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International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 596-599

Enhancing the punching shear resistance of flat plates using shear heads, shear stud rails and shear stirrups: a comparative study
Vikunj K.Tilva
M.E Student, Applied Mechanics Department, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmadabad, Email:tilva_vikunj@yahoo.co.in

B. A. Vyas
Professor, Applied Mechanics Department, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmadabad, Email: binitavyas@yahoo.com

Parth Thaker
Assistant Professor, SBST, C.E.P.T University, Ahmedabad, Email: Parth_thaker2003@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to find out punching shear with lateral load in flat plate 225mm (without column head and drop panel) with shear wall. A four storey building (6mx6m panel) is analyzed with gravity and lateral load in ETABS (Extended 3D Analysis of Building Systems) software and then each storey is exported in SAFE(Slab Analysis by the Finite Element Method) software for analyzing punching effect along with lateral loads. Out of several punching shear reinforcement systems, shear heads, shear stirrups and shear stud rails are designed manually on basis of output value of punching shear stress from SAFE software result. Shear stud rail is compared with SAFE software result. Dimension of dual systems (as per code IS 1893:2002), shear wall 1.55mx0.2m (M25) and column 0.55mx0.55m (M25) are taken during analysis. KEY WORDS: Punching shear, shear head, shear stud rail, shear stirrups. INTRODUCTION Recent market conditions show that the modern infrastructure development is aimed to utilize the available resources to their optimum levels, may the resources be in terms of economy or in terms of space. When the space criterion comes into picture, the utility of maximum space is the main concern of present day architects and designers. If plate thickness is decreased the available floor height is increased. Hence, flat plate gives an economical alternative in utilizing the internal space to maximum extent. Flat plates are necessary because of architectural demand for better illumination, lesser fire resistance of sharp corners present in the form of beams, simple and fast formwork, optimum use of space and this leads to the new concept in field of structural engineering as reinforced concrete flat plates. Flat plate is provided in malls and other structures where large beam free spaces are required. Shear walls are compulsory for flat plate construction when earthquake resistance is considered. If effect of lateral load analysis and some design features are to be studied; punching shear is a matter of concern for any structural designer. Flat plate structures in areas of low seismicity (Zone I& II) can be designed as permitted by code to resist both vertical and lateral loads. However for areas of high seismicity (Zone III, IV & V) code does not permit flat plate construction to resist earthquake lateral load without lateral load resisting system. In a building having frames and shear wall, the frames are designed for at least 25% of the seismic shear and 75% is taken by the shear wall [1]. WORK PROCEDURE Steps: 1. A 3 bay-4 storey frame without drop panel is modeled in ETABS with shear wall at four corners as shown in figure 1.

2. 3. 4.

Gravity and lateral loads are assigned and analysis is performed in ETABS software. Slab is exported to SAFE software. Punching shear effect is analyzed in SAFE software. On the basis of column dimension, shear wall dimension is selected so as to resist 75% earthquake force. (IS 1893:2002)

Fig. 1. ETABS plan of flat slab without drop for four-storey building Model data Panel size for an office building- 6mx6m. Dead load: self weight of slab & floor finish 1kN/m2; Live load: 4kN/m2; Zone (III); Soil condition - medium;

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Enhancing the punching shear resistance of flat plates using shear heads, shear stud rails and shear stirrups: A Comparative Study Importance Factor (I) =1; Response Reduction Factor SMRF(R) =5; Grade used: M25 and Fe- 415. All columns are assumed to be square. Locations of shear wall are sw1, sw2, sw3, sw4 as shown in figure 1. Earthquake force acts in both directions. PUNCHING FAILURE Flat plate exhibit higher stress at the column connection and are most likely to fail due to punching shear rather than flexural failure. It has to be noted that the punching shear failure will occur due to the concentration of shear forces and the unbalanced bending and twisting moments. Such a concentration of shear force and moments leads to unsymmetrical stress distribution around the column-plate connections. The local and brittle nature of the punching shear failure is in the form of crushing of concrete in the column periphery before the steel reinforcement reaches the yield strain. The observed angle of failure surface was found to vary between 26 and 36. [2]The punching shear capacity of a plate (in absence of shear reinforcement) depends on the strength of concrete, the area of tension reinforcement, the depth of the plate and the column size. For punching criteria, when design shear stress exceeds permissible shear stress ( c=0.25 ), IS 456 give the permission for shear stirrups up to 1.5 c[3]. The sudden disaster effect of the punching shear is a critical problem for designer and it is not properly estimated. So in Indian environment designer gives design with combined shear head and shear stirrups based on their experience.

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b) Shear head Shear heads are steel sections welded together into a grid and placed around the column. Shear heads are generally used for large structures where high levels of punching shear are present around the columns and for this reason they are relatively expensive and very heavy[4]. c) ACI shear stirrups Shear stirrups are conventional beam reinforcement placed between the main reinforcement and assembled in configurations, such as a cross or L-shape in order to deal with the punching shear forces at internal, edge and corner junctions respectively.

Fig.4(a) Shear stud rail

Fig.4 (b) Shear head

Fig.3 Shear and flexural cracks near vicinity of column Punching shear reinforcement To arrest punching shear failure and to strengthen the joint different tools are available. a) Stud rail Stud rail is probably the most widely used type of reinforcement against punching shear. The system consists of studs that are welded onto a metal strip; the studs are fabricated from plain or deformed reinforcement bars, with an enlarged head welded to one or both ends.

Fig.4(c) shear stirrups Out off these three types of shear reinforcement, SAFE soft ware gives design of shear stud rails which compared with manually required and then provided shear stud rails are found-out. Shear heads and shear stirrups are designed manually on bases of shear stress result of SAFE software [5].

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 596-599

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Vikunj K.Tilva, B. A. Vyas, Parth Thak

COMPARISON OF STUD RAIL RESULT

Table2 Result of shear head in panel 6x6m (M25) Slab 225mm without drop Shear head At edge At center ISMC 75 slabslabcolumn column connection connection lv distance(mm 735 730

Table3 Result of shear stirrups [panel 6x6m (M25)] Slab 225 mm without drop At edge At center slabslabcolumn column connection connection Area of steel 860 852 (mm2) Diameter 8 8 (mm) Spacing 140 140 (mm) Number of 6 8 raw stirrups 733 925 extend(mm)

Fig.5 Stud rail result in SAFE software for without drop (M25) Table1Design of shear stud rails in slab 225 mm(M25) [ Panel 6x6m] SAFE Manually softwar e output At center slab-column connection N. of stud rails N. of stud on each rails Diameter of stud Stud spacing(s) Stud spacing (so) N. of stud rails N. of stud on each rails Diameter of stud Stud spacing(s) Stud spacing (so) 12 mm 76mm 12mm 60mm 70mm 12mm 100mm 70mm 12 mm 76 mm 3 2 12 mm 60mm 70mm 3 1 12 mm 100mm 70mm 9 4 4 2 4 1 12 4 required Manually provided

Table4 Cost comparison of punching shear reinforcement Slab 225 mm (M25) panel 6x6m At edge At center column column Stud rails Shear heads Shear stirrups 960 4492 1243 1298 5955 1658

At edge slab-column connection

Table 4 shows the cost comparison for shear stud rails shear heads and shear stirrups, the cost for the study is in accordance to Schedule of Rates (S.O.R- R&B2008-09) [6].

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 596-599

Enhancing the punching shear resistance of flat plates using shear heads, shear stud rails and shear stirrups: A Comparative Study CONCLUSION Considering the above comparison for shear stud rails, shear heads and shear stirrups, the results shows that from economic point of view shear stud rails provision seems preferable. Shear heads cost is higher than other shear reinforcements. The American code allow 100 percent enhancement of shear capacity if shear stud reinforcements are used. Other advantages of shear stud rails from practical concern like easy and fast installation, While execution, High quality and dimension conformance by being prefabricated in a production facility under our strict Quality Control Plan, Easy to visually check.

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REFERENCES [1] IS 1893 Part1:2002 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, Table 7pp 23. [2] Dr N. Subramanian, Evaluation and enhancing the punching shear resistance of flat slabs using HSC, The Indian Concrete Journal, April 2005 pp 31-37. [3] IS456:2000 Plain And Reinforced Concrete- Code Of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards,pp53-61. [4] P.C.Varghese, Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, Chapter 12 pp 211-239. [5] ACI 318, Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary,-code of practice, American standard. [6] Government of Gujarat schedule of rates for building works, R&B 2008-2009.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 596-599