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QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES

UPON THE

Rudiments of Music.
BY

STEWART MACPHERSON
(Professor of

Harmony and Composition at the Royal Academy of Music, London).

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QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES


UPON THE

RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC

BY

Stewart Macpherson
{P/o/essor of

Harmony and

Composition at the Royal

Academy of Music, London).

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LONDON: JOSEPH WILLIAMS, LIMITED,


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Great Portland Street, W.


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HA
BRIGHT

PROVO.UTAH

Digitized by the Internet Archive


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Brigham Young University

http://archive.org/details/questionsexercisOOmacp

PREFACE.

This

collection
in

of

Questions
that

and Exercises

has been
to

prepared
Author's

the

hope

such a companion
"

the
to

"

Rudiments

of

Music

may be

helpful

teachers and students alike.

An
series

endeavour has been made to exclude from the

any questions that have not a clear and unmistakable


;

practical value

moreover

while

" catch " questions

and

pure feats of arithmetical calculation are entirely repudiated

it

has been the aim of the Author to

make

the student

think,

and apply principles

in framing his answers, instead

of trusting to

the memorizing or sets of rules, of whose


is

reason and underlying meaning he too often

in

complete

and

blissful ignorance.

London, 1907.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE.

Introductory Questions
CHAPTER.

I. Duration of Sounds. Notes


II. Pitch of Sounds. The
III.

Staff

and Clefs
Flats. &c.

Pitch

of Sounds {continued). Sharps,

...

9
id

IV. Accent and Time

V. Accent and TiMK{continued). The Grouping of Notes


VI. Scales.The Major
VII. Scales
Scale

13

17

{continued). The Minor Scale

18

VIII. Scales {continued). The Chromatic

Scale

19

IX. Intervals
X.
XI.
XII.

20

Signs of Abbreviation, Embellishment, &c.

...

23

Ornaments
Italian and other terms used in Music
...

26

32

XIII. Harmony

33
in

XIV. Appendix A
Music")
XV.

the Author's " Rudiments of


38

Definitions

Miscellaneous Questions

39

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES


UPON

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC


INTRODUCTORY QUESTIONS.
I.

2.

3.

How musical sound produced What pitch How caused Upon what depends the force of a sound?
is
?

is

is it

4.

Upon

what does the quality of a sound

chiefly

depend

5. Describe in what way the presence, harmonics affects a sound.

in

varying degree,

of

6. Name three important necessaries in the indication of musical sounds, and state the purpose of each.

CHAPTER
1. What
is

I.

Duration of Sounds.
a

Notes.

Note?
the various kinds of note in general use at the

2.

Name, in order,
is

present day.
3.

v.

4.

What a Breve Give the French


?

Write

this sign.

names

for

the

various kinds of notes in

common
5.

use.

What
(a)
(6)

is

the relative value of the following?

\j

J* and

J
I

(c)

O
m
I

and and

^
F$

and

(d)

[e)

|]o||

and

6. Indicate the manner in which it is customary to write quavers, semiquavers, &c, when such occur in succession.

6
7-

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

()
(b)

How is

the duration of a note affected by a dot placed after


in quavers,

it (

Give the value,


dotted crotchet.

of a dotted minim,

and of a

8. 1

Write a single sound of


(<j)

the value of
(c)

{b)

Seven quavers. Six crotchets.


((f)

Three demi-semiquavers.

(d) Fourteen semiquavers.

Twelve demi-semiquavers.

9.

What

traction of the original note

dot,

when two
10.

is represented by the second dots are placed after such a note ?

Name

the following rests, and place

them

in order of value,

beginning with the longest

:
,

or r,

-,

11. State the number of demi-semiquavers that would represent the value of each of the following (a)
(b)
(c)

(d)
(<?)

A doubly-dotted crotchet. A dotted quaver. A dotted semibreve. A doubly-dotted minim. A dotted crotchet + a doubly-dotted
A
is

(/)
1

doubly-dotted crotchet
a Tie, or Bind
?

?.

quaver. dotted quaver.

2.

--What

13.

Express
1

by means of a single note followed by one or two

dots, as the case

may

be, each of the following


1

(a)

0^,4
1

id)
fe
(e)

ok

N
-,
I

Kb)

Jw^^
N

^
1

IS

CHAPTER
Titcii of Sounds.
I.

II.

The
What

Staff, and Clefs.

What

purpose

is

served by the Staff, or Slave?


{/>)

2.

-{a) Describe a Staff;

is

the Great Staff?

3.

Which

letters

of the alphabet are

commonly used

in

naming

iounds?

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


the line or space each of the following sounds
4.
:

Name

upon the Great

Staff that represents

A above Middle C. (6) E below Middle C. (c) The second G above (d) The second A below (e) The second D above (/) The second F below
(a)

Middle Middle Middle Middle

C. C. C. C.

5. Write, upon the Great Staff, a complete alphabetical succession of sounds, commencing with that represented by the space below the first, or lowest, line, and proceeding upwards as far as that represented by the space above the eleventh, or highest, line. Write each sound as a semibreve, and affix its alphabetical name.

6. When the same letter-name recurs at a higher or lower pitch upon the staff, what term is used to represent the relationship of any two such sounds ?

air vibrating

Middle C to be produced by a string or column of 256 times per second, what number of vibrations would be represented by the C next above ?
7.

Supposing

8.

Of how many lines does


Which
(a)
{b)

the Staff usually consist at the present

day

9.

set of lines is selected

Great

Staff, for the

from the eleven comprising the purpose respectively of:


(<r)

The Tenor Voice. The Soprano Voice. (<?) The right hand
lines,

{d)

The Bass The Alto

Voice. Voice.
?

in

Piano or Organ music


line

* In

naming the
{a)
(<:)

reckon the lowest


(6)

of the Great Staff as

Number

1.

10.

sign

What is a Clef? How many clefs are


is

What
?

purpose

there

Name

served by such a and write them.


is

11. What impression following examples ?

conveyed to the mind by each of the

()

J
W

(*)

pi

i
C
as
it

m
would appear
(')

12.

Write
:

Middle

in each of the following

instances

(*)

tm

(e)

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON


13.

Write the following


'

passage upon the Alto

staff,

prefixing the

requisite clef:

i wj -^-^U
14.

e
J
J-

* -t'o
staff,

0/

S P

16.

requisite clef

Write the following passage upon the*~ Tenor -"^""


:

prefixing the

hr-fc^

15. Write the following passage the requisite clef:

a Ledger Line, and what is it used for? Give some examples of ledger lines representing sounds both of low pitch and of
is

What
[a)

S
it

upon the Soprano

staff,

prefixing

high pitch.
17.
clefs are nowadays exclusively used in music for the Pianoforte or Organ ? Name some uses for the C clef at the present day.

Which

(5)

18.

Write

the following passage (written thus for a

Tenor voice)

tn the actual pitch at

which

would be sung

for

the following passage, as a Tenor voice upon the Treble staff


19.
:

Write

P^

m
would appear when
written

it

m
20.
staff,

Write the following passage prefixing the requisite clef :

an octave higher upon the Treble

tjjjgl
21.
staff,

1 1

rrrS-FEN=*S
an octave lower upon the Bass

Write the following passage prefixing the requisite clef :

3ES *-F
22.

^1
?

What

is

Brace

When

and where

is it

met with

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


CHAPTER
What
a Semitone?
III.

Pitch of Sounds [continued). Sharps, Flats, &c.


I.

[a)
{!>)

is

Between which sounds, represented only by the white keys of the Pianoforte or Organ Keyboard, do semitones occur ?

{c)

What

is

Tone

2.

What
the
?

lying at

names are given to the black keys representing sounds distance of a semitone above or below the adjacent

white keys
3.

What
Write

effect

has

{a)

a Sharp,

(5)

a Flat,

upon a note

a chain of semitones, commencing on Middle C, and proceeding upwards alphabetically until the octave above that note is reached, using sharps where necessary.
4.
5. Write a similar chain downivards from the Middle C, using flats where necessary.

so reached, as far

as

6.

Describe
;

Semitone

the terms (a) Diatonic giving an example of each.

Semitone

[b)

Chromatic

7. What is meant by the term examples of such Key-signatures.

Key-signature?

Give

some

8.

9.

What When

is

an Accidental

Give some examples.


?

is

the sign called a Natural necessary


effect of

Write

this sign.

10.

11.

Describe the Indicate two

a Double-sharp and of a Double-flat.

methods of contradicting

double-sharps

and

double-flats.
12.

13.

For how long does the of an Accidental Would you regard the note marked * as representing G sharp
effect
last ?
?

or

natural

Give your reason.

$h

g ^cgrr^r
;

33

14. The black key lying between G and A on the Pianoforte or Organ keyboard can be described either as G$ or A J7 to all other notes three names are possible. Commencing upon C, give the three names by which each of these note*' nay be described. What terra

expresses this change of

name

it)

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

15.

Give

the Italian, French and

German names

for

Sharp and

Flat.

16.-- Give the English equivalents of the following terms, stating whether each is Italian. French or German
:

(a) {d)
{c)

Fa bcmolle.

{d) Si diesis.
()

Re
Es.

diese.

Sol bemol.

(/) His.

CHAPTER

IV.

Accent and Time.


I.

-What

is

meant by the following terms: {a) Accent;

(t>)

Time?

2.

The
;

terms

Time and "Tempo"

are often confused with one

another
3.

distinguish between them.


is

4.

use What a Bar-line, and what Describe what meant by a Bar (or Measure) of
is its

is

music.

5.

(a)

What name is given to the two vertical lines drawn from top to bottom of the staff, as at * ?
Is the

{b)
(c)

time broken at this point, or not


is

What

the object of the sign

a*^ G>
6.

G>r

# ^Z

Z2ZE

o oWi
?

7.

Upon what do the various kinds of Time depend How many main kinds of Time are there in
them, and give an example of each.

general use?

Name

8. What is meant by the term Time-signature? method upon which Time-signatures are constructed.

Explain

the

9.

10.

What What
?

is

understood by the Simple form of any Time

Times are

indicated

by

the

following

signatures

respectively

3
16


THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

II.

Give

the Time-signatures that


(a)
(6)
{/)

would represent the following :


in crotchets. in

Simple Duple Time

Simple Quadruple Time

minims.

Simple Triple Time


succinctly

in quavers.

12. Describe

the

difference

between the Simple and

Compound
i

forms of a Time.
in the

J.

Describe fully the method by which the Time-signature


of a

Compound form
14. What
15.
is

Time

is

constructed.

a Triplet?

What
:

Times are

indicated

by

the

following

Signatures

respectively

6
16.

8'

9
16'

6 4'

12

'

9 32'
:

12

Give two instances of each of


(a)
{b)
(c)

the following

Compound Duple Time. Compound Triple Time. Compound Quadruple Time.


Compound Time-

17Re- write the following passage, with the signature that would exactly reproduce the effect
:

0"

4=t

P P6 P
1

-el

cj-rdrH

^#1
18.

=A

ie=&c

t=t

EE

4^ w^
:

II

Re-write the following passage, with the Simple Time-signature


effect

by the use of which the exact

could be reproduced

2
^&

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

T=m

m& g^g? m 0r
19.

&?=m m
two passages

Wherein
?

lies

the difference in effect between the

given below

Explain fully.

(a)

is
20.

4
;

nt

IS

Describe " Alia Breve " Time


What
is

give two methods of indicating

it

in the Time-signature.

21

a Couplet, or Duplet

22. Re- write the following passage, with the Compound Timesignature by the use of which the exact effect could be reproduced
:

" J

3,

3-

03

'

#JM
J-

1=1
m'-a
J-a
I

4^

k *s
J
a

<a

^-a

I m a

"
and

Describe the terms Quadruplet, Quintuplet, 23. Septolct, and give an example of the use of each.

Sextolet

24. Describe Quintuple and Septuple Times, giving one Timesignature representing each.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


CHAPTER
V.

13

Accent and Time {continued).

The Grouping of Notes.


Give the broad, general rule that should be obstrved I. grouping quavers, semiquavers, &c., in instrumental music.
2.

in

In vocal music,
-Group*
(a)

what regulates such grouping?

3.

Six quavers in

]jf

time,

and

in

q
,

time.

(b)

Twelve semiquavers

in

q
in

and

.~. times.

Q
(c)

Eighteen demi-semiquavers

.g

time.

4.

-Correct the following instances of faulty grouping

()

K
:

w
(0

rpTOxr~i

p
(/)

WL

id)

urttPTT^
w

limlilULi
jil

CCJ CJl

All questions upon the grouping 01 notes are to be taken as referring to instrumental music, unless vocal music is specially indicated.

<4

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON


(f)

%Ep?-tf-rrn

(*)

S
(0

ifc=t

JT
^H*

eLTC /'J eH

I:

^B

w11

j p-r-crgi

(0

Give two exceptions 5. answer to Question 1.


C.

to

the

general rule enunciated

in

the

Correct the grouping

in the following vocal

=*
Ev
-

3
*ry

a
val

ley

^^
.
.

passage

:
ed

&c.

shall

be ex

alt

7. Correct the faulty use of rests in the following passages, stating the principle violated in every instance
:

()

i
(.)

ill

S3

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


8.

IS

What

kind of rest

is

employed

for

whole bar's silence?

Name

an exception.

9. Is the minim rest, at the beginning bars respectively, correct or incorrect ? and

and end of the following

why

c*

&umsM\
10.

>

ii

cr
?

Is the
?

minim

rest in

the following bar correct, or incorrect

and why

i^g
11.

m
examples are correct, and

Which
?
(rf)

of

the

following
?

which

incorrect

Give your reasons

w
W*=\
r>
i

~n

n=cz pi

w
12.

^s

fit

g
:-

^i

Complete the following bars with the necessary rests


#

^E3

t>

a-

^m
>

I
in

iNt
Is)

^
{h)

1 %m
s(0

^-

(/)

<-

(*)

(0

16

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON


~
()
9 -JL
-i

(*)

0>>

^ iti

"T7

iiza:

S^^^l^i
Syncopation must be produced
in a different

13.

Define Syncopation, and give four examples.


way
in

N.B. The

each instance.

14. riace
(a)

the correct Time-signatures to the following passages

(6)

(c)

ij

rip r;

ti^mihr^z

il^C^iCC^m ^3 a $fi4i "jJto^ a m


(/)

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

17

CHAPTER
Scales.

VI.

The Major
I.-

Scale.

What

is

a Scale

Give the derivation of the word.

2. Write one
the Pianoforte.
3.

octave of a scale corresponding to the white keys of

Describe

the term Tetrachord.

4.

What

is

a Diatonic Scale

5. What is a Major Scale ? Write the Major Scale of C, marking the points at which the semitones occur.

6.

What
D

is

the use of sharps or

flats in

scale-formation

Illustrate

by examples.
7.

Which Tetrachord
Major ?

of the scale of

Major

is

found also in the

scale of

8. At what distance from the key-note of any given scale will the key-note of the scale having one sharp more be found ? Give an example, stating which degree of the 'uew scale needs so to be sharpened.

9. At what distance from the key-note of any given scale will the key-note of the scale having one flat more be found ? Give an example, stating which degree of the new scale needs so to be flattened.
up

What is a Key-signature? Write a table of Key-signatures and including seven sharps and seven flats, naming the Major Scale indicated by each signature.
10.

to

* * #

Shew these signatures not only upon the Treble and Bass upon the Soprano, Alto, and Tenor staves.

staves, but also

11. What is the meaning of the term Enharmonic? enharmonic form of the Scales of Dp, Fj, and B major.

Give the

12. Give the technical name usually associated with each degree of the scale, and explain the meaning of each name.

Write one octave of the following Major Scales, naming the 13. Super-tonic and Sub-mediant of each. Use no key-signature, but place an accidental before each note that needs one
:

A, Ep, F#, Db, E, Gj7.


Write the first two scales on the Treble staff, the third on the Alto, the fourth on the Tenor, the fifth on the Soprano, and the las? on the Bass staJT.

i8

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UrON

14. Write one octave of the following signature in each case


:

Major Scales, with key,-, \ (treble


,
.

(a)
(b)
/i\

B?, commencing on

the Sub-dominant.
t
i

(0
(d)
{c)

D G?
t-v

,, ,,
,,

,, ,,

Leading-note. J

stafl.)

Dominant.
Mediant.
Super-tonic.

(Alto

staff.)

,,

(Tenor

staff.)
staff.)

Ap
Cp

,,

(Soprano
J

{J)Jt
C?)

Sub-mediant,
Tonic.

CHAPTER
The Minor
I.
is

VII.

Scales [continued).

Scale.
?
it

2.

What meant by a Minor Scale State how derives name. In how many forms may the second tetrachord of a minor scale
its
?

appear

Give an example of each, marking the position

of

the

semitones.
3.

Describe the Harmonic Minor Scale


[a)
What is the Melodic Minor how many forms does it exist ?

why
{b)

is it

so called
is its

4.
[c)

Scale ?

What

purpose

In

5. Write both the Harmonic and the Melodic forms (ascending and descending) of the Scale of F Minor. Use no key-signature, but

place an accidental before each note that needs one.


6. Explain the method of indicating the signature of a minor scale. Give any reasons for considering the method usually adopted an unfortunate and misleading one.
7. Write a table of key-signatures, up to and including seven sharps and seven flats, naming the minor scale indicated by each signature.
8. Write one octave of the following scales (ascending arid descending), naming the Mediant and Dominant of each. Use no keysignature, but place an accidental before each note that needs one:

(a)
{b)
(c)

minor, harmonic form.

(Treble
(Bass

staff).

El? minor, melodic form.

staff). staff).

FJ

minor, harmonic form. minor, melodic form.

(Soprano
(Tenor
(Alto
(Bass

(d)
(t)

DP
E

staff).

minor, harmonic form. minor, melodic form.

staff).
staff).

(/)

Gb

THE RUDIMENTS OE MUSIC.

19
in

9. Write one octave of the following scales, with key-signature each case
:

(a) IJj?
(b)
(c)

minor, harmonic form, commencing on the Sub-mediant.

D
F
13

minor, melodic form, commencing on the Super-tonic.

minor, harmonic form, commencing on the Mediant.


minor, melodic form, commencing on the Dominant.

(d)
{e)

A|? minor, harmonic form, commencing on the Leading-note.


1'

[/)

minor, melodic form, commencing on the Sub-dominant.

{g)

Gl

minor, harmonic form, commencing on the Tonic.

Write the first two scales on the Treble staff, the third on the Alto, the fourth on the Tenor, the fifth on the Soprano, and the two last on the Bass staff.
10. State which note of a Harmonic Minor Scale has always to be expressed by an accidental ; also which notes of an ascending Melodic Minor have to be similarly expressed.

II.

Describe the terms Relative Minor and Tonic Minor.


What difference
{a)
(b)

12.

in the

number
its its

of signs

is

there between the

signatures of

A A

Major Scale and Major Scale and

Relative Minor?

Tonic Minor

Give examples

to

prove your statements.

CHAPTER
Scales

VIII.

{continued).
Scale.
forms of Chromatic
?

The Chromatic
I.

What

is
?

a Chromatic Scale

How many
?

Scale are there


2.

What

are their

names

Describe the formation


(a)

of the true
step,

Illustrate

by constructing, step by

Harmonic Chromatic Scale. the Harmonic Chromatic

Scale of F.
3.

by
{b)

Which two degrees of the Diatonic Scale are never inflected accidental in forming the Harmonic Chromatic Scale ? Which degree of the Diatonic Scale is always raised?
an

Write, without key-signature, a Harmonic Chromatic Scale 4. rrom each of the following notes G, EJ7, 13, Dp, D, G.
:

%* Vary
5.

the clef in each instance.

Write,
E

with

Scales of

(Bass

staff),

major key-signature, the and A|? (Treble staff).

Harmonic Chromatic

20
6.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Write,
C

Scales of

with minor key-signature, the (Alto staff"), and B? (Tenor staff).

Harmonic Chromatic

its

7. Describe the Arbitrary (or Melodic) Chromatic Scale. purpose ?

What

is

8.

Give the rules that

are generally observed in writing this form

of scale.

Write, with major key-signature, the Arbitrary Chromatic Scales 9. (ascending and descending) of F (Bass staff) and B (Treble staff).
10. Write, with minor key-signature, the Arbitrary Chromatic Scales (ascending and descending) of (Tenor staff) and Ej? (Alto

staff).

CHAPTER

IX.

Intervals.
1.

2.

What an Interval How are Intervals described


is

such description

is

Explain the method upon which ? based, and give examples to illustrate this.

3. (a)
{b)

In what way does the inflection of either note of an Interval by an accidental affect it ?
Is the

numerical description of an Interval changed by such


?

inflection

4.

5.

Upon what depends the quality of an Interval Enumerate the various terms used to indicate the quality
?

of an
is

and state to which Intervals each of these qualifying terms applied from time to time.
Interval,

6. Of what quality are the Intervals, counted from the Tonic to any of the notes of a major scale ? Write the scale of D major,

describing each such interval fully.


7.

How

is

Minor Interval produced

Give

illustrations of

two

different
8.

methods.
a Diminished Interval produced methods.
is

How

Give

illustrations at

two

different

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


9.

21

How

is

of

two

different

an Augmented Interval produced? methods.

Give

illustrations

10. By the inflection of either of its notes, turn each of the following intervals capable of such conversion, into a Minor one of the same numerical name. Mark with a cross any that cannot be so

changed
(a)

(6)

(0 :cn

(d)

ie)

if)

cr

itel]
:

11. By a similar process, turn each of the following intervals capable of such conversion, into a Terfcct one of the same numerical name. Mark with a cross any that cannot be so changed

(a)

(*)

M
isr 22:

(d)

w
**=#=

(/)

>a=d
-<s>-

12.

Describe the terms


(a)
(&)
(c)

Consonant, or Concordant,
Dissonant, or Discordant,
Diatonic,

(d) Chromatic,
(e)

Compound,
Give an example of each.
each of the following intervals
:

as applied to Intervals.

13. Describe
Mark each

fully

dissonant interval with the letter D, and each concordant interval with the letter C.
(a)
-J2-.

M
~zrr

id)

*S=

^p
_\*y

ice

4toc

IP*
vy / I/')

11^11
<) \"-i

W
9

\5/

(A) \';

(A) ,vw

.v'/ ,M

i
u.

() v/l,

(?)

(')

JfecL

(/)

z>_

4=
XC3-

22=Jo:

22
14.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Write the following intervals


{a)
(b)
(c)

A major 3rd above B. (Treble staff. A minor 7th above Cj. (Alto staff.) A perfect 5th belo7v Dp. (Tenor staff.)
An augmented 2nd
above E.
(Bass
staff.)

(d)
(e)

diminished 4th above

Fx

(Treble

staff.)

(/)

minor 6th below E$. (Soprano staff.) (Alto staff.) (g) An augmented 5th above B. {h) A diminished 3rd above Cl. (Tenor staff.)
(/)

(j)
(k) (/)

A A A
is

perfect 4th below BJ?.

(Bass (Bass
Bjfc.

staff.) staff.)

major 7th above Dp. minor 2nd above E&.


4th below

(Treble

staff.)
staff.)

An augmented

(Alto
?

5.-

-What
{a)

meant by inverting an Interval

16.

State what each of the following kinds of interval would become when inverted Major, Minor, Perfect, Diminished, Augmented.
:

(b)

Give the inversion of each of the Intervals

in

Question 14

17.

Name two peculiarities connected


14.

with Perfect intervals.


in

18. Give the number of semitones


Question

each of the intervals in

19. What number is produced by adding the number of semitones contained in any interval to that contained in its inversion ? Prove by an example.

20. Change enharmonically either (but not both) of the notes of each of the intervals in Question 14 (excepting (c) and (/') ), stating the name and quality of each interval so produced.

CHAPTER
* * #

IX.--{continued).

Intervals.

The

subject-matter of the

following questions

is

dealt

with in

Appendix B of the Author's " Rudiments of Music."

1. Give the rules for finding the following intervals may be found r

number of keys
(e)

in

which the

(a)
(b)
(c)

Augmented 2nd. Augmented 4th.


Diminished Diminished
5th.
7th.

Augmented

5th.

(/) Diminished 3rd.


{g)
{h)

Diminished 4th.

(d)

Augmented

6th.
list,

If a single rule is sufficient to deal

with more than one interval in the above

indicate which

may

be so considered together.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

23

2. Describe the best method by which to arrive at ihc number of keys in which the intervals of major and minor 2nds and 3rds (with their inversions, minor and major 7ths and 6ths) and the interval of perfect 4th (with its inversion, the perfect 5th) can occur, diatonically.

Give examples.
3.

Name
:

all

the keys in which the following

intervals

may be

found

(*)

{*)

W
Z2I
(i)

W
21

()

i
(/)

&-*
U)

P
(*)

U)

(0

#*
TTJ(/)

(m)

()

22Z 22:

zz

CHAPTER

X.

Signs of Abbreviation, Embellishment, &c.


!. Describe the way in which the repeal of a section of a composition is indicated (a) when the repeat is to be made from the beginning of a piece, {b) when a section in the midst of a composition is to be repeated.

2.

Explain

fully the

meaning of the following

m
3. Give
Figures
4. 1

~ir~
-*-*

2.
I

P-P-

SI rf
the
Italian

5c

*^r

F-F-

and

2, in

expressions sometimes used instead of the such a passage as that in Question 2.

5.

Explain the terms Da Capo, Dal Segno and Fine. When a bar, or other short passage, to be performed
is

twice,

how

is

this

sometimes indicated, especially

in

MS. Music

24
6.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

7. is the meaning of the initials G. P.? expression indicating a similar effect.

What What

is

a Pause ?

How

is

a Pause indicated in writing

Give an

Italian

8. Explain
would sound
:

the following passage, and

write

it

out exactly as

it

9.

{a)
(6)

Give the Italian word of which Sva.

is

an abbreviation.

What

is

the meaning of the expression loco ?


;

10. Re- write

the following, as they are intended to sound

(*)

iH
8va. bassa.

^D
w

II. Give

the approximate effect of the following:

pin
is

JLH-J
Give also
its literal

12.

What
:

meant by the expression Legato?

translation.
14.

Explain the

effect of the

curved lines in each

of the following

instances

i 3&

*:

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


U)

2S

p''if r
\

f'i'.i

rYr

f'rr r

ii

*'

jH
jn3

J
I

ffT^
i

was fH
</>

)MB
m m

.^
fields

-*-1-*

em*B
In

rriLTW
the

ver

dure clad,

ap

pear.

j.

bn stfftti&**&*i
-m- -m-

~m-

-0-

wjgBgfEj f

approximate
effect.

I*

nbl^l
How

15. What is meant by the term Staccato? many kinds of Staccato are there in general use ? Give an example of each, with its

26
16.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Express the following passage


l

in

an abbreviated form

^-.CT,rjT]

jJj-J^S

gggftqf

17. Write out in abbreviated passages

full,

as they should be performed, the following

pgjg : b^T^J
1

7-

(6)

18.

What do the following signify

w
What 20. What
19.
is

i
=
88,

meant by the following

132?

is

implied by this direction?

fejjM: *
trem.

CHAPTER XL
Ornaments.

i._What
use
?

are the principal Ornaments, or Graces,

now

in general

2. Describe
how
it is

Give an example, and the Shake, or Trill. indicated in writing, in an abbreviated form.
out the following in
Allegro,
tt

shew

3.

Write

full,

as

it

would be performed

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

2?

4. Docs a Shake invariably end with the two small notes that are shewn in the above example? If not, when would they be necessary, and when unnecessary ?

5. Write out the following Shakes in performed


:

full,

as

they

would be

(*)

m m

Andante.

m
tr-

-^

X^^f-rfltrt

Allegro assai.

^t-^-. t
i

Andante,

^^m ^\njM-^
tr^

Presto agitato {alia Cadenza).

rrfjdt -^ZJIJ UJ
id)

11

IN
-i*:&c.

mft M
Andante.

pa
Andante

tr

fr

tr

i=5E

(/

ffirtLVf
Allegro assai.
tr.

gp
*!
*.

<*>

m ^ f^=F\T\

2S

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Allegro assai. ?
tr-

(0

P&W^
Allegro,

Allegro.^+^j^.
(k)

%
:

6.

Express the following in an abbreviated form


Andante.

7.

Under what

conditions

is

it

unnecessary to terminate a Shake

or Trill with a triplet ?


8. Give any sort of general rule as to when it is preferable to begin a Shake or Trill with the note above the written one, instead of

upon
9.

that written note.

Write

both the ancient and the modern method of indicating


:

the

Shake

at {a)

Allegro.

10. Write out

the following in

full,

as they

would be played

Andante moderate.

Ov

E|piS

PR.

J
I

>-

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


Caw

29

aNrn^
1

^
a

J
is it

fccM
indicated in writing
?

1.

What
:

is

Mordent? and how


the approximate

12. Write out


formance

effect

of the following in per-

MocUrato.

X=m

Andante.

S
Write out the approximate
Allegro.
A|v

w
13.

^t frfria jc^ pi
What
is

meant by the sign*)*?


:

effect of the following

Allegro moderate.
(a)

!E
>4.
15.

gjjgs
Andante moderate.

ygrpn
II
its

HgH
What Write
is

3cz:

a Turn (or Gntpctto)

Give

sign.

out the following in full, as they would be performed, explaining the rule regulating the proportion of the written note assigned to the Turn in eacn case
:

Prestissimo.

Prestissimo.

-&^T**\
II

U)
Adagio.

r-^r

30

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON


Allegro con brio.
{d)

-*->(-

$ nS:
M

1 f\

ir u-jj- H

gift^^g^
Andante.

" <F FT
;l/<?//0

^^

allegro.

H- -

w |&|||ll

Allegro. JL.
(/)

~<T-*-

Allegretto.

Hr^Tr
Allegro moderato.

rtf
tJ

I
(/)

^"2

3-

J^nfas

Allegretto.

16. In how many ways is it possible to write an Inverted Turn in an abbreviated form ? Give an example of each, shewing also how this Ornament should be performed.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

Distinguish between the Appoggiatura and the Acciaccatura, 17. giving an example of each.

(at

18. Give * and f),

the approximate effect of each of the following as they would be performed


:

Ornaments

()

[6)

19. Give the approximate each of the following examples

p,i rnvn*
HZf

Andante.

^m

11

effect of the
:

groups of small notes

in

Allegro moderato.

()

tttf
Adagio.
(*)

k&r

HI

II

t-T

21.

S
in

20. Describe, as fully as you can, the rules governing the use of the Appoggiatura and the Extended Lower Mordent in old music.

Give

dotted note, indicating


22.

an example of the use of the Appoggiatura before a its effect in actual performance.
the
:

Express

Ornaments

the

following

passage

in

an

abbreviated form

Andante moderato.

Ivu ggjjggjggjgjgp

Jdjl

<*

SB

32

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

CHAPTER

XII.

Italian and other Terms used in Music.


i.

Give any reason


of performance,

for

manner

&c,

the fact that musical terms indicative of are nearly always written in Italian.

2. Give a list of Italian terms indicating a slow rate of speed, beginning with the slowest. Give the English equivalent in each case.
3. Give a similar list indicating a rapid rate of speed, beginning with the quickest, together with the English equivalents.

4.

Write four

more

terms signifying a gradual increase of speed, giving or less literal translation of the word in each case.

5. Write four terms signifying a gradual decrease of speed, similarly giving a more or less literal translation in each case.

6.

Write a
employed
(a)
{{;)

list

usual)
7.

to express the varying

of words (with their abbreviations, where such are shades cf intensity of sound.

Give the English equivalents of:


Dolce.
(d) Slentando.
(e)

Calando.

Slargando.

{c)

Mancando.
[g)

(f)

Morendo.

Smorzando.

8.

Give at least four

Italian words, with their respective abbrevia-

tions, indicative of increased accent

upon a
for the
{0)

single note or chord.

9.

Give the Italian expressions


At,
for, or with.

following

:
if.

(a)
{Ij)

Pleasantly.

Affectionately.

(/)
(</)

Almost, as

(c)

Passionately.

Always.
In the same manner.

(d) Sufficiently, very.


{e)

(r)
{s)

Well marked.

In a subdued manner.

(/)

As

at

first.

(/)

Follow on

at once.

(g) Under.
(h)
(z)

(u)
(v)

Held, sustained.

With movement,
Joyously.

Not too much.

{w)(i.)

The use of the soft pedal.


pedal.

(j) Lightly.
(k)
(/)
(///)

(ii.)The release of the soft

With

the right hand.


left

With the
Sadly.

hand.

(x)

Rapidly.

(y)
(z)

With

vivacity,

(n)

Heavily.

Majestically.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


io.

33
:

Give the English equivalents of the following expressions


capella.
(w) Maestoso.
(o)

(a)
(b)
(c)

Amabile.
Attacca.

Martellato.

(/)
(g)
(r)
(s)
(/)

Meno.
Ped.
Piangevole.

(d)
(e)

piacere.

Colla voce.

(/)
(jf)

Come

sopra.

Piu tosto.
Pizz.

(h)
[)

Con anima. Con sordini.


Doloroso.

(n)
(v)

Portamento.
Scherzando.

(J) E, or Ed.
(k)
(/)

[w) Affrettando.
(x)

Giocoso.
Giusto.

Langsam (German).
(German).
Beweglich (German).

(y) Schnell
(z)

[m) Lusingando.

CHAPTER

XIII.

Harmony.
i.

With what important factors


Harmony be

the study of

in the consideration of music said to be concerned ?

may

2. Name the three most important "ingredients" in modern musical composition, explaining what is meant by each.

3.

(a)

How
?

is

of chord in use

a chord produced? Give an example.


a

(b)

What

is

the simplest form

4.

(a)
?

What

is

Common Chord?
?

(b)
(*:)

How many

varieties are

there

and upon what do these depend

Give examples of each

kind of

common

chord.

5.

Describe

what

is

meant by the terms

(a)

Diminished Triad,

and

(b)

Augmented Triad.

6. Explain what is meant by the expressions Concordant (or Consonant), and Discordant' (or Dissonant) as applied to Triads. State which triads are Concordant, and which Discordant.

7.

What

is

an Inversion of a Chord?

Give some examples of

inverted chords.

34
8.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Exemplify

could appear in what

various methods by which is known as a broken form

the following
:

chords

w
9.

ii

T2L

m
What

is

frO"

m
in a

chord
?

meant by doubling a note

10. Alter the doubling in the following chords, where you deem such to be faulty, giving your reason in each case : ()
(d)
{c)
-*5>-

(d)

()

(/)

(g)

(k)

(i)

4ta:

122:

:cr

Z3I

t^t
I I

7^"

&&
T3"

@
11.

Z2I 21

bo.

<

(TD

CT

r"

bo

Z2I
11

fej

Z2I

77

Write a Triad

in three parts

Major, stating whether it is Diminished Triad, or an Augmented Triad.

upon each degree of the scale of a Major or Minor Common Chord, a

12. Write a similar table of Triads in the key of describing each Triad as indicated in Question II.

Minor,

13.

Mark the chords


(a)
(b)
(c)

in the

two succeeding examples, as follows

(d)

The The The The


f

first
first
first

inversion of major

inversion of

common chords minor common chords


triads with

with

M.

with Mi.

inversion of diminished triads with D.


inversion of

first

augmented

A.

0-)

i^
1

1EEH
%-l-fH=Jtg

nm
B
te 8:
common
chord as a

(ii-

3T

Upon which degrees of (a) the Major Scale, (b) the Minor 14. Scale, can the second inversion of a common chord be found in general
use?

Would you class the second inversion of a 15. concord or a discord ? Give your reasons.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

6.

Quote examples
:

of the following from any standard

work

or

works

{a)
(6)

A A

major

common chord

followed by a minor

common

chord.

minor common chord followed by the major common chord.

first

inversion of a

(c)

The

first inversion of a minor common chord followed by the second inversion of a major common chord.

{(/)

The second

inversion of a minor common chord followed by the direct position of a major common chord upon tne same bass-note, or its octave.

(<?)

The second

inversion of a major common chord followed by a common chord, or a first inversion, upon the bass-note next above or below alphabetically.

(/)
(g)
17.

diminished triad in
triad.

its first

inversion.

An augmented

this

What is the chord of the Dominant 7th? Give examples of chord in the keys of D, B, EJ7, and D[? major, and E, Fit, C and

B? minor
iS.

19.

What meant by the resolution a discord Resolve each of the following chords upon the Tonic Common
is

01

Chord of its respective key, stating which notes of the Dominant 7th chord need a special progression, and what this special progression is
:

\s~rb
/\
ft

CD
{a)
U (W., ft

~&(rk\
"

v-^b V

(')

20. How many inversions has the chord of the Dominant 7th Write the inversions of the following chord
:

*A

36
21.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Describe
:

the

chords

marked with a *

in

the

following

passage

m^^= 4
I

-F-

fe= f

What 24. Quote, following


23.
(a)

f:

S3

22. Quote, from any standard work or works, examples of various forms of the chords of Dominant 7th, 9th, nth, and 13th.

is

Modulation

from any standard work or works, instances of the modulations


:

From a Major V) From a Minor (0 From a Major (<*) P'rom a Minor From a Major (/) From a Minor U) From a Major (*) From a Minor ii) From a Major U) From a Minor

Key to its own Relative Minor. Key to its own Relative Major. Key to its Mediant Minor. Key to its Sub-mediant Major. Key to its Dominant Major. Key to its Sub-dominant Minor. Key to its Super-tonic Minor. Key to its Dominant Minor. Key to its Sub-Dominant Major. Key to the Major Key a tone below.
a

25.

What

is

meant by

Chromatic Chord

Furnish an example

from a standard work.


26.

Describe

the following chords, and furnish examples


:

o!

the

same from any standard work or works


{a)
(b)

The Neapolitan 6th. The Italian dth.


(e)

(c)

(d)

The French 6th. The German dth.

The Added 6th.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


27.

37

What 28. What

is

a Fassing-note

What

is its

use

name

marked *

in the

is usually given to a Passing-note such as that succeeding passage ?

Describe a Suspension. 30. Reduce the following to


29.

omitting

all

a passage of the Suspensions contained therein


:

simple harmony, by

3
J.

?z

:q_

rj

<s>

fe

Z^7
-g:-<s>-

E
31. Furnish from any standard work or Passing-notes and Suspensions of various kinds.

works,

examples of

What 33. Quote,


32.

is

a Sequence

from any standard work, an example


(a)
{b)

of

A A

Melodic Sequence.

Harmonic Sequence.

34. (a) What is a Pedal, or Pedal-note? {b) Which notes of a key are those almost
Pedals
35.
?

exclusively used as

Quote an

example of a Pedal from some standard work.

38
36.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON


is
?

kinds of Cadence in general use, furnish examples of each from any standard work, or works.
38.

What a Cadence 37. Describe the various

and

Give the figuring employed to indicate the various


What effect has an accidental
CHAPTER

positions of

Triads and Dominant 7ths.


39.

placed before a figure?

XIV.

(Appendix

in the Author's " Rudiments of Music")

Definitions.
1.

Define succinctly the following:


Accent, Agremens {French), Arpeggio, Pass-note, Chromatic, Clef, Common Time, Concord, Discord, Divisi, Enharmonic, Full Score, Gamut, Glissando, Harmony, Harmonics, Inflection, Key, Key-note, Key-signature, Measure, Melody, Middle C, Mode, Note, Opus (or Op.), Phrase, Pitch, Quintuple Time, Related Keys, Rhythm, Root, Score, Sol-fa, Staff (or Stave), Timbre {French), Time, Tritone, Tutti, Unison, Vocal Score.

2.

Describe the term Chromatic


{a)
{b)
{c)

{d)
3.

As As As As

applied to an interval. applied to a chord.

applied to a scale. applied to a semitone.

Describe the term Diatonic


{a)
(b)
(r)

{d)
4.

As As As As

applied to an interval.
applied to a chord,

applied to a scale.
applied to a semitone.

Describe the term Compound


{a)
(b)

As applied As applied
the

to

an interval.

to time.

Distinguish between 5. inversion of a chord.


6.

inversion

of

an

interval,

and

an

Explain in how many different ways the terms Major an


In how many different ways
is

Minor

are used in musical phraseology.


7.

the term Octave used

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


CHAPTER
XV.

39

Miscellaneous Questions.
(Including several
selected from recent examination papers of the Royal Academy of Music and the Associated Board of the R.A.M. and R.C.M.)*

i.

Write two notes,


(a)
(b)
(/)

tied, to represent the value

of

Five crotchets.

Nine quavers.

Ten

semiquavers.

{d) Four and a half quavers.


(e)

Two

and a half minims.


in

2. Write the following passage Tenor and Bass clefs


:

Open

Score, using Treble, Alto,

m
mi
5

Bach.

***

i
!

m
i i
I

&.

iL
I

II 4

K -UM tszt*
.

m^
#
3.

-&-

p
P

m
r
Nt Bt

What is the total number of signs comprised in the signatures of two major keys a chromatic semitone apart (ii.) two major keys the enharmonic of one another ?
(i.)
;

N.B. The first part of this question does not apply to keys In which doublesharps or double-flats occur.

* The Author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to the authorities of the Royal Academy of Music for permission to print typical questions occurring in the papers set for the diploma of L.R.A.M., and also to the Associated Board for similar permission to use questions given from time to time in the " Elements "papers of

the Board.

40
4.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

By prefixing the

necessary accidentals, convert scale (a) into


;

its

Tonic Minor (Harmonic form) (Melodic form).

and

scale (b)

into

its

Tonic Minot

w
(*)

p^
s>-0-

Vg>

Q-fr<5

^fl

|7o-e>-

t?-k^?^r

Z2I
"C7-

to"
:

the necessary Key-signatures, in order to cause each of the notes given below to hold the specified position assigned to it
5.

Prefix

As Dominant

As Mediant
of Minor Key.

i^

8'

of Major Key.

As Leading-note of Minor Key.

As Sub-mediant of Major Key.

6. Write a bar of quavers, following times


:

2663492
4'
8'

properly

grouped,

in

each

of the

2'

4'

4'

4'
in

12 8"
each of the

7. Write a bar of semiquavers, properly grouped, above times.

8. In each of the following times, write two notes, tied, repreAdd rests, in order to senting a sound of five quavers' duration. complete a whole bar in each case
:

4'
9.
:

12 8'
ifcl

9H Describe the signification of the following JL


Prefix
time-signatures to
the
rests

~rrfi
fan
ft

10.

following,
:

and complete the

second bar of each with the proper

m
V)

^fr

Vf^

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

41

II.

Re-write the following in q


sound and

time, without altering the duration

and

relative position of

rest

:
Jvps:
-*-T-

M 3=
12.

M ' f * *-0-

tj

ik ^F^

a
?-

1 r 1

(a)

What

is

the key of the following phrase

*
(<5)

gg-jbfc
1/
'
I '

Transpose the above phrase a Minor 7th lower, using the


bass
clef.

13. Prefix

time-signatures
:

to

the

following,

and complete the

second bar of each with rests

w
[6)

i
i

m&
mm
E^
9-

=f-3^-

14. Re- write the following, using the proper key-signatures, and inserting only necessary accidentals :

(a)

*i

(*)

#ii^mnr
:

ZC2I

15.

Write one bar of melody in each of


it

these times, using one rest

in

each bar

2:
7

42

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

1 6. Re-write the following passages, correcting not alter the duration of the sounds or rests
:

the

faults.

Do

()

Pt ii=t

^m-m **i=t

:p=^ zH:: ==t tti3


3tE3t
-^-f^^-

#H^fffl ^
17.

Complete the following bars with


fi

rests

(*)

^=t=

*^* P*

r^

18. Write this passage at the same pitch on the Treble, Tenor, and Bass staves, with the proper clefs

t^^g^^j
19.

jij^jj
or

grrrt
in

ji

Name
:

the various Graces,

Ornaments,

the

following

passage

^ & m
4
fZ20.

&

passages, stating in for the Italian

Prefix the time-signatures to the following


is.

what key each


terms
:

Give the English equivalents

Mesto

^t fe^

^P^^
calando.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


Allegro con brio.

\\

(*)

-m

&

m-

marcatissimo.

:s2

.fiw sostenuto.

id)

^y^w^^^m^
Allegro

ma

non troppo

largcwiente.

21. Write:
(a)
()
(<r)

A note equal to 16 semiquavers. A dotted note equal to 24 semiquavers. A doubly-dotted note equal to 14 semiquavers.
time-signatures to the following passages (each of
:

22.

Prefix the

which consists of one bar)

23.

Write
:

out in

full,

as they should

be

played, the following

passages

()

jga

ssma a
-

(*)

^h^

#-#

*J

-^

* .

J-.

LJ

EE=F

44
24.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Re-write the following,

using abbreviations at (x) and {y)

25. Write out this passage (intended to represent a single bar o! music) three times, grouping the notes properly according to the time-

signatures of

3 2

6
'

and

12
o,

respectively

1 3^
26.
{a)
{/>)

^rm

v
:

Write the following intervals


(c)

(d)

Major 7th on E# (Treble staff). A Diminished 3rd on E (Bass staff). An Augmented 6th on A (Alto staff). A Minor 6th on E J? (Tenor staff).
01

27. Prefix the time-sig:iatures to the following passages, each which consists of one bar :

^-"~ -m -* 3

rr ,j ffrffffffff

-#-3

II

g^^^P^
^^=
~

fr=E^
it

28.

Re-write the following passage exactly as


Andante moderate

should be played

//_

T^f
29.

Ji^TH-r* izd:

H5

^l&li
:

Prefix the time-signature to each of the following bars

THE RUDIMENTS OE MUSIC.

45

Write this phrase at the same pitch on the Alto staff, and 30. an 8?e lower on the Tenor and Bass staves, with the proper clefs
:

ffMiJrifrg^PP^
31. Name the following as they should be played
:

Ornaments and write them out exactly

32.

Write

m
out the
:

m\\
in

Ornaments

the following passages exactly

as they should be played

wi

&c.

46
33.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Correct,
:

in the following

where necessary, the grouping of the notes and

rests

fe^gEg 3fctt3
Re-write
:

* * J -'LJ

t=t

/3

34.

this

passage in

time, keeping the duration of the

sounds the same

todapN^? lT7 tr%


35.

335f
C$

minor. signatures of
36.

D$

Upon the Alto

start

Upon the Soprano staft Bp major and Cj? major.

write the key-signatures of minor and (not Treble) write the key*

Through what keys does the following passage pass?


it*

S4iqP

fe

fefa^Ja^t 3

jlgig^^gggi^a^En
S*=W
37.

Supply the time-signatures to the following :

...ps^S?

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

(*j

x=>z

47

*^c

JJ ^i^-AJ.

fc

H
fr

'

JTHj
jt-g-

-p^=

Write this passage at the same pitch on the Tenor stafi". Also 38. transpose it a Minor 7th higher and write it on the Soprano staff (not Treble)
:

gflfl-fr ir ffiEE
39.

^^
m*m
12

m m
as

Write two bars in Write


:

4
,

and

^ time,

introducing an example of

syncopation, and of an irregular group of notes in each time.


40.

out

the

following

Ornaments

they would

be

played

(r)OvO

41. Prefix the time-signature to each of the following bars, stating the key of each
:

()

fe^^fej^^

^Sja^

ii

>"
**


i*

48

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

w
w

^*
-P-^

3^ 3S
(i.)
(ii.)
(iii.)

*t

fcgjdd

commencing

42. Write one octave, ascending, of each of the following in each case on the first line of the Alto staff:

scales,

Gl

Melodic minor.

B Harmonic minor. F Harmonic chromatic.

Use no key-signatures.
43.

Write the following

Ornaments

in

an abbreviated form:

i
44.

m
Name
eacli
-jCZL

^3
in

these intervals,
:

and name a Minoi Diatonic Scale

which

can occur

in:

P
45.

-cr

&

tzzt

"f
:

th

Complete the following bars with rests


3T-

m
46.

22:

HI

e
:-

Write out the following as they would be played

w
<*)

fisgg
l '
'

Efe^fe^n
//

TfoifJ
ffi4-f~*

iT"

*t * r =r
'

r
'

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


47.

49
:

Transpose the following into F miner,

using the Alto staff

m
48.
(A)
(c)

3ljLtoLJ-lfc

B
:
staff.

Re-write the following passage


(a)

At the same pitch on the Alto

A A

Perfect 5th lower on the

Tenor

staff.

Perfect 8ve lower on the Bass

staff.

*4-

~~

i
rf? 5f=*
49.

W
:

v*wl ^ ? *==23t
JS
*-#
*

Prefix the time-signatures to the following

()

(*)

P OM-N ^~r^ip p/ftffrrf


i
r
' J
i

id)

s^ &
out

w=?

fc
-m

m
they

1 1'

f^ b

*-

i-

*=&-

55
as

50.

Write
:

the

following

Ornaments
tr~~

should

be

played

Adagio.
(a)

ff

rrj

J*

m
1

^a


5o
I

"
l^

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON


"trace.

*
[l>)

-i

fe-^-rr

*^-

r^

uftJ

M
fl

^ " r

51. Prefix clefs to the following passages, so that they shall be in the keys indicated :

(a)

:g rVnp-fr-^Eg zz3:
^=PE
-r
hr

minor.

(*)

n '^"^[JFlmi '5^ J
i--fr rjLj
-h-^

(0

o*

Write an example of (a) an Inverted Mordent ; [l>) an 52. Acciaccatura ; (c) a Shake, beginning with its upper note. Give the sign usually employed for each, and also shew exactly how each

Ornament would be played.


In the following passage the demi-semiquavers are actually less 53. quick than the semiquavers. Explain the reason of this apparent anomaly.

nunJi2h j" *t S3 i fct f r

-n rnrn-IffTn

Bar correctly and put time-signatures to the following. Write 54. the passages out with the quavers and semiquavers properly tailed together where necessary

4
">

l^^ga^pa

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


55. Re-write

51

the

following,
:

replacing

the

Ornaments

by the

conventional signs for the same


m

A>idante.

frrffriTfc

f -c-

56.

Correct the mistakes in these bars


(a)

% MES

i
M

^fE

S
first

{b)

i=

ik

m
57.

-#

1*

*-

Write the

following passage,

in

3 and
,

then in q
rests

Take
used
:

care that the notes are correctly grouped,

and the proper

<p

1 1

rcftf^
tttp^t

^fS^
U
&
fe
I

ft*

**

-!

58.

Write
:

the following passage

enharmonically, and prefix the

key-signature

^^W=f^gp

sfe
^-^r

p|^g^pP^Iii^=ll

52
59.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Write these intervals below the given notes


*&-

3E
Aug.
5th.

JUx
Maj.
7th.

Min.

9th.

Maj. 6th.

Dim.

4th.

l^H
Dim.
3rd.

60.

Write

the

following
:

passage in

time,

keeping the same

duration of the notes

''

'

s == ^-s=

'

s=^

s^

61. How is the Harmonic Chromatic Scale obtained? Re-write the following passage (without altering the pitch of the sounds) so that be in accordance with the Harmonic Chromatic Scale of the \t shall Key indicated
:

P
()
(*)

*
=*.

=^*
1*
six

m
in

Pq^== =^
62. Complete each of these bars with accordance with the particular signature
:

^^e
(</)

semiquavers grouped

>

I
which each
:

w s tf^

a-

63. Give
that note to

the technical names for the following groups, and write is equal

64. Transpose
staff:-

this

passage a Minor 3rd lower, using the Tenor

mm

37P-

^^

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

53

m
I?

sszq e^^ j

^
:

dlfc-*

gjj^ll
in

65. Write one


which

octave of each of the

Harmonic Minor Scales

this interval occurs

&
signs used to indicate a

66.

Write

the ancient and

modern

Shake

preceded by an Inverted Turn.


67.

Through what keys does this passage pass?

fa=*

4.-1
XTt
\

\\

Mendelssohn.
>

J"-|

5=t-r^-tfMj3i

^S=
jjj

M&=*
L^tf
,'

J"

.-"

-f'-^T'-

r^r~i^'^i -L^--fc V
.,'--*.

*=

^11

68.

In what keys do the following intervals occur?


'g:

DCQ5
as

PlSHI
they would

69.

Write

out

the

following

Ornaments

be

played

54

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

70. Re-write the following passage for the Pianoforte in "Short Score," distributing the vocal parts between the two hands as may be best for ease of performance. Do not alter the pitch of the notes.

Allegretto.

E P^5
fctE -^
r^
w

ja

^^
m

Peethoven.

^^0
-*-*

-*m

=**

E$

E
=&

#^^ i^^
;

J^

1 t=* if*^

:c?

S
==:

^
71.

>

_-;-.

^^
at=w

@g S==*
from D minor into no key-signature
:

-*

Tonic Major.

s=

M=\

In the following passage alter


its

the necessary notes to change it Write on the Tenor staff. Use

^^ fffH,^>

F *M^

m
1 1
i

t-fff

-^-r
i

Write the two Diatonic Major Scales 0/ which the given 72. Prefix the correct key-signature in each case chord forms a part.

tctra
:

fe

i=r


THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

55

73-

Name, and
:

write

out,

the

Minor Scale

that

includes this

tetrachord

&-*>
74.

Correct the following key-signatures

M
75.

(*)

Distinguish between the terms Time and Rhythm.


Prefix the time-signature to each part in the
what relationship
exists

76.

following extract,

and

state

between them

Handel.

Write the following in notes of double the length of those 77. here given. Prefix the time-signature to each example you write, and complete the second bar of each with rests

(i

S3

K^W

[*)

^^^^^m

56

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

^mm
/S.

State

the keys of the foregoing examples, and the difference


initial

in pitch

between the

notes of

(a)

and

(b) t

and of

(b)

and

(r).

79.

Describe the following chords fully


jQ_
{d)

(a)

BE

t
80.

^mqJEg^ipi
:-*-

^L

(c)

hs-

Jd)

fife

Describe

fully the

chords marked with a *


is
:

passage, stating in what key each

in the following

Jil

'if g b

'

[>gy

jr

I a
-a

t;

^TOTt^H r
fr

f f f r-r
Sz

r
Si.

a
Beethoven.

Describe the following Cadences


Handel.

P fct

LTJ J-J
i

(a

^TT^

UU

ii

r
T

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


(,)

57

NfOZ ART
tr

Schubert.

ggiutP
82.

4p^
it

What kind of passage

'i^^^jM^Mm ^j ^FRg^ ^n pr?


i rjr
i

is

the following

Bach.

NJJHJJJhrW
name
for the

What is the technical 83. the following example ?

repeated Bass-note (EJ?) in

i
@a
1-4^

S A=*B 3*

Dvorak.

*$?

a a *
t

^ m * * * ??
:
i

S
i

it
,

^ irwirr
,

S
.

84.

Name these signs

|]ojI

Quote any instance, from a standard work, of the sign 86. What relationship, as to the actual duration of the
85.
exists

JJo[|

sounds,

between

{a)

and

{&) ?

_!=I38.

-#

w
(3)

^k r

-1

m
\c

J=I3&

^g
E=

IS
?

^*=MI
between
{c)

87.
in the

What relationship as to
following passage

"Tempo"
is

exists

and

(f)

The music

intended to be continuous.

\d

is

V-

-o-

58
88.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

Write out the approximate


.

effect of the

above passage, main-

taining the signature of

throughout.

89. Under what conditions Give an example.

is

the sign

fcj

used as an accidental?

9 Does the figure 6 (representing a Sextolet) over the groups of semiquavers in the succeeding passages convey the correct meaning in
both cases
?

If not, alter the indication of the

groups

in

whichever of
order to

two examples you deem to be incorrectly expressed shew the exact effect clearly and accurately.
the

in

()

<

m*
*gg

91.
in

Rewrite

the following extract, giving the approximate effect


:

performance of the passage between the asterisks


N.B.

The figures indicate the fingering.


Adagio

ma

non

troppo.

*
s

Beethoven.
4

/-n3

4^3

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


,

59

92. Give
(a)
(*)
(c)

the English equivalents of:

Sopra.
Sotto.

D.C.

sin'

al

fine,

ma

senza

Doppio movimento. Etwas langsamer {German). (f) So rasch wie moglich {Ger
(d)
(g)

replica.

man).

in

Re-write the following passage, giving the approximate 93. performance of all the small notes
:

effect

Schumann

Lento.

&3J 1&&=

<*

Re- write the following passages in such a 94. their melodic outline clear to the eye :
jj,

manner

as to

make

jx

Presto scherzando.

Mendelssohn.
3=n:

:&
()
<

semflre staccato.

-*-

B*H 4bii
i-

P^FfhT
j'

-i

m^
:

-*-

6o

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

& $=d
CK

i
I

S
&c.

us
Schumann.
(*)

MSeII is m rm ^^S
- g

Allegro molto.

v\y>%

Re-write the following in any way that shall have the effect of 95. shewing the exact moment at which the second note of each group in the bass staff should be played that is, in reference to the notes of the

triplet

groups in the treble

staff

Brahms.

ife

t^Mm
=h--3

r=r3-*-3

EitSr-1

H^=^^r^^ n+-'

&c.

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

61

96. Should the semiquaver be played with, or after, the 3rd note of the triplet, in the following examples ? or would you treat the two examples differently ? If so, how?

Bach.

ynJB frfr fr rcrffr Wfr > /mt^^


:
i

V|
fc
i

&c.

Chopin.

4r
<*>

LJT

rr\ o

^
&c.

^H*$

m t

rfh^.rt
d d
\
\

1 at
-4-3

e
3-4-

_^--j-3

3-J-

3"3

^
effect,

in

Re-write the following passage, giving the approximate 97. performance, of the small notes
:

pm
Lento.

Chopin.

u ^a

n^'urfrHgir

trr

'

F^W
jus > F^

^
-Jr

a t-1
to

P
i

i
:&

^^

^^ S^a *T~*-firg P
r*

5R

&c.

I ai


QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON

62
98. extract

Indicate
;

anything noteworthy and peculiar in the following


it

and re-write

more

lucidly, if possible

Adagio motto.

ft-*J

hm smm
-jT-s,

.^____ Beethoven.

e
^=z

n
J
!

f
(S;

t=J

4^g
:=

99.

Alto, Tenor, and voices:

Re-write the following passage in open score, two Trebles, the Alto and Tenor Bass, using the C clef Bach.
for
for

m r^T
feL

FT ^^q^a
m
J
-

4 m3l mi

jjLfaJLT^ *i_jr
4!
'

i*


THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.
100.

63

The

following

extract
(a),

consists of three distinct

themes

from Mozart's "Don ()and (<r), played simultaneously.

Giovanni"

Re-write the whole passage with the

common
:

signature of ^, giving
(3)

special

the approximate effect of accentuation in {a) mark of stress, where necessary

and

by means of some

#:"
(a)

[6)

mm 4
CO

fe

a !S

acq?:
1

?=

SB ^^

J:

r r

,r

fi*-

-rrr r -fr, -r
.

*r
i

&

J^

i^ !^J-4^

64

Q UES TIONS frc.

UPON THE R UDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

P
@i
tr.

^-*=S^

&
^

m=f

printed by geo. barber, /FURNIVAL 6TREET, holborn; and . FURNIVAL PRE88:| CUR3|TOR 8TREET| CHANCERY LANE.
Tel.

E.C.

No. 1077 Holborn.

AURAL CULTURE
BASED UPON

MUSICAL APPRECIATION.
IMPORTANT NEW WORK BY

Stewart Macpherson
This work
in

and

Ernest Read,

deals with the vital subject of the training of the young pupil's ear musical perception, in a manner calculated to arouse his interest from the outset. It is planned as a series of lessons, each of which is based upon some definite musical composition, and will, it is felt, prove invaluable to teachers who are seeking to awaken and to stimulate the listening and appreciative faculties of their pupils. Part I of the work introduces the pupil to the basic facts of Time, Pitch and Rhythm, practice in Sight-singing and Musical Dictation forming an integral part It also contains a valuable Appendix dealing with of the course of instruction. Rhythmic Movements for young children, and a copious and carefullygraded list of pieces suitable for use in Appreciation classes. These pieces have been chosen with particular reference to their value as a means of developing the pupil's powers of imagination, and it is suggested that they should be used by the teacher to supply the more recreative element in connexion with the various lessons of the book.

Part

II.

Following the plan adopted by the Authors in Part I of this work, and so warmly received by teachers throughout the country, Part II introduces the pupil, through the medium of his ear, to more advanced aspects of Time, Rhythm and Pitch. The subject of Modulation with Sight-singing and Dictation tests thereon is brought to his notice, and the cycle of major keys exemplified in actual The various time-patterns met with in Simple and Compound living music. Times are illustrated in the same manner, and the pupil's powers of invention are encouraged by practice in the construction of melodies, etc. In this Part, also, will be found a series of carefully-graded Appreciation lessons upon well-known compositions, by means of which the pupil's attention is drawn to their character, form and style, and to the many points of interest It is hoped that this section of the work will be particularly contained therein. useful for bringing pupils into sympathetic relation with music from an appreciative

standpoint,

and laying the foundation of the habit of

real listening.

%*
Price

The work will


I,

be complete in Three parts.

: Part

2/6 net cash.

Part

II, 3/-

net cash.

Part III

{in course of preparation).

Separate " Pupil's Books," containing Songs, Rhythmic Exercises,


to Parts
I

etc.,

and

II,

price 6d. each, net cash.

London

Joseph Williams, Limited,

32,

Great Portland Street, W.

Educational
(Professor, Lecturer

Works
New and
;

Stewart Macpherson
and Examiner at the Royal Academy of Music).

PRACTICAL HARMONY.
A
An
Concise Treatise. Paper

Revised

Edition.

covers, net, 3/6 Limp cloth, net, Edition of this Work is published also with Text, Paper, 3 mks. 50 pfs. ; Cloth, 4 mks. 50 pfs.

4/6

German

APPENDIX TO PRACTICAL HARMONY.


Revised Edition.

New and

Collection of Questions and Exercises for the use of Students. Paper covers, net, 2/6 Limp cloth, net, 3/6
;

QUESTIONS ON HARMONY.
Harmony."

From

the

"Appendix
;

to Practical

Paper covers, net, 1/in

Limp

cloth, net, 1/6

350 EXERCISES

Harmony, Counterpoint and Modulation


cloth, net 1/6

(including the Harmonization of Melodies). Limp

PRACTICAL COUNTERPOINT. New and Revised Edition. A Concise Treatise, illustrative of both the Strict and
%*
This

Paper cover, net, 4/-; Limp cloth, net, 5/be had in two separate volumes, as under : Paper covers, net 2/Part I. Strict Counterpoint. \ Each F volume f VOlume \Limp cloth 3/ Part II.-Free Counterpoint, f

Free Styles.

Work may

SUMMARY

of the Principal Rules of Strict Counterpoint

,,

-/6

RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC. New


'

and Revised Edition.


;

Paper covers, net, 1/-

Limp

cloth, net, 1/6

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES UPON THE RUDIMENTS Paper covers, net, 1/- Limp cloth, net, 1/6 OF MUSIC. FORM IN MUSIC. With special reference to the Designs
;

of Instrumental Music.

Stiff

boards

...

net cash

4/6

MUSIC AND

ITS
of

APPRECIATION;
True Listening.

or,

the
cash cash
3/-

Foundations

Stiff boards, net

STUDIES IN PHRASING AND FORM

Stiff boards, net

2/6

In collaboration with Ernest Read.

AURAL CULTURE

based on Musical Appreciation.


In 3 parts. Part I, net cash, 2/6 Port III in the Press.
;

Tart II, net cash, 3/-

London
LIST

Joseph Williams, Limited, 32, Great Portland Street, W.


141