaves, to run the cotton gins. Cotton could then be produced at a higher quality and more consistentaly at increased speed and productivity. In 1792 6,000 Bales of cotton were produced by these southern states, and after the invention of the cotton gin, production reached to nearly 100,000 bales. The United States was the most important supplier of cotton to the British Textile Industry and by 1859, U.S. production rose to 4.5 million bales of cotton, 2/3 of worldwide production. After the emergence of the U.S. Civil war, cotton production decreased by 200,000 bales causing Britain to outsource

a seed planted
in order to fulfill its cotton demand. After the war, the cotton production began to spread into the western territories. The New England colonies in the north began to build factories in order to manufacture yarn and in 1790 Samuel Slater built the first yarn spinning mill in Rhode Island. Most of these mills eventually headed down south between WWI and WWII. This change in location allowed for the mills to be closer to the cotton supply, cheaper power, access to cheap non-union labor, and incentives from state and local governments to encouage companies to set up mills within their own towns. By 1850, 80% of mills had migrated to the south but by 1980 many mills had closed because of the increased costs and competition from imported fabrics.

otton is produced and exported to over 100 different countries. It creates over 350 million jobs involving production, farming, distribution, and manufacturing.

Cotton is considered the most important apparel fabric throughout the world.
It holds 75% of the market for apparel in developing countries with the appropriate climates for growing. It grows in any part of the world where the growing season is long and the climate ranges from temperate to hot with adequate rainfall or irrigation. The largest producer and consumer of raw cotton is China. It holds nearly 40% of the global raw cotton output. In the United States, the Cotton Belt ranges from Southern Carolina and stretches west to Central California and everywhere south of that line. This is the second largest area of raw cotton

production. California holds the largest global yield per acre within the U.S., while Texas is the largest in production. India, Pakistan, Brazil, Burkina, Uxbekistan, Australia, Greece and Syria also hold a large portion of global cotton production. 75% of all cotton production is traded globally to countries that do not have the proper climate for domestic crop production such as Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thiland, Russia, and Taiwan. These countries rely heavily on this trade in

WORLD PRODUCTION OF COTTON

(80.9 million bales)


1. China: 28.55% 2. U.S.: 16.9% 3. Soviet Union: 15.5% 4. India: 8-9% 5. Pakistan: 2-4% 6. Brazil: 2-4% 7. Turkey: 2-4% 8.Egypt: 2-4%

A Global Appeal
5

order to supply their spinning, knitting, and weaving industries. There are specific factors that affect the rate of production such as the increasing value of the U.S. dollar against other companies, Increasing imports of cotton apparel and fabrics, changes in government incentives for growing cotton, and lastly other global factors such as the emergence of China in the world cotton trade.

otton is the most commonly used natural fiber. This is justified by its pleasing appearance, comfort, washability, moderate cost, and durability. The cotton plant is a small, greyish-green shrub with tri lobed leaves. It can grow on bushes ranging from 3-6 feet high. The blossom appears and once it falls off the boll begins to grow. When the boll is ripe, it splits, or flowers, and becomes a cup shape showing white puffy fibers, yellowish petals, and spots of red and purple at its base. The cotton fibers are single-cell, soft, white, fiberous hairs that cover the seed of the cotton plant within the bolls. Each cotton seed may grow to have nearly 20,000 fibers. The cultivation of cotton requires a temperate to hot climate, plenty of sunshine, moderate rainfall, and long periods without frost. It does not require heavy, and nutrient rich soils. The dry tropics and subtropics are typically the best climates for cotton cultivation.Cotton can be picked by machine or by hand. Machine picked cotton contains many immature fibers but it greatly reduces production time. Cotton

is taken to a gin after picking in order to remove the fiber from the seed. The fibers, or lint, are pressed into bales weing around 480 pounds and are sold to spinning mills. The seeds, after ginning, are covered with short fibers called linters are are removed and used as raw material for making rayon and acetate. The seeds are then crushed and made into cotton seed oil and meal. Cotton fiber quality is classified through a distinction of fiber length, strength, and color. The longer the fiber is, the stronger the yarn will be.

There are three distinctions amongst fiber length: 1. Upland: 7/8-1 1/4 thick fibers native to Mexico and Central America 2. Long Staple: 1 5/16-1 1/2 thick fiber from Egypt and South America. Varieties include American Pima, Egyptian and Sea Island cottons. 3. Short Staple: Less than 3/4 thick fibers from India and Eastern Asia

finish is a liquid ammonia based posed to sunlight, which will wash and gives cotton better luster eventually cause a yellow tarand dyability, wrinkle resistance, nish. strength, and abrasion resistance. COTTON PROPERTIES: Appearance: Matte, pleasant luster Soft-Thick drape Pleasant Texture Smooth to rough feel Durability:

Moderate abrasion resistance Long Staple fibers have a finmoderate tenacity Cottons finished with liquid amer quality because it is softer, Low elongation monia become less stiff than mersmoother, stronger, and more lustrous. Cotton is typically a creamy cinized fabrics. On the other hand, Comfort: untreated cotton has a matte finwhite color but it begins to beige ish, a soft drape, and a smooth as it ages. Rain will cause cotExcellent absorbancy touch. This is the most comfortable ton fibers to gray before harvest. Low Thermal Retention to wear and retains moisture well. Poorly ginned cotton will have Cotton is very suseptible to brown flecks left behing. The whitLongevity: shrinkage and should be pretreaded est cotton is preferred. Cotton can be given different fin- with a shrink-resistant spray. Most Low resiliency cotton can be washed and dried by ishes to improve quality. The proModerate Dimensional stability machine but dyed cotton will hold cess of mercerization gives cotton Moderate Elastic Recovery on to color for longer periods of a wash of caustic soda in order to time if washed in warm or cool waincrease fiber strength, abosorter. Cotton will oxidize when exbancy, and luster. Another common

A sure fiber
8

A just exchange

he cultivation process of cotton has a high carbon footprint and and unfortunate effect on biodiversity and the environment. Cotton uses a variety of pesticides and insecticides that pollute river eliminiting pests, but also their natural enemies, creating a secondary pest issue. The cultivation of cotton requires large amounts of water for irrigation. This causes the quality of soil to deplete and become less fertile. Industrial fertilizers used in cotton production use up large amounts of unrenewable energy sources, relseasing lare amounts of carbon dioxide. Many environmental groups are coming up with ways to decrease cottons carbon footprint.

Organic Cotton has a mroe ecologically sound and socially sustainable method of production. It does not pollute through the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. It instead relies on crop rotation and the use of the natural enemies of harmful insects to suppress them. It is far more expensive to produce, however it does not pollute and there is no over production. Turkey is the primary producer of this type of cotton, and is grown in nearly 20 countries.

ORGANIC COTTON:

otton production has been exploiting cotton farmers in developing countries because of high its demand and competitive pricing. A farmers income is typically lower than the cost of production due to low crop yeields and market prices. This drives farmers into debt. These farmers are highly dependent on the income of cotton in volatile world markets, as cotton is a cash crop, and are also vulnerable to the fluctuation of cotton prices. Another social concern of cotton production is forced child labor. Over 132 million girls and boys work in agriculture according to IPEC. Children are employed in tasks such as cottonseed production and dangerous pesticide spraying and harvesting.

Fair Trade Cotton is cotton that has met the international Fairtrade standard for cotton seed production. Cotton farmers are susceptible to price exploitation and these certifications base the Fairtrade price on the actual cost of production. If the market price is higher than the minimum price than the market price applies. Under these regulations farmers recieve a stable market price, and more direct tradeing relationships. This cotton is eligible to carry the Fairtrade mark.

FAIR TRADE COTTON:

10

APPAREL USES:

A refined comfort
blouses shirts dresses

suits jackets skirts knitwear pants hoisery neckwear

childrenswear activewear seperates swimwear

otton is the most commonly used fiber for apparel comprising of about 40% of the market. Comfort is its most defining quality. It has manny other advantages such as its ability to control moisture, its insulation, durability and weather resistance. Cotton is also hypoallergenic, making it a choice material for those who suffer from asthma or allergies, even those with sensitive skin prone to irritation. Cotton fibers allow for good air circulation keeping the body cool and dry in hot humid weather. This makes cotton an ideal fabric for workwear. Cotton fabric is fairly inexpensive , dyes easily, and can blend well with other fibers making it a popular and functional material for apparel. Lastly it is the only fiber that becomes stronger when wet. It is the preferred coice for those in working environments such as hospitals and firefighter uniforms since it can endure high temperature, be sterilized, and works well with flame-retardant substances.

11

12

100% PRINTED COTTON Squiggle Print with Border and Gold. 44 Wide. Measure Boutique #AK03

CALICO COTTON

KEEPSAKE CALICO FABRIC- BELLA LIGHT GREY 100% Cotton. 43 Wide. Joann Fabrics #12491945

1750-75 robe la franaise. Cotton print designed for European market.

n India, painted cottons were developed in the fourteenth century. In the seventeenth century, Europeans began to import these fabrics. They were appreciated because of their bright colors, lightweight hand, and ease in laundering. In France, these printed fabrics were called indiennes (French for Indians), although they were also known as toiles peintes (painted cloths) and toiles imprims (printed cloths). In England and the American colonies calico, derived from the Indian port of Calicut, was a general name for Indian cotton fabric. Chintz, from the Hindi word chint (variegated), was a term for printed or painted calicoes. The English and American colonialists also used the term Indiennes to refer to Frenchmade copies of Indian printed cottons.

the historical
13

1650-99 robe, painted cotton, India. concern

1780-85 dress, block printed & painted cotton, England

14

Gunne Sax Cotton Gauze (3) 1970s Pierre Cardin, Cotton Twill (1) 2000s Pendleton, Cotton Flannel (2) 1950s

The vintage
16

15

the contemporary

the row resort 2014


17 18

COTTON SWATCHES

HEAVIER COTTON GAUZE Optically whitened, Soft lightly textured. 3.7oz per square yd, 50 wide, 48x40 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #HCG

PIMATEX COTTON-PFD High quality for sewing fine clothing. Dyes well. 3.7oz per yd. 45 wide. 133x72 Thread Count www.dharmatrading.com #PTC45/58

POPLIN 100% Cotton tightly woven, medium weight fabric. 6oz per square yd, 60 wide, 108x50 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #POP60

OSNABURG COTTON 45 100% Cotton. Midweight fabric with linen look and tan flecks. 4.5oz per yd. 45 Wide. 40x32 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #OC45

WATERFORD COTTON 45 100% Cotton. Midweight fabric with a linen look. 4.5 oz per square yd, 45 wide. 40x32 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #WC45

MODIAL RAYON JERSEY 95% Rayon, 5% Lycra. 10oz per yd. 60 Wide. www.dharmatrading.com #MJ60

SANDWASHED COTTON BROADCLOTH 60 No optic whiteners. As soft as fine suede with the advantage of being practical. 4oz per square yd, 60 wide. 133x72 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #SWCB60

MERCERIZED COMBED COTTON BROADCLOTH Very finely woven fabric. Mercerized for increased dying ability. Good for batik and fine painting. 3.5oz per yd. 133x72 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #MCCB

COTTON SATEEN A very smooth finish on one side, a silky sheen. A softer, finely woven fabric. 20 yd bolts. www.dharmatrading.com #QCS

10

KONA COTTON-PFD Great for quilting, childrenswear, shirting and dresses. Soft, even weave fabric with great durability. 4.4oz per yd. 45 Wide. 60x60 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #KC

10

21

22

11

JERSEY COTTON 100% Cotton. Slightly stretchy fabric with a smooth flat face. 6.5 oz per yd. 58/60 Wide. www.dharmatrading.com #JER40

11

16

COTTON SHEETING Mid weight fabric. Suitable for all clothing types. 4.5oz per yd. 55-58 Wide. 60x60 Thread Count www.dharmatrading.com #CS

16

12

55% HEMP/45% COTTON JERSEY 30 yd. bolts, 26/28 wide tube (52) www.dharmatrading.com #HJ

12

17

COTTON PRINT CLOTH MERCERIZED Great dyeability, perfect for beginning dyers and painters. 3.1oz per yd. 45 Wide. 80x80 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #CPC

17

13

ESSEX LINEN-PFD 55% Linen/45% Cotton Blend. Slightly textured with a linen look. Optically Whitened 5.5oz per yard. 52 Wide. 51x49 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #ESS COTTON VELVETEEN -PFT 100% Cotton. Woven with a close weft pile in imitation of velvet. Stronger and denser than silk velvet with a shorter pile. 220g per yd. 44 Wide. www.dharmatrading.com #CVEL

13

18

COTTON LYCRA PFD 90% Cotton, 10% Lycra. Dyes well. 6.3oz per yd. 60 Wide before shrinkage. www.dharmatrading.com #CLF

18

14

14

19

COTTON LAWN 100% Cotton. Optically whitened. 2oz per yd. 56/57 Wide. 90x88 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #CL55

19

15

55% COTTON 45% SILK 43 Similar to crepe back satin. One side is shiny and one is matte. 2.4 oz per yd. 43 Wide. www.dharmatrading.com #CS45

15

20

COTTON INTERLOCK Double knit fabric. A stretchy and warm fabric. 6oz per yd. 62 Wide. www.dharmatrading.com #CIL

20

23

24

21

COMBED COTTON LAWN High quality, semi-sheer lawn. Suitable for blouses, lingerie and fine sewing. 20 yd bolts. www.dharmatrading.com #CCL

21

22

COMBED COTTON 110 100% Mercerized Soft Cotton. 3.3oz per yd. 110/112 Wide. 92x88 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #CC110

22

23

BAMBOO COTTON 54 50% Bamboo, 50% Cotton. Soft quality midweight sheeting. 4oz per yd. 54 Wide. 130x70 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #BAMC

23

24

COTTON DUCK NATURAL Grade-A duck. Lighter weight duck fabric. Drapes and dyes well, though natural color dyes darker. 7oz per yd. 63 Wide. 84x28 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #7CDN63

24

25

COTTON DUCK BLEACHED Grade-A duck. 7oz per yard. 60/45 Wide. 84x29 Thread Count. www.dharmatrading.com #7CDB60

25

25

morgan mccarty fash 105-05 introduction to textiles professor stephanie foy