You are on page 1of 49

Biochemistry 19 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

Prepared and presented by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.


Basic Medical Sciences & CK Teacher

Body Fluids

Reference resource: Body fluid - Wikipedia

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Summary

31

Comparison of Body Fluids The fluids of the body are located inside tissue cells (intracellular fluid) or outside tissue cells (extracellular fluid). Volumetrically, most of the extracellular fluids are of two types: blood and interstitial fluid. The latter is the fluid that occupies spaces between cells and moves in the lymph vessel. Other extracellular body fluids that occur in smaller amounts are urine, digestive juices, and cerebrospinal fluid. Chemically, blood (plasma) and interstitial fluid (including lymph) are similar. intracellular fluid is chemically different from the extracellular fluids. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport. Nearly all oxygen that is transported from the lungs to tissue cells is transported by the blood in the form of oxyhemoglobin. Most carbon dioxide transported from the cells to the lungs is transported by the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions dissolved in the plasma. Smaller amounts also travel as carbaminohemoglobin and as CO gas dissolved in plasma. The formation of the two hemoglobin compounds and the dissolving of various materials in the plasma are influenced by equilibria related to concentration differences of materials in the blood as it passes through capillaries in the lungs or near tissue cells.

32

Chemical Transport to the Cells Substances transported by the blood to tissue cells move from the blood, through capillary walls, into the interstitial fluid, then through cell membranes, and finally into the cytoplasm of the cells. Waste products of the cells move in the opposite direction. The movement of fluid through capillary walls is governed by the blood pressure against the capillary walls and by osmotic pressure differences that arise from protein concentration differences between blood and interstitial fluid.
Constituents of Urine Normal urine is about 96% water and 4% dissolved organic and inorganic wastes. The composition of urine gives an excellent indication of the health of an individual; therefore, urinalysis is a routine procedure in physical check-ups.

33

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Fluid balance in the body involves a balance between fluid intake and output, and a proper distribution of fluid between the three fluid areas

Fluid and electrolyte balance are interdependent Water enters the body through food and drink and leaves in the form of urine, water vapor in exhaled air, perspiration, and feces
The amount of fluid in the body is maintained or restored primarily by variations in urine output, which is regulated chiefly by the hormones vasopressin and aldosterone

Acid-Base Balance. Blood pH is normally in the range of 7.35-7.45

Acidosis and alkalosis exist when the blood pH becomes lower or higher than these values.

Buffer Control of Blood pH. The blood contains three major buffer systems: the bicarbonate system, the phosphate system, and the plasma protein system

The most important is the bicarbonate system, which consists of a mixture of bicarbonate ions and carbonic acid.
34

Respiratory Control of Blood pH The respiratory system influences blood pH by regulating the elimination of carbon dioxide and water

Because carbon dioxide and water are produced during the decomposition of carbonic acid, the greater the elimination of carbon dioxide and water from the body, the greater is the elimination of carbonic acid from the blood

Urinary Control of Blood pH The kidneys influence blood pH by varying the amount of hydrogen ions excreted in the urine

When the blood is too acidic, carbonic acid is converted to bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions The hydrogen ions are excreted, and the bicarbonate ions enter the blood
35

Acidosis and Alkalosis Acidosis and alkalosis can result from metabolic or respiratory causes. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are the result of abnormal breathing patterns

Alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation that accompanies hysteria, anxiety, or prolonged crying


Acidosis can result from hypoventilation brought on by such factors as an overdose of depressant narcotics or anesthesia

Metabolic acidosis can result from the metabolic production of acids in the body or the elimination of alkaline materials as during severe diarrhea. Metabolic alkalosis results from the loss of acid in some form such as the prolonged vomiting of acidic stomach contents or the ingestion of alkaline materials
36

Formative Assessment

37

The principal cation in the plasma is: chloride potassium calcium sodium bicarbonate

38

sodium

39

Which of the following is the main anion found in intracellular fluid? phosphate chloride carbonate bicarbonate sulfate

40

phosphate

41

Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood primarily as: carbonic acid bicarbonate carbonate carbon dioxide carbon dioxide-heme complex

42

bicarbonate

43

Which hormone helps maintain sodium levels?? insulin glucogon Vasopressin estrogen

44

Vasopressin

45

What is the most abundent buffer system in the blood? bicarbonate phosphate glycosidic protein

46

protein

47

The end

48

Thank you for your attention

The end

Further Study: Biochemistry and Cell Biology College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University - Biochemistry Online Indiana University - Medical Biochemistry Page MIT - Biology Hypertextbook NLM - Biochemistry NLM - Molecular Cell Biology University of Utah - NetBiochem

49